Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Psychological and psychosocial interventions for refugee children resettled in high-income countries

  • M. Fazel (a1)
Abstract

Large numbers of refugee children are arriving in high-income countries. The evidence to date suggests that they have mental health needs that are higher than for the general population and that these are exacerbated by the numbers of traumatic events they have experienced and the post-migration stressors they continue to be exposed to. The importance of a thorough and thoughtful assessment is discussed. Treatments of note are described for post-traumatic stress disorder, family functioning, general mental health problems and school environments. Future opportunities to operationalise outcome measures, develop multimodal interventions and utilise implementation science methodology are considered.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Psychological and psychosocial interventions for refugee children resettled in high-income countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Psychological and psychosocial interventions for refugee children resettled in high-income countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Psychological and psychosocial interventions for refugee children resettled in high-income countries
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: M. Fazel, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. (Email: Mina.fazel@psych.ox.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
Anders, M, Christiansen, H (2016). Unaccompanied refugee minors: a systematic review of psychological interventions. Kindheit und Entwicklung: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Kinderpsychologie 25, 216230.
Barghadouch, A, Carlsson, J, Norredam, M (2016 a). Psychiatric disorders and predictors hereof among refugee children in early adulthood: a register-based Cohort study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000576.
Barghadouch, A, Kristiansen, M, Jervelund, SS, Hjern, A, Montgomery, E, Norredam, M (2016b). Refugee children have fewer contacts to psychiatric healthcare services: an analysis of a subset of refugee children compared to Danish-born peers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 51, 11251136.
Benson, J, Smith, M (2007). Early health assessment of refugees. Australian Family Physician 36, 4143.
Betancourt, T, Chambers, D (2016). Optimizing an era of global mental health implementation science. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 99100.
Betancourt, TS, Fawzi, MK, Bruderlein, C, Desmond, C, Kim, JY (2010). Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development. Psychology Health & Medicine 15, 243265.
Betancourt, TS, Frounfelker, R, Mishra, T, Hussein, A, Falzarano, R (2015). Addressing health disparities in the mental health of refugee children and adolescents through community-based participatory research: a study in 2 communities. American Journal of Public Health 105, S475S482.
Bolton, P, Lee, C, Haroz, EE, Murray, L, Dorsey, S, Robinson, C, Ugueto, AM, Bass, J (2014). A transdiagnostic community-based mental health treatment for comorbid disorders: development and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial among Burmese refugees in Thailand. PLoS Medicine 11, e1001757.
Brown, R, Witt, A, Fegert, J, Keller, F, Rassenhofer, M, Plener, P (2017). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Psychological Medicine 47, 18931905.
Catani, C, Kohiladevy, M, Ruf, M, Schauer, E, Elbert, T, Neuner, F (2012). Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry 9, 22.
Cloitre, M (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review and critique. CNS Spectrums 14, 3243.
Close, C, Kouvonen, A, Bosqui, T, Patel, K, O'Reilly, D, Donnelly, M (2016). The mental health and wellbeing of first generation migrants: a systematic-narrative review of reviews. Globalization and Health 12, 113.
Colucci, E, Szwarc, J, Minas, H, Paxton, G, Guerra, C (2014). The utilisation of mental health services by children and young people from a refugee background: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Culture & Mental Health 7, 86108.
Colucci, E, Minas, H, Szwarc, J, Guerra, C, Paxton, G (2015). In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee-background young people accessing mental health services. Transcultural Psychiatry 52, 766790.
Craig, P, Dieppe, P, Macintyre, S, Michie, S, Nazareth, I, Petticrew, M (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ 337, a1655.
Curran, GM, Bauer, M, Mittman, B, Pyne, JM, Stetler, C (2012). Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact. Medical Care 50, 217.
Davidson, N, Skull, S, Chaney, G, Frydenberg, A, Isaacs, D, Kelly, P, Lampropoulos, B, Raman, S, Silove, D, Buttery, J (2004). Comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugee children in Australia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 40, 562568.
Eberle-Sejari, R, Nocon, A, Rosner, R (2015). Treatment of posttraumatic symptoms in child and adolescent refugees: a systematic review. Kindheit und Entwicklung: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Kinderpsychologie 24, 156169.
Ellis, B, Miller, AB, Abdi, S, Barrett, C, Blood, EA, Betancourt, TS (2013). Multi-tier mental health program for refugee youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81, 129140.
Fazel, M, Wheeler, J, Danesh, J (2005). Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet 365, 13091314.
Fazel, M, Reed, RV, Panter-Brick, C, Stein, A (2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. Lancet 379, 266282.
Fazel, M, Reed, R, Stein, A (2015). Refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children and adolescents. In Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 6th edition (ed. A Thapar, DS Pine, JF Leckman, S Scott, MJ Snowling and E Taylor), Chap. 44, pp. 573585. Wiley.
Fazel, M, Garcia, J, Stein, A (2016). The right location? Experiences of refugee adolescents seen by school-based mental health services. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry 21, 368380.
Gerritsen, AAM, Bramsen, I, Devillé, W, van Willigen, LHM, Hovens, JE, van der Ploeg, HM (2006). Physical and mental health of Afghan, Iranian and Somali asylum seekers and refugees living in The Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 1826.
Graham, HR, Minhas, RS, Paxton, G (2016). Learning problems in children of refugee background: a systematic review. Pediatrics 137(6), e20153994.
Hersh, J, Metz, KL, Weisz, JR (2016). New frontiers in transdiagnostic treatment: youth psychotherapy for internalizing and externalizing problems and disorders. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 9(2), 140155.
Jain, S (2010). The role of paraprofessionals in providing treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in low-resource communities. JAMA 304, 571572.
Jakobsen, M, Demott, MA, Heir, T (2014). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents in Norway. Clinical Practice Epidemiology & Mental Health 10, 5358.
Kaplan, I, Stolk, Y, Valibhoy, M, Tucker, A, Baker, J (2016). Cognitive assessment of refugee children: effects of trauma and new language acquisition. Transcultural Psychiatry 53, 81109.
Keatley, E, Ashman, T, Im, B, Rasmussen, A (2013). Self-reported head injury among refugee survivors of torture. Journal of Head Trauma & Rehabilitation 28, E8E13.
Kohn, LT, Corrigan, JM, Donaldson, MS (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine: Washington, DC.
LeBrun, A, Hassan, G, Boivin, M, Fraser, SL, Dufour, S, Lavergne, C (2016). Review of child maltreatment in immigrant and refugee families. Canadian Journal of Public Health 106, eS45eS56.
Lucero, J, Wallerstein, N, Duran, B, Alegria, M, Greene-Moton, E, Israel, B, Kastelic, S, Magarati, M, Oetzel, J, Pearson, C (2016). Development of a mixed methods investigation of process and outcomes of community-based participatory research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1, 20.
Michelson, D, Patel, V (2017). Commentary: distillation and element-based design of psychological treatments in global mental health – a commentary on Brown et al. (2017). Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry 58, 525527. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12714.
Miller, KE, Rasmussen, A (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine 70, 716.
Mollica, RF, Henderson, DC, Tor, S (2002). Psychiatric effects of traumatic brain injury events in Cambodian survivors of mass violence. British Journal of Psychiatry 181, 339347.
Mollica, RF, Lyoo, IK, Chernoff, MC, Bui, HX, Lavelle, J, Yoon, SJ, Kim, JE, Renshaw, PF (2009). Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 12211232.
Moore, GF, Audrey, S, Barker, M, Bond, L, Bonell, C, Hardeman, W, Moore, L, O'Cathain, A, Tinati, T, Wight, D (2015). Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ 350, h1258.
Morina, N, Malek, M, Nickerson, A, Bryant, RA (2017). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in young survivors of mass violence in low- and middle-income countries: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 210, 247254.
Mulligan, CJ, Clukay, C, Quinlan, J, Dajani, R, Hamadmad, D, Abudayyeh, G, Panter-Brick, C (2017). Genetics of risk and resilience in Syrian refugee youth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 162, 294295.
Murray, L, Dorsey, S, Haroz, EE, Lee, C, Aisiary, M, Weiss, W, Bolton, P (2014). A common elements treatment approach for adult mental health problems in low-and middle-income countries. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice 21, 111123.
Neuner, F, Catani, C, Ruf, M, Schauer, E, Schauer, M, Elbert, T (2008). Narrative Exposure Therapy for the treatment of traumatized children and adolescents (KidNET): from neurocognitive theory to field intervention. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 17, 641664.
Ng, LN, Cook, AC, Thomas, JT (2016). An evidence based framework for an initial needs assessment of unaccompanied minors. Archives of Disease in Childhood 101, A361.
Nickerson, A, Bryant, RA, Silove, D, Steel, Z (2011). A critical review of psychological treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees. Clinical Psychology Review 31, 399417.
Nose, M, Ballette, F, Bighelli, I, Turrini, G, Purgato, M, Tol, W, Priebe, S, Barbui, C (2017). Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 12(2), e0171030.
Peltonen, K, Punamaki, R-L (2010). Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review. Aggressive Behavior 36, 95116.
Pottie, K, Dahal, G, Georgiades, K, Premji, K, Hassan, G (2015). Do first generation immigrant adolescents face higher rates of bullying, violence and suicidal behaviours than do third generation and native born? Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 17, 15571566.
Reed, RV, Fazel, M, Jones, L, Panter-Brick, C, Stein, A (2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in low-income and middle-income countries: risk and protective factors. Lancet 379, 250265.
Rees, S, Silove, D, Chey, T, Ivancic, L, Steel, Z, Creamer, M, Teesson, M, Bryant, R, McFarlane, AC, Mills, KL (2011). Lifetime prevalence of gender-based violence in women and the relationship with mental disorders and psychosocial function. Journal of the American Medical Association 306, 513521.
Rees, S, Silove, DM, Tay, K, Kareth, M (2013). Human rights trauma and the mental health of West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 199, 280283.
Robjant, K, Fazel, M (2010). The emerging evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy: a review. Clinical Psychology Review 30, 10301039.
Ruf, M, Schauer, M (2012). Facing childhood trauma: Narrative Exposure Therapy within a cascade model of care. Chapter 9 in Murray. J Exposure Therapy: New Developments 229261. Nova Science Publishers.
Ruf, M, Schauer, M, Neuner, F, Catani, C, Schauer, E, Elbert, T (2010). Narrative Exposure Therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress 23, 437445.
Sack, WH, Clarke, GN, Seeley, J (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder across two generations of Cambodian refugees. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34, 11601166.
Silove, D (2013). The ADAPT model: a conceptual framework for mental health and psychosocial programming in post conflict settings. Intervention 11, 237248.
Silverstone, P, Suen, V, Ashton, C, Hamza, D, Martin, E (2016). Are complex multimodal interventions the best treatments for mental health disorders in children and youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behaviour 4, 305.
Sleijpen, M, Heitland, I, Mooren, T, Kleber, RJ (2017). Resilience in refugee and Dutch adolescents: genetic variability in the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Personality and Individual Differences 111, 211214.
Tabak, RG, Khoong, EC, Chambers, DA, Brownson, RC (2012). Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 43, 337350.
Tay, AK, Rees, S, Chen, J, Kareth, M, Silove, D (2015). Pathways from conflict-related trauma and ongoing adversity to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms amongst West Papuan refugees: the mediating role of anxiety and panic-like symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry 63, 3645.
Tyrer, RA, Fazel, M (2014). School and community-based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 9(2), e89359.
UNHCR (2017). Global trends. Forced Displacement in 2016. In Global Trends. The UN Refugee Agency: Geneva, Switzerland.
van Ee, E, Kleber, RJ, Jongmans, MJ, Mooren, TT, Out, D (2016). Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample. Attachment & Human Development 18, 273291.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
  • ISSN: 2045-7960
  • EISSN: 2045-7979
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-psychiatric-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed