1.van Kerkhove, MD, et al. Frequency and patterns of contact with domestic poultry and potential risk of H5N1 transmission to humans living in rural Cambodia. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2008; 2: 155–163.
2.Nguyen, TH, Farrar, J, Horby, P. Person-to-person transmission of influenza A (H5N1). Lancet 2008; 371: 1392–1394.
3.Sedyaningsih, ER, et al. Epidemiology of cases of H5N1 virus infection in Indonesia, July 2005-June 2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007; 196: 522–527.
4.Kandun, IN, et al. Three Indonesian clusters of H5N1 virus infection in 2005. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 355: 2186–2194.
5.Policy document. Pandemic influenza: science to policy. Policy Document 36/06. London: The Royal Society, 2006.
6.Pitzer, VE, et al. Little evidence for genetic susceptibility to influenza A (H5N1) from family clustering data. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 1074–1076.
7.Trammell, RA, Toth, LA. Genetic susceptibility and resistance to influenza infection and disease in humans and mice. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 2008; 8: 515–529.
8.Olsen, SJ, et al. Family clustering of avian influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 1799–1801.
9.Oner, AF, et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in eastern Turkey in 2006. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 355: 2179–2185.
10.Peiris, JS, et al. Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease. Lancet 2004; 363: 617–619.
12.Yang, Y, et al. Detecting human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 1348–1353.
14.ECDC. Investigation of the family cluster of human H5N1 cases in North Sumatra, Indonesia, 2006.
15.Chokephaibulkit, K, et al. A child with avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2005; 24: 162–166.
16.Uiprasertkul, M, et al. Apoptosis and pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 708–712.
17.Dinh, PN, et al. Risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A H5N1, Vietnam, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 1841–1847.
18.Areechokchai, D, et al. Investigation of avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak in humans–Thailand, 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 2006; 55 (Suppl. 1): 3–6.
19.Vong, S, et al. Low frequency of poultry-to-human H5NI virus transmission, southern Cambodia, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 1542–1547.
20.Abdel-Ghafar, AN, et al. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 358: 261–273.
21.Beigel, JH, et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353: 1374–1385.
22.Yu, H, et al. Human influenza A (H5N1) cases, urban areas of People's Republic of China, 2005–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 1061–1064.
23.Thorson, A, et al. Is exposure to sick or dead poultry associated with flulike illness?: a population-based study from a rural area in Vietnam with outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006; 166: 119–123.
24.Vong, S, et al. Risk factors associated with subclinical human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus – Cambodia, 2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 1744–1752.
25.Wang, M, Fu, CX, Zheng, BJ. Antibodies against H5 and H9 avian influenza among poultry workers in China. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360: 2583–2584.
26.Santhia, K, et al. Avian influenza A H5N1 infections in Bali Province, Indonesia: a behavioral, virological and seroepidemiological study. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2009; 3: 81–89.
27.Apisarnthanarak, A, et al. Atypical avian influenza (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 1321–1324.
28.Schultsz, C, et al. Avian influenza H5N1 and healthcare workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 1158–1159.
29.Ortiz, JR, et al. Lack of evidence of avian-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers, Kano, Nigeria, 2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007; 196: 1685–1691.
30.Hinjoy, S, et al. Low frequency of infection with avian influenza virus (H5N1) among poultry farmers, Thailand, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 499–501.
31.Liem, NT, Lim, W. Lack of H5N1 avian influenza transmission to hospital employees, Hanoi, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 210–215.
32.Schultsz, C, et al. Prevalence of Antibodies against Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus among Cullers and Poultry Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, 2005. PLoS ONE 2009; 4(11): e7948.
33.Dejpichai, R, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza virus A (H5N1) among residents of villages with human cases, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 756–60.
34.Rowe, T, et al. Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1999; 37: 937–943.
35.Stephenson, I, et al. Reproducibility of serologic assays for influenza virus A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 1252–1259.
36.Kuiken, T, et al. Host species barriers to influenza virus infections. Science 2006; 312: 394–397.
37.Ungchusak, K, et al. Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352: 333–340.
38.Wang, H, et al. Probable limited person-to-person transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in China. Lancet 2008; 371: 1427–1434.
39.Katz, JM, et al. Antibody response in individuals infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses and detection of anti-H5 antibody among household and social contacts. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999; 180: 1763–1770.
40.Tran, TH, et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350: 1179–1188.
41.Gilsdorf, A, et al. Two clusters of human infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus in the Republic of Azerbaijan, February–March 2006. Eurosurveillance 2006; 11(5): 122–126.
42.Apisarnthanarak, A, et al. Seroprevalence of anti-H5 antibody among Thai health care workers after exposure to avian influenza (H5N1) in a tertiary care center. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 40: e16–18.
43.Baigent, SJ, McCauley, JW. Influenza type A in humans, mammals and birds: determinants of virus virulence, host-range and interspecies transmission. BioEssays 2003; 25: 657–671.
44.Klempner, MS, Shapiro, DS. Crossing the species barrier – one small step to man, one giant leap to mankind. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350: 1171–1172.
45.Srivastava, B, et al. Host genetic background strongly influences the response to influenza a virus infections. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e4857.
46.Salomon, R, et al. Mx1 gene protects mice against the highly lethal human H5N1 influenza virus. Cell Cycle 2007; 6: 2417–2421.
47.Boon, AC, et al. Host genetic variation affects resistance to infection with a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in mice. Journal of Virology 2009; 83: 10417–10426.
48.Staeheli, P, et al. Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation. Molecular and Cellular Biology 1988; 8: 4518–4523.
49.Haller, O, Stertz, S, Kochs, G. The Mx GTPase family of interferon-induced antiviral proteins. Microbes and Infection 2007; 9: 1636–1643.
50.Haller, O, et al. Genetically determined, interferon-dependent resistance to influenza virus in mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1979; 149: 601–612.
51.Albright, FS, et al. Evidence for a heritable predisposition to death due to influenza. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197: 18–24.
52.Gottfredsson, M, et al. Lessons from the past: familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2008; 105: 1303–1308.
53.Zhang, L, et al. Systems-based candidate genes for human response to influenza infection. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2009; 9: 1148–1157.
54.Pennings, JL, Kimman, TG, Janssen, R. Identification of a common gene expression response in different lung inflammatory diseases in rodents and macaques. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e2596.
55.Gagneux, P, et al. Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003; 278: 48245–48250.
56.Matrosovich, MN, et al. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cell types in cultures of human airway epithelium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2004; 101: 4620–4624.
57.Shinya, K, et al. Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway. Nature 2006; 440: 435–436.
58.van Riel, D, et al. H5N1 virus attachment to lower respiratory tract. Science 2006; 312: 399.
59.de Jong, MD, et al. Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nature Medicine 2006; 12: 1203–1207.
60.Xu, T, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in mice. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006; 174: 1011–1017.
61.Maines, TR, et al. Pathogenesis of emerging avian influenza viruses in mammals and the host innate immune response. Immunological Reviews 2008; 225: 68–84.
62.Tecle, T, et al. Inhibition of influenza viral neuraminidase activity by collectins. Archives of Virology 2007; 152: 1731–1742.
63.Tumpey, TM, et al. The Mx1 gene protects mice against the pandemic 1918 and highly lethal human H5N1 influenza viruses. Journal of Virology 2007; 81: 10818–10821.
64.Szretter, KJ, et al. Role of host cytokine responses in the pathogenesis of avian H5N1 influenza viruses in mice. Journal of Virology 2007; 81: 2736–2744.
65.Kash, JC, et al. Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses induced by 1918 influenza virus. Nature 2006; 443: 578–581.
66.Dittmann, J, et al. Influenza A virus strains differ in sensitivity to the antiviral action of Mx-GTPase. Journal of Virology 2008; 82: 3624–3631.
67.Hidaka, F, et al. A missense mutation of the Toll-like receptor 3 gene in a patient with influenza-associated encephalopathy. Clinical Immunology 2006; 119: 188–194.
68.Le Goffic, R, et al. Cutting edge: influenza A virus activates TLR3-dependent inflammatory and RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses in human lung epithelial cells. Journal of Immunology 2007; 178: 3368–3372.
69.Janssen, R, et al. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007; 196: 826–834.
70.Ip, WK, et al. Mannose-binding lectin in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 191: 1697–1704.
71.Chan, VS, et al. Homozygous L-SIGN (CLEC4M) plays a protective role in SARS coronavirus infection. Nature Genetics 2006; 38: 38–46.
72.Hamano, E, et al. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA associated with SARS in the Vietnamese population. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2005; 329: 1234–1239.
73.He, J, et al. Association of SARS susceptibility with single nucleic acid polymorphisms of OAS1 and MxA genes: a case-control study. BMC Infectious Diseases 2006; 6: 106.
74.Neumann, G, Shinya, K, Kawaoka, Y. Molecular pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections. Antiviral Therapy 2007; 12: 617–626.
75.World Health Organization Global Influenza Programme Surveillance Network. Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 1515–1521.
76.Hill, AV. Aspects of genetic susceptibility to human infectious diseases. Annual Review of Genetics 2006; 40: 469–86.
77.Frodsham, AJ, Hill, AV. Genetics of infectious diseases. Human Molecular Genetics 2004; 13 (Spec. No. 2): R187–194.
78.Burgner, D, Jamieson, SE, Blackwell, JM. Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases: big is beautiful, but will bigger be even better? Lancet Infectious Diseases 2006; 6: 653–663.