Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area

  • G. CARPI (a1), F. CAGNACCI (a1), M. NETELER (a1) (a2) and A. RIZZOLI (a1)

Summary

Roe deer Capreolus capreolus are among the most important feeding hosts for the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus, thus contributing to the occurrence of tick-borne diseases in Europe. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is transmitted by co-feeding of larvae and nymphs on rodents, requires precise climatic conditions to occur. We used roe deer as sentinels for potential circulation of TBE virus in Northern Italy, by examining the association between tick infestation, occurrence of TBE human cases, geographical and climatic parameters. Tick infestation on roe deer, and particularly frequency of co-feeding, was clearly associated with the geographic location and the autumnal cooling rate. Consistently, TBE occurrence in humans was geographically related to co-feeding tick abundance. The surveillance of tick infestation on roe deer, combined with remotely sensed climatic data, could therefore be used as an inexpensive early risk assessment tool of favourable conditions for TBE emergence and persistence in humans.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: G. Carpi, Centre for Alpine Ecology, Viote del Monte Bondone, 38040 Trento, Italy. (Email: carpi@cealp.it)

References

Hide All
1. Gritsun, TS, Lashkevich, VA, Gould, EA. Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Research 2003; 57: 129146.
2. Süss, J. Epidemiology and ecology of TBE relevant to the production of effective vaccines. Vaccine 2003; 21 (Suppl. 1): 1935.
3. Randolph, SE. EDEN – Emerging diseases in a changing European environment: Tick-borne diseases. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 296 (Suppl. 1): 8486.
4. Randolph, SE. The shifting landscape of tick-borne zoonoses: tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 2001; 356: 10451056.
5. Sumilo, D, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States: Identifying risk factors in space and time. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 296 (Suppl. 1): 7679.
6. Amaducci, L, et al. Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) in Italy: report of the first clinical case. Rivista di Patologia Nervosa Mentale 1976; 97: 7780.
7. Beltrame, A, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus, Northeastern Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 16171619.
8. Rizzoli, A, et al. Early detection of TBEv spatial distribution and activity in the Province of Trento assessed using serological and remotely-sensed climatic data. Geospatial Health 2007; 1: 169176.
9. Rendi-Wagner, P. Risk and prevention of Tick-borne encephalitis in travellers. Journal of Travel Medicine 2004; 11: 307312.
10. Rogers, DJ, Randolph, SE. Climate change and vector-borne diseases. Advances in Parasitology 2006; 62: 345381.
11. Sumilo, D, et al. Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics. PloS ONE 2007; 2(6)e500: 111.
12. Lindgren, E, Gustafson, R. Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change. Lancet 2001; 358: 1618.
13. Zeman, P, Benes, C. A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in Central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming? International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2004; 293: 4854.
14. Daniel, M, et al. Risk assessment and prediction of Ixodes ricinus tick questing activity and human Tick-borne encephalitis infection in space and time in the Czech Republic. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 296 (Suppl. 1): 4147.
15. Randolph, SE, et al. Incidence from coincidence: patterns of tick infestations in rodents facilitate transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Parasitology 1999; 118: 177186.
16. Labuda, M, et al. Non-viremic transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus: a mechanism for arbovirus survival in nature. Experientia 1993; 9: 802805.
17. Labuda, M, et al. Importance of localized skin infection in tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission. Virology 1996; 219: 356366.
18. Randolph, SE, et al. Seasonal synchrony: the key to the tick-borne pathogen transmission. Parasitology 2000; 121: 1523.
19. Randolph, SE, Gern, L, Nuttall, PA. Co-feeding ticks: epidemiological significance for Tick-borne pathogen transmission. Parasitology Today 1996; 12: 472479.
20. Labuda, M, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission though ticks co-feeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts. Virology 1997; 235: 138143.
21. Hudson, PJ, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Italy: molecular analysis, relationships with density and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2001; 15: 304313.
22. Labuda, M, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus foci in Slovakia. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2002; 291: 4347.
23. Perkins, SE, et al. Localized deer absence leads to tick amplification. Ecology 2006; 87: 19811986.
24. Geist, V. Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1998.
25. Matuschka, FR, et al. Diversionary role of Hoofed game in the transmission of Lyme Disease Spirochetes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993; 48: 693699.
26. Süss, J, et al. Epidemiology and ecology of tick-borne encephalitis in the eastern part of Germany between 1960 and 1990 and studies on the dynamics of a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie 1992; 277: 224235.
27. Gerth, HJ, et al. Roe deer as sentinels for endemicity of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Epidemiology and Infection 1995; 115: 355365.
28. Skarphédinsson, S, Jensen, PM, Kristiansen, K. Survey of tick-borne infections in Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 10551061.
29. Chemini, C, et al. Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Trentino, Italian Alps. Parassitologia 1997; 39: 5963.
30. Hewison, AJM, Vincent, JP, Reby, D. Social organisation of European roe deer. In: Andersen, R, Duncan, P, Linnell, JDC eds. The European Roe Deer: the Biology of Success. Oslo, Norway: Scandinavian University Press, 1998, pp. 189219.
31. Gilot, B, et al. The colonization of forested areas by Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) in France: use of the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (L. 1758) as a biological marker [in French]. Parasite 1994; 1: 8186.
32. Manilla, G. Fauna d'Italia. Acari Ixodida, vol. XXXVI. Bologna, Italy: Edizioni Calderini, 1998.
33. Neteler, M. Time series processing of MODIS satellite data for landscape epidemiological applications. International Journal of Geoinformatics 2005; 1: 133138.
34. R Development Core Team. R: A language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 2.3.1. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2006.
35. Neteler, M, Mitasova, H. Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach, 3rd edn. New York: Springer, 2007, pp. 424.
36. R package. ‘MASS’, version 7.2-31. 2006.
37. Randolph, SE, et al. An empirical quantitative framework for the seasonal population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus. International Journal for Parasitology 2002; 32: 979989.
38. Burnham, KP, Anderson, DR. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference, 2nd edn. New York: Springer, 2002.
39. Rosà, R, et al. Temporal variation of Ixodes ricinus intensity on the rodent host Apodemus flavicollis in relation to local climate and host dynamics. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 2007; 7: 285295.
40. Rosà, R, et al. Models for host-macroparasite interactions in micromammals. In: Morand, S, Krasnov, BR, Poulin, R eds. Micromammals and Macroparasites, Tokyo: Springer, 2006, pp. 319348.

Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area

  • G. CARPI (a1), F. CAGNACCI (a1), M. NETELER (a1) (a2) and A. RIZZOLI (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed