Skip to main content

Suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations: a meta-analysis

  • A. A. M. Hubers (a1), S. Moaddine (a1), S. H. M. Peersmann (a1), T. Stijnen (a2), E. van Duijn (a1) (a3), R. C. van der Mast (a1) (a4), O. M. Dekkers (a5) (a6) (a7) and E. J. Giltay (a1)...

Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations.


A meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up.


The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46–11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74–2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10–0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting.


Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: A. A. M. Hubers, Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. (Email:
Hide All
Allebeck, P, Varla, A, Kristjansson, E, Wistedt, B (1987). Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 76, 414419.
Al-Sayegh, H, Lowry, J, Polur, RN, Hines, RB, Liu, F, Zhang, J (2015). Suicide history and mortality: a follow-up of a national cohort in the United States. Archives of Suicide Research 19, 3547.
Altman, DG (2001). Systematic reviews of evaluations of prognostic variables. British Medical Journal 323, 224228.
Appleby, L, Dennehy, JA, Thomas, CS, Faragher, EB, Lewis, G (1999 a). Aftercare and clinical characteristics of people with mental illness who commit suicide: a case-control study. Lancet 353, 13971400.
Appleby, L, Cooper, J, Amos, T, Faragher, B (1999 b). Psychological autopsy study of suicides by people aged under 35. British Journal of Psychiatry 175, 168174.
Baader-Matthei, T, Richter, P, Mundt, C (2004). Suicides of psychiatric hospitalized patients and their risk factors. A case control study. Revista Chili Neuro-Psiquiatria 42, 293316.
Batterham, PJ, Calear, AL, Mackinnon, AJ, Christensen, H (2013). The association between suicidal ideation and increased mortality from natural causes. Journal of Affective Disorders 150, 855860.
Berg, JE (2010). Death by suicide long after electroconvulsive therapy. Is the sense of coherence test of Antonovsky a predictor of mortality from depression? Mental Illness 2, 1115.
Bertelsen, M, Jeppesen, P, Petersen, L, Thorup, A, Øhlenschlaeger, J, le Quach, P, Christensen, , Krarup, G, Jørgensen, P, Nordentoft, M (2007). Suicidal behaviour and mortality in first-episode psychosis: the OPUS trial. British Journal of Psychiatry Suppl 51, s140s146.
Bickley, H, Hunt, IM, Windfuhr, K, Shaw, J, Appleby, L, Kapur, N (2013). Suicide within two weeks of discharge from psychiatric inpatient care: a case-control study. Psychiatric Services 64, 653659.
Bioulac, S, Bourgeois, M, Ekouevi, DK, Bonnin, JM, Gonzales, B, Castello, MF (2000). [Predictive factors of suicide? an 8-year-long prospective longitudinal study of 200 psychiatric inpatients]. Encephale 26, 17.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT, Rothstein, HR (2009 a). Chapter 12. Random-effects model. In Introduction to Meta-Analysis (ed. Sharples, K), pp. 6975. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT, Rothstein, HR (2009 b). Chapter 19. Subgroep analyses. In Introduction to Meta-Analysis (ed. Sharples, K), pp. 149186. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT, Rothstein, HR (2009 c). Chapter 24. Mutliple outcomes or time-points within a study. In Introduction to Meta-Analysis (ed. Sharples, K), pp. 225238. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK.
Bradvik, L, Berglund, M (1993). Risk factors for suicide in melancholia. A case-record evaluation of 89 suicides and their controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 87, 306311.
Brinkman, TM, Zhang, N, Recklitis, CJ, Kimberg, C, Zeltzer, LK, Muriel, AC, Stovall, M, Srivastava, DK, Sklar, CA, Robison, LL, Krull, KR (2014). Suicide ideation and associated mortality in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer 120, 271277.
Brown, GK, Beck, AT, Steer, RA, Grisham, JR (2000). Risk factors for suicide in psychiatric outpatients: a 20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 371377.
Bukstein, OG, Brent, DA, Perper, JA, Moritz, G, Baugher, M, Schweers, J, Roth, C, Balach, L (1993). Risk factors for completed suicide among adolescents with a lifetime history of substance abuse: a case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 88, 403408.
Castle, K, Duberstein, PR, Meldrum, S, Conner, KR, Conwell, Y (2004). Risk factors for suicide in blacks and whites: an analysis of data from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 452458.
Chapman, CL, Mullin, K, Ryan, CJ, Kuffel, A, Nielssen, O, Large, MM (2015). Meta-analysis of the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide among patients with either a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or a mood disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 131, 162173.
Cheng, KK, Leung, CM, Lo, WH, Lam, TH (1990). Risk factors of suicide among schizophrenics. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 81, 220224.
Colman, I, Kingsbury, M, Sareen, J, Bolton, J, van Walraven, C (2016). Migraine headache and risk of self-harm and suicide: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Headache 56, 132140.
Conlon, L, Garland, M, Prescott, P, Mannion, L, Leonard, M, Fahy, TJ (2007). Psychiatric aftercare and suicide risk: a case-control study using blind rating. Archives of Suicide Research 11, 291295.
Conwell, Y (2009). Suicide prevention in later life: a glass half full, or half empty? American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 845848.
Coryell, W, Young, EA (2005). Clinical predictors of suicide in primary major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 66, 412417.
Coryell, W, Kriener, A, Butcher, B, Nurnberger, J, McMahon, F, Berrettini, W, Fiedorowicz, J (2016). Risk factors for suicide in bipolar I disorder in two prospectively studied cohorts. Journal of Affective Disorders 190, 15.
Crandall, C, Fullerton-Gleason, L, Aguero, R, LaValley, J (2006). Subsequent suicide mortality among emergency department patients seen for suicidal behavior. Academic Emergency Medicine 13, 435442.
Dazzi, T, Gribble, R, Wessely, S, Fear, NT (2014). Does asking about suicide and related behaviours induce suicidal ideation? What is the evidence? Psychological Medicine 44, 33613363.
De Hert, M, McKenzie, K, Peuskens, J (2001). Risk factors for suicide in young people suffering from schizophrenia: a long-term follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research 47, 127134.
De Leo, D, Draper, BM, Snowdon, J, Kolves, K (2013 a). Contacts with health professionals before suicide: missed opportunities for prevention? Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 11171123.
De Leo, D, Draper, BM, Snowdon, J, Kolves, K (2013 b). Suicides in older adults: a case-control psychological autopsy study in Australia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 47, 980988.
Didham, R, Dovey, S, Reith, D (2006). Characteristics of general practitioner consultations prior to suicide: a nested case-control study in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal 119, U2358.
Dingman, CW, McGlashan, TH (1986). Discriminating characteristics of suicides. Chestnut Lodge follow-up sample including patients with affective disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 74, 9197.
Dong, JY, Ho, TP, Kan, CK (2005). A case-control study of 92 cases of in-patient suicides. Journal of Affective Disorders 87, 9199.
Drake, RE, Cotton, PG (1986). Depression, hopelessness and suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 148, 554559.
Dutta, R, Boydell, J, Kennedy, N, van Os, J, Fearon, P, Murray, RM (2007). Suicide and other causes of mortality in bipolar disorder: a longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine 37, 839847.
Dutta, R, Murray, RM, Allardyce, J, Jones, PB, Boydell, J (2011). Early risk factors for suicide in an epidemiological first episode psychosis cohort. Schizophrenia Research 126, 1119.
Farberow, NL, Shneidman, ES, Neuringer, C (1966). Case history and hospitalization factors in suicides of neuropsychiatric hospital patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 142, 3244.
Fawcett, J, Scheftner, WA, Fogg, L, Clark, DC, Young, MA, Hedeker, D, Gibbons, R (1990). Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 11891194.
Flood, RA, Seager, CP (1968). A retrospective examination of psychiatric case records of patients who subsequently committed suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry 114, 443450.
Fruehwald, S, Matschnig, T, Koenig, F, Bauer, P, Frottier, P (2004). Suicide in custody: case-control study. British Journal of Psychiatry 185, 494498.
Funahashi, T, Ibuki, Y, Domon, Y, Nishimura, T, Akehashi, D, Sugiura, H (2000). A clinical study on suicide among schizophrenics. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 54, 173179.
Gliatto, MF, Rai, AK (1999). Evaluation and treatment of patients with suicidal ideation. American Family Physician 59, 15001506.
Goldstein, RB, Black, DW, Nasrallah, A, Winokur, G (1991). The prediction of suicide. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of a multivariate model applied to suicide among 1906 patients with affective disorders. Archives General Psychiatry 48, 418422.
Grobbee, DE, Hoes, AW (2009). Diagnostic research. In Clinical Epidemiology. Principles, Methods, and Applications for Clinical Research (ed. Grobbee, DE and Hoes, AW), pp. 58102. Jones and Bartlett Publishers: Sadbury, Massachusetts.
Harris, EC, Barraclough, B (1997). Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 205228.
Hawton, K, van Heeringen, K (2009). Suicide. Lancet 373, 13721381.
Hawton, K, Sutton, L, Haw, C, Sinclair, J, Deeks, JJ (2005 a). Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry 187, 920.
Hawton, K, Sutton, L, Haw, C, Sinclair, J, Harriss, L (2005 b). Suicide and attempted suicide in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of risk factors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 66, 693704.
Hawton, K, Casanas, IC, Haw, C, Saunders, K (2013). Risk factors for suicide in individuals with depression: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders 147, 1728.
Hingorani, AD, Windt, DA, Riley, RD, Abrams, K, Moons, KG, Steyerberg, EW, Schroter, S, Sauerbrei, W, Altman, DG, Hemingway, H, PROGRESS Group (2013). Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 4: stratified medicine research. British Medical Journal 346, e5793.
Hoyer, EH, Licht, RW, Mortensen, PB (2009). Risk factors of suicide in inpatients and recently discharged patients with affective disorders. A case-control study. European Psychiatry 24, 317321.
Hunt, IM, Kapur, N, Webb, R, Robinson, J, Burns, J, Turnbull, P, Shaw, J, Appleby, L (2007). Suicide in current psychiatric in-patients: a case-control study The National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide. Psychological Medicine 37, 831837.
Hunt, IM, Kapur, N, Webb, R, Robinson, J, Burns, J, Shaw, J, Appleby, L (2009). Suicide in recently discharged psychiatric patients: a case-control study. Psychological Medicine 39, 443449.
Hunt, IM, Bickley, H, Windfuhr, K, Shaw, J, Appleby, L, Kapur, N (2013). Suicide in recently admitted psychiatric in-patients: a case-control study. Journal of Affective Disorders 144, 123128.
Hyman, JRLL (2012). Suicide incidence and risk factors in an active duty US military population. American Journal of Public Health 102 (Suppl. 1), s138s146.
Isometsa, ET, Heikkinen, ME, Marttunen, MJ, Henriksson, MM, Aro, HM, Lonnqvist, JK (1995). The last appointment before suicide: is suicide intent communicated? American Journal of Psychiatry 152, 919922.
Jollant, F, Malafosse, A, Docto, R, Macdonald, C (2014). A pocket of very high suicide rates in a non-violent, egalitarian and cooperative population of South-East Asia. Psychological Medicine 44, 23232329.
Kasckow, J, Liu, N, Haas, GL, Phillips, MR (2010). Case-control study of the relationship of depressive symptoms to suicide in a community-based sample of individuals with schizophrenia in China. Schizophrenia Research 122, 226231.
Kelly, DL, Shim, JC, Feldman, SM, Yu, Y, Conley, RR (2004). Lifetime psychiatric symptoms in persons with schizophrenia who died by suicide compared to other means of death. Journal of Psychiatric Research 38, 531536.
Kessler, RC, Warner, CH, Ivany, C, Petukhova, MV, Rose, S, Bromet, EJ, Brown, M III, Cai, T, Colpe, LJ, Cox, KL, Fullerton, CS, Gilman, SE, Gruber, MJ, Heeringa, SG, Lewandowski-Romps, L, Li, J, Millikan-Bell, AM, Naifeh, JA, Nock, MK, Rosellini, AJ, Sampson, NA, Schoenbaum, M, Stein, MB, Wessely, S, Zaslavsky, AM, Ursano, RJ, for the Army STARRS Collaborators (2015). Predicting suicides after psychiatric hospitalization in US army soldiers. The army study to assess risk and resilience in servicemembers (army STARRS). JAMA Psychiatry 72, 4957.
Khang, YH, Kim, HR, Cho, SJ (2010). Relationships of suicide ideation with cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal study of South Koreans. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour 40, 465475.
Kim, HM, Smith, EG, Ganoczy, D, Walters, H, Stano, CM, Ilgen, MA, Bohnert, AS, Valenstein, M (2012). Predictors of suicide in patient charts among patients with depression in the Veterans Health Administration health system: importance of prescription drug and alcohol abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73, e1269e1275.
King, EA, Baldwin, DS, Sinclair, JM, Campbell, MJ (2001 a). The Wessex Recent In-Patient Suicide Study. 2. Case-control study of 59 in-patient suicides. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 537542.
King, EA, Baldwin, DS, Sinclair, JM, Baker, NG, Campbell, MJ, Thompson, C (2001 b). The Wessex Recent In-Patient Suicide Study. 1. Case-control study of 234 recently discharged psychiatric patient suicides. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 531536.
Kjelsberg, E, Eikeseth, PH, Dahl, AA (1991). Suicide in borderline patients--predictive factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 84, 283287.
Kleiman, EM, Liu, RT (2014). Prospective prediction of suicide in a nationally representative sample: religious service attendance as a protective factor. British Journal of Psychiatry 204, 262266.
Kullgren, G (1988). Factors associated with completed suicide in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176, 4044.
Kuo, CJ, Tsai, SY, Liao, YT, Conwell, Y, Lin, SK, Chang, CL, Chen, CC, Chen, WJ (2011). Risk and protective factors for suicide among patients with methamphetamine dependence: a nested case-control study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72, 487493.
Large, M, Smith, G, Sharma, S, Nielssen, O, Singh, SP (2011 a). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical factors associated with the suicide of psychiatric in-patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124, 1829.
Large, M, Sharma, S, Cannon, E, Ryan, C, Nielssen, O (2011 b). Risk factors for suicide within a year of discharge from psychiatric hospital: a systematic meta-analysis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 45, 619628.
Large, MM, Nielssen, O (2012). Suicidal ideation and later suicide (letter). American Journal of Psychiatry 169, 662.
Large, M, Ryan, C, Nielssen, O (2011 c). The validity and utility of risk assessment for inpatient suicide. Australasian Psychiatry 19, 507512.
Li, J, Ran, MS, Hao, Y, Zhao, Z, Guo, Y, Su, J, Lu, H (2008). Inpatient suicide in a Chinese psychiatric hospital. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour 38, 449455.
Lin, SK, Hung, TM, Liao, YT, Lee, WC, Tsai, SY, Chen, CC, Kuo, CJ (2014). Protective and risk factors for inpatient suicides: a nested case-control study. Psychiatry Research 217, 5459.
Lui, SY (2009). Risk factors for deliberate self-harm and completed suicide in young Chinese people with schizophrenia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43, 252259.
Lukaschek, K, Baumert, J, Krawitz, M, Erazo, N, Förstl, H, Ladwig, KH (2014). Determinants of completed railway suicides by psychiatric in-patients: case-control study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 205, 398406.
Madsen, T, Nordentoft, M (2012). Drs Madsen and Nordentoft reply. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73, 10341035.
Mahon, MJ, Tobin, JP, Cusack, DA, Kelleher, C, Malone, KM (2005). Suicide among regular-duty military personnel: a retrospective case-control study of occupation-specific risk factors for workplace suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 16881696.
McEwan, T, Mullen, P, MacKenzie, R (2010). Suicide among stalkers. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 21, 514520.
McGirr, A, Renaud, J, Seguin, M, Alda, M, Benkelfat, C, Lesage, A, Turecki, G (2007). An examination of DSM-IV depressive symptoms and risk for suicide completion in major depressive disorder: a psychological autopsy study. Journal of Affective Disorders 97, 203209.
McManus, H, Petoumenos, K, Franic, T, Kelly, MD, Watson, J, O'Connor, CC, Jeanes, M, Hoy, J, Cooper, DA, Law, MG; Australian, HIV, Observational Database (2014). Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database. PLoS ONE 9, e89089.
Mock, CN, Grossman, DC, Mulder, D, Stewart, C, Koepsell, TS (1996). Health care utilization as a marker for suicidal behavior on an American Indian Reservation. Journal of General Internal Medicine 11, 519524.
Murphy, GE, Wetzel, RD, Robins, E, McEvoy, L (1992). Multiple risk factors predict suicide in alcoholism. Archives General Psychiatry 49, 459463.
Nock, MK, Borges, G, Bromet, EJ, Alonso, J, Angermeyer, M, Beautrais, A, Bruffaerts, R, Chiu, WT, de Girolamo, G, Gluzman, S, de Graaf, R, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Huang, Y, Karam, E, Kessler, RC, Lepine, JP, Levinson, D, Medina-Mora, ME, Ono, Y, Posada-Villa, J, Williams, D (2008). Cross-national prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. British Journal of Psychiatry 192, 98105.
Nordentoft, M, Mortensen, PB, Pedersen, CB (2011). Absolute risk of suicide after first hospital contact in mental disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 10581064.
Nyman, AK, Jonsson, H (1986). Patterns of self-destructive behaviour in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 73, 252262.
O'Connor, N, Allan, J, Scott, C (2014). Debate: clinical risk categorization is valuable in the prevention of suicide and severe violence? Yes. Australasian Psychiatry 22, 79.
Palacio, C, Garcia, J, Diago, J, Zapata, C, Lopez, G, Ortiz, J, Lopez, M (2007). Identification of suicide risk factors in Medellin, Colombia: a case-control study of psychological autopsy in a developing country. Archives of Suicide Research 11, 297308.
Park, S, Choi, JW, Kyoung Yi, K, Hong, JP (2013). Suicide mortality and risk factors in the 12 months after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care in Korea: 1989–2006. Psychiatry Research 208, 145150.
Paton, MB, Large, MM, Ryan, CJ (2014). Debate: clinical risk categorisation is valuable in the prevention of suicide and severe violence–no. Australas Psychiatry 22, 1012.
Popovic, D, Benabarre, A, Crespo, JM, Goikolea, JM, González-Pinto, A, Gutiérrez-Rojas, L, Montes, JM, Vieta, E (2014). Risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia: systematic review and clinical recommendations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 130, 418426.
Posner, K, Brown, GK, Stanley, B, Brent, DA, Yershova, KV, Oquendo, MA, Currier, GW, Melvin, GA, Greenhill, L, Shen, S, Mann, JJ (2011). The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 12661277.
Powell, J, Geddes, J, Deeks, J, Goldacre, M, Hawton, K (2000). Suicide in psychiatric hospital in-patients. Risk factors and their predictive power. British Journal of Psychiatry 176, 266272.
Roos, JL, Boraine, H, Bodemer, W (1992). [Suicide in schizophrenic patients]. South African Medical Journal 81, 365369.
Rosenthal, JA (1996). Qualitative descriptors of strength of association and effect size. Journal of Social Service Research 21, 3759.
Rowe, JL, Bruce, ML, Conwell, Y (2006). Correlates of suicide among home health care utilizers who died by suicide and community controls. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour 36, 6575.
Runeson, BS (2002). Suicide after parasuicide (editorial). British Medical Journal 325, 11251126.
Salama, AA (1988). Depression and suicide in schizophrenic patients. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour 18, 379384.
Sani, G, Tondo, L, Koukopoulos, A, Reginaldi, D, Kotzalidis, GD, Koukopoulos, AE, Manfredi, G, Mazzarini, L, Pacchiarotti, I, Simonetti, A, Ambrosi, E, Angeletti, G, Girardi, P, Tatarelli, R (2011). Suicide in a large population of former psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 65, 286295.
Shah, AK, Ganesvaran, T (1997). Inpatient suicides in an Australian mental hospital. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 31, 291298.
Silverman, MM, Berman, AL, Sanddal, ND, O'Carroll, PW, Joiner, TE (2007). Rebuilding the tower of Babel: a revised nomenclature for the study of suicide and suicidal behaviors. Part 1: Background, rationale, and methodology. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour 37, 248263.
Simon, GE, Rutter, CM, Peterson, D, Oliver, M, Whiteside, U, Operskalski, B, Ludman, EJ (2013). Does response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire predict subsequent suicide attempt or suicide death? Psychiatric Services 64, 11951202.
Spiessl, H, Hubner-Liebermann, B, Cording, C (2002). Suicidal behaviour of psychiatric in-patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 106, 134138.
Stephens, JH, Richard, P, McHugh, PR (1999). Suicide in patients hospitalized for schizophrenia: 1913–1940. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187, 1014.
Sterne, JAC, Egger, M, Moher, D (2011). Chapter 10. Addressing reporting biases. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 5.1.0 (ed. Higgins, JPT and Green, S). The Cochrane collaboration. Available from
Steyerberg, EW (2009). Restrictions on candidate predictors. In Clinical Prediction Models, pp. 175189. Springer: New York, USA.
Taiminen, T, Huttunen, J, Heilä, H, Henriksson, M, Isometsä, E, Kähkönen, J, Tuominen, K, Lönnqvist, J, Addington, D, Helenius, H (2001). The Schizophrenia Suicide Risk Scale (SSRS): development and initial validation. Schizophrenia Research 47, 199213.
Talseth, AG, Lindseth, A, Jacobsson, L, Norberg, A (1999). The meaning of suicidal psychiatric in-patients’ experiences of being cared for by mental health nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 29, 10341041.
ten Have, M, de Graaf, R, van Dorsselaer, S, Verdurmen, J, van ‘t Land, H, Vollebergh, W, Beekman, A (2009). Incidence and course of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54, 824833.
ten Have, M, van Dorsselaer, S, de Graaf, R (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for first onset of suicidal behaviors in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Journal of Affective Disorders 147, 205211.
Thong, JY, Su, AH, Chan, YH, Chia, BH (2008). Suicide in psychiatric patients: case-control study in Singapore. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42, 509519.
Thoresen, S, Mehlum, L (2004). Risk factors for fatal accidents and suicides in peacekeepers: is there an overlap? Military Medicine 169, 988993.
Turecki, G (2014). The molecular basis of suicide. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 802816.
van Heeringen, K, Hengeveld, MW (2009). Suïcidaal gedrag. In Leerboek Psychiatrie (ed. Hengeveld, MW and van Balkom, AJLM), pp. 493501. De Tijdstroom: Utrecht, The Netherlands.
van Hemert, AM, Kerkhof, AJ, de Keijser, J, Verwey, B, van Boven, C, Hummelen, JW, de Groot, MH, Lucassen, P, Meerdinkveldboom, J, Steendam, M, Stringer, B, Verlinde, AA, van de Glind, G (2012). Multidisciplinaire richtlijn diagnostiek en behandeling van suïcidaal gedrag. Tijdstroom: Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Vuorilehto, M, Valtonen, HM, Melartin, T, Sokero, P, Suominen, K, Isometsa, ET (2014). Method of assessment determines prevalence of suicidal ideation among patients with depression. European Psychiatry 29, 338344.
Wells, GA, Shea, B, O'Connol, D, Peterson, J, Welch, V, Losos, M, Tugwell, P (n.d.). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analysis. Retrieved 7 July 2015 from
Werbeloff, N, Dohrenwend, BP, Levav, I, Haklai, Z, Yoffe, R, Large, M, Davidson, M, Weiser, M (2015). Demographic, behavioural, and psychiatric risk factors for suicide: a 25-year longitudinal cohort study. Crisis epub ahead of print. DOI:
Wolfersdorf, M, Klinkisch, M, Franke, C, Keller, F, Wurst, FM, Dobmeier, M (2003 a). In-patient suicide – a comparison of psychiatric in-patient suicides v. a control group of inpatients from the same treatment era without suicide. Psychiatrische Praxis 30, 1420.
Wolfersdorf, M, Neher, F, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Suizidalität und Psychiatrisches Krankenhaus (2003 b). [Schizophrenia and suicide – results of a control group comparison of schizophrenic inpatient suicides with schizophrenic inpatients without suicide]. Psychiatrische Praxis 30, 272278.
Yigletu, H, Tucker, S, Harris, M, Hatlevig, J (2004). Assessing suicide ideation: comparing self-report versus clinician report. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association 10, 915.
Zonda, T (2006). One-hundred cases of suicide in Budapest: a case-controlled psychological autopsy study. Crisis 27, 125129.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
  • ISSN: 2045-7960
  • EISSN: 2045-7979
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-psychiatric-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Hubers supplementary material
Hubers supplementary material 1

 Word (1.0 MB)
1.0 MB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 14
Total number of PDF views: 160 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1353 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 19th December 2016 - 23rd May 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.