Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area

  • G. CARPI (a1), F. CAGNACCI (a1), M. NETELER (a1) (a2) and A. RIZZOLI (a1)
Abstract
SUMMARY

Roe deer Capreolus capreolus are among the most important feeding hosts for the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus, thus contributing to the occurrence of tick-borne diseases in Europe. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is transmitted by co-feeding of larvae and nymphs on rodents, requires precise climatic conditions to occur. We used roe deer as sentinels for potential circulation of TBE virus in Northern Italy, by examining the association between tick infestation, occurrence of TBE human cases, geographical and climatic parameters. Tick infestation on roe deer, and particularly frequency of co-feeding, was clearly associated with the geographic location and the autumnal cooling rate. Consistently, TBE occurrence in humans was geographically related to co-feeding tick abundance. The surveillance of tick infestation on roe deer, combined with remotely sensed climatic data, could therefore be used as an inexpensive early risk assessment tool of favourable conditions for TBE emergence and persistence in humans.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: G. Carpi, Centre for Alpine Ecology, Viote del Monte Bondone, 38040 Trento, Italy. (Email: carpi@cealp.it)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.  TS Gritsun , VA Lashkevich , EA Gould . Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Research 2003; 57: 129146.

2.  J Süss . Epidemiology and ecology of TBE relevant to the production of effective vaccines. Vaccine 2003; 21 (Suppl. 1): 1935.

4.  SE Randolph . The shifting landscape of tick-borne zoonoses: tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 2001; 356: 10451056.

5.  D Sumilo , Tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States: Identifying risk factors in space and time. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 296 (Suppl. 1): 7679.

10.  DJ Rogers , SE Randolph . Climate change and vector-borne diseases. Advances in Parasitology 2006; 62: 345381.

11.  D Sumilo , Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics. PloS ONE 2007; 2(6)e500: 111.

12.  E Lindgren , R Gustafson . Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change. Lancet 2001; 358: 1618.

14.  M Daniel , Risk assessment and prediction of Ixodes ricinus tick questing activity and human Tick-borne encephalitis infection in space and time in the Czech Republic. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 296 (Suppl. 1): 4147.

15.  SE Randolph , Incidence from coincidence: patterns of tick infestations in rodents facilitate transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Parasitology 1999; 118: 177186.

19.  SE Randolph , L Gern , PA Nuttall . Co-feeding ticks: epidemiological significance for Tick-borne pathogen transmission. Parasitology Today 1996; 12: 472479.

20.  M Labuda , Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission though ticks co-feeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts. Virology 1997; 235: 138143.

21.  PJ Hudson , Tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Italy: molecular analysis, relationships with density and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2001; 15: 304313.

22.  M Labuda , Tick-borne encephalitis virus foci in Slovakia. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2002; 291: 4347.

23.  SE Perkins , Localized deer absence leads to tick amplification. Ecology 2006; 87: 19811986.

26.  J Süss , Epidemiology and ecology of tick-borne encephalitis in the eastern part of Germany between 1960 and 1990 and studies on the dynamics of a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie 1992; 277: 224235.

28.  S Skarphédinsson , PM Jensen , K. Kristiansen Survey of tick-borne infections in Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 10551061.

31.  B Gilot , The colonization of forested areas by Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) in France: use of the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (L. 1758) as a biological marker [in French]. Parasite 1994; 1: 8186.

37.  SE Randolph , An empirical quantitative framework for the seasonal population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus. International Journal for Parasitology 2002; 32: 979989.

39.  R Rosà , Temporal variation of Ixodes ricinus intensity on the rodent host Apodemus flavicollis in relation to local climate and host dynamics. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 2007; 7: 285295.

40.  R Rosà , Models for host-macroparasite interactions in micromammals. In: S Morand , BR Krasnov , R Poulin eds. Micromammals and Macroparasites, Tokyo: Springer, 2006, pp. 319348.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 20 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 171 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.