Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales

  • K. HALSBY (a1), D. F. TWOMEY (a2), C. FEATHERSTONE (a3), A. FOSTER (a4), A. WALSH (a1), K. HEWITT (a5) and D. MORGAN (a1)...

Summary

The number of South American camelids (SACs) in England and Wales is increasing and with this comes a risk of new and emerging infections. Although classified as livestock, these animals are also treated as pets and may be in regular contact with humans. This paper reviews zoonotic diseases that have been identified in SACs in England and Wales, and which pose a potential risk to human health. We also highlight the importance of surveillance continuing to capture information on infections in SACs for the protection of both public and animal health.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr K. Halsby, Emerging Infections and Zoonoses Section, National Infections Service, Public Health England, Colindale, London, UK. (Email: kate.halsby@phe.gov.uk)

References

Hide All
1. Davis, R, et al. South American camelids in the United Kingdom: population statistics, mortality rates and causes of death. Veterinary Record 1998; 142: 162166.
2. Crowfoot, T. Alpaca Relative. BAS Magazine 2016; 66: 4650.
3. BAS. About BAS (www.bas-uk.com/about-bas). Accessed 28 October 2016.
4. Collings, D, Collings, S. Alpaca meat (http://www.alpacaworldmagazine.com/autumn-2015/). Accessed 28 October 2016. Alpaca World Magazine, 2015.
5. Twomey, DF, et al. Review of laboratory submissions from New World camelids in England and Wales (2000–2011). Veterinary Journal 2014; 200: 5159.
6. Starkey, SR, et al. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among alpaca crias and their human caregivers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2007; 231: 15621567.
7. Twomey, DF, et al. Cutaneous TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a veterinary surgeon following exposure to a tuberculous alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Veterinary Record 2010; 166: 175177.
8. Alvarado, J, Astrom, G, Heath, GBS. An investigation into remedies of Sarna (sarcoptic mange) of alpacas in Peru. Experimental Agriculture 1966; 2: 245254.
9. Pritchard, GC, et al. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in animals on public amenity premises in England and Wales, 1997 to 2007. Veterinary Record 2009; 164: 545549.
10. Twomey, DF, et al. Assessment of antemortem tests used in the control of an outbreak of tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record 2010; 167: 475480.
11. EFSA. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for biological hazards to be covered by meat inspection of bovine animals (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/3276.pdf). EFSA Journal 2013; 11: 3276.
12. PHE. Mycobacterium bovis TB case notifications by country, UK, 1999–2014 (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/464843/M.bovis_case_notifications_by_country_UK_1999_to_2014.pdf). Accessed 28 October 2016.
13. McGoldrick, C, et al. Mycobacterium microti infection associated with spindle cell pseudotumour and hypercalcaemia: a possible link with an infected alpaca. British Medical Journal Case Reports. Published online: 26 May 2010. doi:10.1136/bcr.1111.2009.2484.
14. Panteix, G, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2010; 59: 984989.
15. Prathibha, B, Song, C. Mycobacterium microti – rare case of human infection Accessed 28/10/2016. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010; 181. Meeting abstracts (http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2010.181.1_MeetingAbstracts.A3163).
16. Defra. Additional statistics relating to bovine tuberculosis (TB) (https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/other-tb-statistics). Accessed 28 October 2016.
17. Twomey, DF, et al. Suspected transmission of Mycobacterium bovis between alpacas. Veterinary Record 2009; 165: 121122.
18. Crawshaw, T, de la Rua-Domenech, R, Brown, E. Recognising the gross pathology of tuberculosis in South American camelids, deer, goats, pigs and sheep. In Practice 2013; 35: 490502.
19. Chalmers, RM, Giles, M. Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in the UK – challenges for control. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2010; 109: 14871497.
20. Twomey, DF, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in two alpaca (Lama pacos) holdings in the South-West of England. Veterinary Journal 2008; 175: 419422.
21. Whitehead, CE, Anderson, DE. Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research 2006; 61: 207215.
22. Bidewell, CA, Cattell, JH. Cryptosporidiosis in young alpacas. Veterinary Record 1998; 142: 287.
23. Wessels, J, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in eight-month-old weaned alpacas. Veterinary Record 2013; 173: 426427.
24. Lau, P, et al. Sarcoptic mange in three alpacas treated successfully with amitraz. Veterinary Dermatology 2007; 18: 272277.
25. Twomey, DF, Birch, ES, Schock, A. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections. Veterinary Parasitology 2009; 159: 186191.
26. Lusat, J, Morgan, ER, Wall, R. Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: Incidence and risk. Veterinary Parasitology 2009; 163: 179184.
27. Mellanby, K. Sarcoptic mange in the alpaca, Lama guanaco var. paca . Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1947; 40: 359.
28. D'Alterio, GL, et al. Prevalence of Chorioptes sp. mite infestation in alpaca (Lama pacos) in the south-west of England: implications for skin health. Small Ruminant Research 2005; 57: 221228.
29. Featherstone, CA, et al. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in camelids. Veterinary Record 2011; 168: 194195.
30. Bidewell, CA, et al. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus abortion in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Veterinary Record 2010; 167: 457458.
31. Fenner, JS, et al. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from pathogenic Leptospira serovars and use of single nucleotide polymorphisms for rapid speciation by D-HPLC. Research in Veterinary Science 2010; 89: 4857.
32. Cranwell, M, et al. Louping ill in an alpaca. Veterinary Record 2008; 162: 28.
33. Twomey, DF, et al. Streptococcus bovis biotype I meningoencephalitis in an alpaca (Lama pacos) cria. Veterinary Record 2007; 160: 337339.
34. Jones, M, Miesner, M, Grondin, T. Outbreak of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Polyserositis in an Alpaca Herd. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2009; 23: 220223.
35. VLA. Surveillance Report (2008). Miscellaneous captive exotic and farmed species. (http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090418072644/http://www.defra.gov.uk/vla/reports/docs/rep_survrep_qtlym0308.pdf). Accessed 28 October 2016.
36. Cardeti, G, et al. Cowpox virus in llama, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011; 17: 15131515.
37. CDC. Rabies in a llama – Oklahoma. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1990; 39: 203204.
39. Wernery, U. Camelid brucellosis: a review. Revue Scientifique et Technique 2014; 33: 839857.
40. D'Alterio, GL, et al. Postal survey of the population of south American camelids in the United Kingdom in 2000/01. Veterinary Record 2006; 158: 73108.
41. PHE, Defra, HSE. Sheep and other animals giving birth can present a potential infection risk to humans (https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pregnant-women-advised-to-avoid-animals-that-are-giving-birth--2). Accessed 28 October 2016.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed