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    Fernandes, Anand M. Balasegaram, Sooria Willis, Caroline Wimalarathna, Helen M. L. Maiden, Martin C. and McCarthy, Noel D. 2015. Partial Failure of Milk Pasteurization as a Risk for the Transmission ofCampylobacterFrom Cattle to Humans. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 61, Issue. 6, p. 903.


Transmission and control in an institutional pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 outbreak

  • N. ARINAMINPATHY (a1), N. RAPHAELY (a2), L. SALDANA (a2), C. HODGEKISS (a2), J. DANDRIDGE (a3), K. KNOX (a4) and N. D. McCARTHY (a2) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 23 August 2011

A pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 outbreak in a summer school affected 117/276 (42%) students. Residential social contact was associated with risk of infection, and there was no evidence for transmission associated with the classroom setting. Although the summer school had new admissions each week, which provided susceptible students the outbreak was controlled using routine infection control measures (isolation of cases, basic hygiene measures and avoidance of particularly high-risk social events) and prompt treatment of cases. This was in the absence of chemoprophylaxis or vaccination and without altering the basic educational activities of the school. Modelling of the outbreak allowed estimation of the impact of interventions on transmission. These models and follow-up surveillance supported the effectiveness of routine infection control measures to stop the spread of influenza even in this high-risk setting for transmission.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr N. D. McCarthy, Thames Valley Health Protection Unit, Centre for Radiation, Chemical & Environmental Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, UK. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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