Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Adams, Natalie L. Byrne, Lisa Smith, Geraldine A. Elson, Richard Harris, John P. Salmon, Roland Smith, Robert O’Brien, Sarah J. Adak, Goutam K. and Jenkins, Claire 2016. Shiga Toxin–ProducingEscherichia coliO157, England and Wales, 1983–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 590.

    Valcour, James E. Charron, Dominique F. Berke, Olaf Wilson, Jeff B. Edge, Tom and Waltner-Toews, David 2016. A descriptive analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of enteric diseases in New Brunswick, Canada. BMC Public Health, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Jaros, Patricia Cookson, Adrian L Campbell, Donald M Besser, Thomas E Shringi, Smriti Mackereth, Graham F Lim, Esther Lopez, Liza Dufour, Muriel Marshall, Jonathan C Baker, Michael G Hathaway, Steve Prattley, Deborah J and French, Nigel P 2013. A prospective case–control and molecular epidemiological study of human cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in New Zealand. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Jalava, Katri Ollgren, Jukka Eklund, Marjut Siitonen, Anja and Kuusi, Markku 2011. Agricultural, socioeconomic and environmental variables as risks for human verotoxigenic Escherichia coli(VTEC) infection in Finland. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,

    Locking, Mary E. Pollock, Kevin G.J. Allison, Lesley J. Rae, Linda Hanson, Mary F. and Cowden, John M. 2011. Escherichia coliO157 Infection and Secondary Spread, Scotland, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 524.

    Strachan, N. J. C. Hunter, C. J. Jones, C. D. R. Wilson, R. S. Ethelberg, S. Cross, P. Williams, A. P. MacRitchie, L. Rotariu, O. and Chadwick, D. 2011. The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 366, Issue. 1573, p. 1999.

    Pennington, Hugh 2010. Escherichia coli O157. The Lancet, Vol. 376, Issue. 9750, p. 1428.

    Pollock, K. G. J. Ternent, H. E. Mellor, D. J. Chalmers, R. M. Smith, H. V. Ramsay, C. N. and Innocent, G. T. 2010. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Sporadic Human Cryptosporidiosis in Scotland. Zoonoses and Public Health, Vol. 57, Issue. 7-8, p. 487.

    Zhang, Xu-Sheng Chase-Topping, Margo E. McKendrick, Iain J. Savill, Nicholas J. and Woolhouse, Mark E.J. 2010. Spread of E. coli O157 infection among Scottish cattle farms: Stochastic models and model selection. Epidemics, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 11.

    Chase-Topping, Margo Gally, David Low, Chris Matthews, Louise and Woolhouse, Mark 2008. Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O157. Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 6, Issue. 12, p. 904.

    Frank, Christina Kapfhammer, Stephan Werber, Dirk Stark, Klaus and Held, Leonhard 2008. Cattle Density and Shiga Toxin-ProducingEscherichia coliInfection in Germany: Increased Risk for Most but Not All Serogroups. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 635.

    Franz, Eelco and van Bruggen, Ariena H.C. 2008. Ecology ofE. coliO157:H7 andSalmonella entericain the Primary Vegetable Production Chain. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 34, Issue. 3-4, p. 143.

    Liu, W.-c. Matthews, L. Chase-Topping, M. Savill, N. J Shaw, D. J and Woolhouse, M. E.J 2007. Metapopulation dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle: an exploratory model. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 4, Issue. 16, p. 917.

    O’BRIEN, S. J. and HALDER, S. L. S. 2007. GI Epidemiology: infection epidemiology and acute gastrointestinal infections. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 25, Issue. 6, p. 669.

    Strachan, Norval J.C. Dunn, Geoffrey M. Locking, Mary E. Reid, Thomas M.S. and Ogden, Iain D. 2006. Escherichia coli O157: Burger bug or environmental pathogen?. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 112, Issue. 2, p. 129.


Spatial and temporal epidemiology of sporadic human cases of Escherichia coli O157 in Scotland, 1996–1999

  • G. T. INNOCENT (a1), D. J. MELLOR (a1), S. A. McEWEN (a2), W. J. REILLY (a3), J. SMALLWOOD (a1), M. E. LOCKING (a3), D. J. SHAW (a4), P. MICHEL (a2), D. J. TAYLOR (a5), W. B. STEELE (a5), G. J. GUNN (a6), H. E. TERNENT (a1), M. E. J. WOOLHOUSE (a4) and S. W. J. REID (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 26 May 2005

In Scotland, between 1995 and 2000 there were between 4 and 10 cases of illness per 100000 population per year identified as being caused by Escherichia coli O157, whereas in England and Wales there were between 1 and 2 cases per 100000 population per year. Within Scotland there is significant regional variation. A cluster of high rate areas was identified in the Northeast of Scotland and a cluster of low rate areas in central-west Scotland. Temporal trends follow a seasonal pattern whilst spatial effects appeared to be distant rather than local. The best-fit model identified a significant spatial trend with case rate increasing from West to East, and from South to North. No statistically significant spatial interaction term was found. In the models fitted, the cattle population density, the human population density, and the number of cattle per person were variously significant. The findings suggest that rural/urban exposures are important in sporadic infections.

Corresponding author
Comparative Epidemiology and Informatics, Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *