Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Spatial and temporal patterns in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium in cattle in England and Wales

  • R. COX (a1) (a2), T. SU (a3), H. CLOUGH (a1), M. J. WOODWARD (a4) and C. SHERLOCK (a1) (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 03 January 2012

Salmonella is the second most commonly reported human foodborne pathogen in England and Wales, and antimicrobial-resistant strains of Salmonella are an increasing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. In this work we used a generalized linear spatial model to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium in England and Wales. Of the antimicrobials considered we found a common peak in the probability that an S. Typhimurium incident will show resistance to a given antimicrobial in late spring and in mid to late autumn; however, for one of the antimicrobials (streptomycin) there was a sharp drop, over the last 18 months of the period of investigation, in the probability of resistance. We also found a higher probability of resistance in North Wales which is consistent across the antimicrobials considered. This information contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr R. Cox, Centre for Veterinary Epidemiological Research, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.Health Protection Agency. Salmonella ( Accessed June 2011.

3.EJ Threlfall . Antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella: problems and perspectives in food- and water-borne infections. Microbiology Reviews 2002; 26: 141148.

4.EJ Threlfall , A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities in nontyphoidal Salmonellas from humans and food animals in England and Wales in 2000. Microbial Drug Resistance 2003; 9: 183189.

6.A Meakins , Antimicrobial drug resistance in human nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates in Europe 2000–2004: a report from the Enter-net international surveillance network. Microbial Drug Resistance 2008; 14: 3135.

7.GY Miller , PE McNamara , RS Singer . Stakeholder position paper: Economist's perspectives on antibiotic use in animals. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2006; 73: 163168.

8.BP Smith . Salmonellosis in ruminants. In: BP Smith , ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine, 4th edn.St Louis: Mosby, 2008, pp. 877880.

9.K Molbak , An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 341: 14201425.

10.PD Frenzen , Salmonella cost estimate updated using FoodNet data. Food Review 1999; 22: 1015.

12.JK Varma , Hospitalization and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella outbreaks, 1984–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 943946.

13.M Helms , Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 490495.

15.EJ Threlfall , The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in food-borne bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2000; 62: 15.

16.LD Warnick , Risk factors for clinical salmonellosis in Virginia, USA cattle herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2001; 49: 259275.

17.P Pangloli , Seasonal incidence and molecular characterization of Salmonella from dairy cows, calves, and farm environment. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2008; 5: 8796.

18.C Lanzas , Transmission dynamics of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak in a dairy farm. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2010; 7: 467474.

19.PJ Diggle . Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns, 2nd edn.Oxford, UK: Hodder Arnold, 2003.

20.CJ Murray . Environmental aspects of Salmonella. In: C Wray , A Wray , eds. Salmonella in Domestic Animals. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2000, pp. 265284.

22.JC Gibbens , Use of laboratory data to reduce the time taken to detect new diseases: VIDA to FarmFile. Veterinary Record 2008; 162: 771776.

23.HC Davison , Prevalence, incidence and geographical distribution of serovars of Salmonella on dairy farms in England and Wales. Veterinary Record 2005; 157: 703711.

24.TJ Hastie , RJ Tibshirani . Generalized Additive Models: Chapman and Hall/CRC (Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability), 1987, pp. 352.

26.P Michel , Regional, seasonal, and antimicrobial resistance distribution of Salmonella Typhimurium in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2006; 97: 470474.

28.SE Robinson , RM Christley . Identifying temporal variation in reported births, deaths and movements of cattle in Britain. BMC Veterinary Research 2006; 2.

30.SA McEwen , PJ Fedorka-Cray . Antimicrobial use and resistance in animals. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: S93–106.

31.HC Wegener . Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2003; 6: 439445.

32.R Bywater , The susceptibility to growth-promoting antibiotics of Entercoccus faecium isolates from pigs and chickens in Europe. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2005; 56: 11391143.

33.R Bywater , A European survey of antimicrobial susceptibility among zoonotic and commensal bacteria isolated from food-producing animals. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2004; 54: 744754.

36.C Baker-Austin , Co-selection of antibiotic and metal resistance. Trends in Microbiology 2006; 14: 176182.

37.LP Randall , Antibiotic resistance genes, integrons and multiple antibiotic resistance in thirty-five serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and animals in the UK. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2004; 53: 208216.

38.M Davis , Feedstuffs as a vehicle of cattle exposure to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Veterinary Microbiology 2003; 95: 199210.

41.SJ Wilson , Nontyphoidal Salmonellae in United Kingdom Badgers: Prevalence and spatial distribution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003; 69: 43124315.

42. SERobinson , RMChristley . Exploring the role of auction markets in cattle movements within Great Britain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2007; 81: 2137.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *