Skip to main content
×
Home

The quality of mental health literacy measurement tools evaluating the stigma of mental illness: a systematic review

  • Y. Wei (a1), P. McGrath (a2), J. Hayden (a3) and S. Kutcher (a4)
Abstract
Aims.

Stigma of mental illness is a significant barrier to receiving mental health care. However, measurement tools evaluating stigma of mental illness have not been systematically assessed for their quality. We conducted a systematic review to critically appraise the methodological quality of studies assessing psychometrics of stigma measurement tools and determined the level of evidence of overall quality of psychometric properties of included tools.

Methods.

We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and ERIC databases for eligible studies. We conducted risk-of-bias analysis with the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist, rating studies as excellent, good, fair or poor. We further rated the level of evidence of the overall quality of psychometric properties, combining the study quality and quality of each psychometric property, as: strong, moderate, limited, conflicting or unknown.

Results.

We identified 117 studies evaluating psychometric properties of 101 tools. The quality of specific studies varied, with ratings of: excellent (n = 5); good (mostly on internal consistency (n = 67)); fair (mostly on structural validity, n = 89 and construct validity, n = 85); and poor (mostly on internal consistency, n = 36). The overall quality of psychometric properties also varied from: strong (mostly content validity, n = 3), moderate (mostly internal consistency, n = 55), limited (mostly structural validity, n = 55 and construct validity, n = 46), conflicting (mostly test–retest reliability, n = 9) and unknown (mostly internal consistency, n = 36).

Conclusions.

We identified 12 tools demonstrating limited evidence or above for (+, ++, +++) all their properties, 69 tools reaching these levels of evidence for some of their properties, and 20 tools that did not meet the minimum level of evidence for all of their properties. We note that further research on stigma tool development is needed to ensure appropriate application.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Y. Wei, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Interdisciplinary PhD, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. (Email: yifeng.wei@iwk.nshealth.ca)
References
Hide All
Andersson HW, Bjørngaard JH, Silje Lill Kaspersen SL, Wang CEA, Skre I, Dahl T (2010). The effects of individual factors and school environment on mental health and prejudiced attitudes among Norwegian adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 45, 569577. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0099-0.
Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H (2003). The stigma of mental illness: effects of labeling on public attitudes towards people with mental disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108, 304309.
Aromaa E, Tolvanen A, Tuulari J, Wahlbeck K (2010). Attitudes towards people with mental disorders: the psychometric characteristics of a Finnish questionnaire. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 45, 265273. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0064-y.
Assefa D, Shibre T, Asher L, Fekadu A (2012). Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study. BMC Psychiatry 12, 239. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/12/239.
Bagley C, King M (2005). Exploration of three stigma scales in 83 users of mental health services: implications for campaigns to reduce stigma. Journal of Mental Health 14, 343355. doi: 10.1080/09638230500195270.
Baker JA, Richards DA, Campbell M (2005). Nursing attitudes towards acute mental health care: development of a measurement tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49, 522529.
Barney LJ, Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF (2010). The self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS): development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 19, 243254. doi: 10.1002/mpr.325.
Batterham PJ, Griffiths KM, Barney LJ, Parsons A (2013). Predictors of generalized anxiety disorder stigma. Psychiatry Research 206, 282286.
Bell L, Long S, Garvan C, Bussing R (2011). The impact of teacher credentials on ADHD stigma perceptions. Psychology in the Schools 48, 184197. doi: 10.1002/pits.20536.
Bjorkman T, Svensson B, Lundberg B (2007). Experiences of stigma among people with severe mental illness. Reliability, acceptability and construct validity of the Swedish versions of two stigma scales measuring devaluation/discrimination and rejection experiences. Nordic Journal Psychiatry 61, 332338. doi: 10.1080/08039480701642961.
Botega N, Mann A, Blizard R, Wilinson G (1992). General practitioners and depression – first use of the depression attitude questionnaire. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2, 169180.
Boyd JE, Otilingam PG (2014). Brief version of the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale: psychometric properties and relationship to depression, self esteem, recovery orientation, empowerment, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 37, 1723. doi: 10.1037/prj000003517.
Boyd JE, Adler EP, Otilingam PG, Peters T (2014). Internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry 55, 221231.
Brockington IF, Hall P, Levings J, Murphy C (1993). The community's tolerance of the mentally ill. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 9399.
Brohan E, Slade M, Clement S, Thornicroft G (2010). Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures. BMC Health Services Research 10, 80. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/10/80.
Brohan E, Gauci D, Sartorius N, Thornicroft G, For the GAMIAN-Europe Study Group (2011). Self-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination among people with bipolar disorder or depression in 13 European countries: the GAMIAN-Europe study. Journal of Affective Disorders 129, 5663.
Brohan E, Clement S, Rose D, Sartorius N, Slade M, Thornicroft G (2013). Development and psychometric evaluation of the discrimination and stigma scale (DISC). Psychiatric Research 208, 3340. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.03.007.
Brown SA (2008). Factors and measurement of mental illness stigma: a psychometric examination of the attribution questionnaire. Psychiatric Rehabilitation J 32, 8994. doi: 10.2975/32.2.2008.89.94.
Burra P, Kalin R, Leichner P, Waldron JJ, Handforth JR, Jarrett FJ, Amara IB (1982). The ATP 30 – a scale for measuring medical students’ attitudes of psychiatry. Medical Education 16, 3138.
Chang C, Wu T, Chen C, Wang J, Lin C (2014). Psychometric evaluation of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale for patients with mental illnesses: measurement invariance across time. PLoS ONE 9, e98767. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098767.
Chowdhury AN, Sanyal D, Dutta SK, Banerjee S, De R, Bhattacharya K, Palit S, Bhattacharya P, Monda RK, Weiss MG (2000). Stigma and mental illness: pilot study of laypersons and health care providers with the EMIC in rural west Bengal, India. International Medical Journal 7, 257260.
Clayfield JC, Fletcher KE, Grudzinskas AJ Jr. (2011). Development and validation of the mental health attitude survey for police. Community Mental Health Journal 47, 742751. doi: 10.1007/s10597-011-9384-y.
Cohen J, Struening EL (1962). Opinions about mental illness in the personnel of two large mental hospitals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 64, 349360.
Corrigan PW, Rowan D, Qreen A, Lundin R, River P, Uphoff’-Wasowski K, White K, Kubiak MA (2002). Challenging two mental illness stigmas: personal responsibility and dangerousness. Schizophrenia Bulletin 28, 293309.
Corrigan P, Markowitz FE, Watson A, Rowan D, Kubiak MA (2003). An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 44, 162179.
Corrigan PW, Watson AC, Warpinski AC, Gracia G (2004). Stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and allocation of resources to mental health services. Community Mental Health Journal 40, 297307.
Corrigan PW, Watson AC, Barr L (2006). The self-stigma of mental illness: implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy. J Social and Clinical Psychology 25, 875884.
Corrigan PW, Michaels PJ, Vega E, Gause M, Watson AC, Rusch N (2012). Self-stigma of mental illness scale-short form: reliability and validity. Psychiatry Research 199, 6569. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.04.009.
Dalky HF (2012). Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of the stigma-devaluation scale in Jordan. Journal of Mental Health 21, 7282. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2011.629238.
Day EN, Edgren K, Eshleman A (2007). Measuring stigma toward mental illness: development and application of the mental illness stigma scale. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 10, 21912219.
Diksa E, Rogers ES (1996). Employer concerns about hiring persons with psychiatric disability: results of the employer attitude questionnaire. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 40, 3144.
Evans-Lacko S, Rose D, Little K, Flach C, Rhydderch D, Henderson C, Thornicroft G (2011). Development and psychometric properties of the reported and intended behavior scale (RIBS): a stigma-related behavior measure. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 20, 263271.
Evans-Lacko S, London J, Japhet S, Rusch N, Flach C, Corker E, Henderson C, Thornicroft G (2012). Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination. BMC Public Health 12, 489.
Evans-Lacko S, Henderson C, Thornicroft G (2013). Public knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding people with mental illness in England 2009–2012. British Journal of Psychiatry 202(Suppl.), 5157. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.112979.
Friedrich B, Evans-Lacko S, London J, Rhydderch D, Henderson C, Thornicroft G (2013). Anti-stigma training for medical students: the education not discrimination project. British Journal of Psychiatry 202(Suppl.), 8994. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.114017.
Fuermaier ABM, Tucha L, Koerts J, Mueller AK, Lange KW, Tucha O (2012). Measurement of stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. PLoS ONE 7, e51755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051755.
Furlan AD, Malmivaara A, Chou R, Maher CG, Deyo RA, Schoene M, Bronfort G, van Tulder MW, Editorial Board of the Cochrane Back, Neck Group (2015). 2015 updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 40, 16601673. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001061.
Gabbidon J, Brohan E, Clement S, Henderson RC, Thornicroft G, MIRIAD Study Group (2013 a). The development and validation of the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination (QUAD). BMC Psychiatry 13, 297. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/13/297. Accessed 10 June 2016.
Gabbidon J, Clement S, Nieuwenhuizen A, Kassam A, Brohan E, Norman I, Thornicroft G (2013 b). Mental Illness: Clinicians’ Attitudes (MICA) Scale – Psychometric properties of a version for health care students and professionals. Psychiatry Research 206, 8187. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.028.
Gabriel A, Violato C (2010). The development and psychometric assessment of an instrument to measure attitudes towards depression and its treatments in patients suffering from non-psychotic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 124, 241249. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.11.009.
Gibbons C, Dubois S, Morris K, Parker B, Maxwell H, Bédard M (2012). The development of a questionnaire to explore stigma from the perspective of individuals with serious mental illness. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 31, 1732.
Glozier N, Hough C, Henderson M, Holland-Elliott K (2006). Attitudes of nursing staff towards co-workers returning from psychiatric and physical illnesses. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 52, 525534. doi: 10.1177/0020764006066843.
Goffman E (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Granello DH, Pauley PS (2000). Television viewing habits and their relationship to tolerance towards people with mental illness. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 22, 162175.
Granello DH, Pauley PS, Carmichael A (1999). Relationship of the media to attitudes toward people with mental illness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling 38, 98110.
Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF, Evans K, Groves C (2004). Effect of web-based depression literacy and cognitive-behavioural therapy interventions on stigmatizing attitudes to depression: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 185, 342349. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.4.342.
Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF (2008). Predicators of depression stigma. BMC Psychiatry 8, 25. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-25.
Griffiths KM, Batterham PJ, Barney L, Parsons A (2011). The generalized anxiety stigma scale (GASS): psychometric properties in a community sample. BMC Psychiatry 11, 184. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/184. Accessed 10 June 2016.
Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Christensen H (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 10, 113.
Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Mackinnon A, Calear AL, Parsons A, Bennett K, Batterham PJ, Stanimirovic R (2012). Internet-based interventions to promote mental health help-seeking in elite athletes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 14, e69. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1864.
Haddad M, Walters P, Tylee A (2007). District nursing staff and depression: a psychometric evaluation of depression attitude questionnaire findings. International Journal of Nursing Studies 44, 447456.
Haddad M, Menchetti M, McKeown E, Tylee A, Mann A (2015). The development and psychometric properties of a measure of clinicians’ attitudes to depression: the revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ). BMC Psychiatry 15, 7. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0381-x.
Harvey RD (2001). Individual differences in the phenomenological impact of social stigma. Journal of Social Psychology 141, 174189.
Hayward P, Wong G, Bright JA, Lam D (2002). Stigma and self-esteem in manic depression: an exploratory study. Journal of Affective Disorders 69, 6167.
Hepperlen TM, Clay DL, Henly GA, Barké CR, Hehperlen MH, Clay DL (2002). Measuring teacher attitudes and expectations toward students with ADHD: development of the test of knowledge about ADHD (KADD). Journal of Attention Disorders 5, 133142. doi: 10.1177/108795470200500301.
Hinkelmean L, Granello DH (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 25, 259270.
Hirai M, Clum GA (2000). Development, reliability, and validity of the beliefs toward mental illness scale. Journal of Psychopathology Behavioral Assessment 22, 221236.
Ho AHY, Potash JS, Fong TCT, Ho VFL, Chen EYH, Lau RHW, Au Yeung FS, Ho RT (2015). Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the stigma scale: examining the complex experience of stigma and its relationship with self-esteem and depression among people living with mental illness in Hong Kong. Comprehensive Psychiatry 56, 198205. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.09.016.
Högberg T, Magnusson A, Ewertzon M, Lützén K (2008). Attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden: adaptation and development of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 17, 302310. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00552.x.
Interian A, Ang A, Gara MA, Link B, Rodriguez MA, Vega WA (2010). Stigma and depression treatment utilization among Latinos: utility of four stigma measures. Psychiatric Services 61, 373379.
Isaac F, Greenwood KM, Benedetto M (2012). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the attitudes towards depression and its treatments scale in an Australian sample. Patient Prefer Adherence 6, 349354. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S26783.
Jackson D, Heatherington L (2006). Young Jamaicans’ attitudes toward mental illness: experimental and demographic factors associated with social distance and stigmatizing opinions. Journal of Community Psychology 34, 563576. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20115.
Jones EE, Farina A, Hastorf AH, Marcus H, Miller DT, Scott RA (1984). Social Stigma: the Psychology of Marked Relationships. Freeman and Company: New York.
Kanter JW, Rusch LC, Brondino MJ (2008). Depression Self-Stigma: a new measure and preliminary findings. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 196, 663670. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318183f8af.
Karidi MV, Vasilopoulou D, Savvidou E, Vitoratou S, Rabavilas AD, Stefanis CN (2014). Aspects of perceived stigma: the stigma inventory for mental illness, its development, latent structure and psychometric properties. Comprehensive Psychiatry 55, 16201625. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.002.
Kassam A, Glozier N, Leese M, Henderson C, Thornicroft G (2010). Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians’ attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 122, 153161. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01562.x.
Kassam A, Papish A, Modgill G, Patten S (2012). The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: the opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). BMC Psychiatry 12, 62. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/12/62. Accessed 14 August 2015.
Kellison I, Bussing R, Bell L, Garvan C (2010). Assessment of stigma associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychometric evaluation of the ADHD stigma questionnaire. Psychiatry Research 178, 363369. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.04.022.
Kieling C, Baker-Henningham H, Belfer M, Conti G, Ertem I, Omigbodun O, Rohde LA, Srinath S, Ulkuer N, Rahman A (2011). Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action. Lancet 378, 15151525. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60827-1. Epub 2011 Oct 16.
King M, Dinos S, Shaw J, Watson R, Stevens S, Passetti F, Weich S, Serfaty M (2007). The stigma scale: development of a standardized measure of the stigma of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 248254. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.024638.
Kira IA, Ramaswamy V, Lewandowski L, Mohanesh J, Abdul-Khalek H (2015). Psychometric assessment of the Arabic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) measure in a refugee population. Transcultural Psychiatry 52, 636658. doi: 10.1177/1363461515569755.
Kobau R, DiIorio C, Chapman D, Delvecchi P (2010). SAMHSA/CDC Mental Illness Stigma Panel Members. Attitudes about mental illness and its treatment: validation of a generic scale for public health surveillance of mental illness associated stigma. Community Mental Health Journal 46, 164176. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9191-x.
Komiya N, Good GE, Sherrod NB (2000). Emotional openness as a predictor of college students’ attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology 47, 138143. doi: 10.1037//0022-0167.47.1.138.
Kutcher S, Bagnell A, Wei Y (2015 a). Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics 24, 233244.
Kutcher S, Wei Y, Morgan C (2015 b). Successful application of a Canadian mental health curriculum resource by usual classroom teachers in significantly and sustainably improving student mental health literacy. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 60, 580586.
Kutcher S, Wei Y, Coniglio C (2016). Mental health literacy: past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 61, 154158.
Lam DCK, Salkovskis PM, Warwick HMC (2005). An experimental investigation of the impact of biological versus psychological explanations of the cause of “mental illness”. Journal of Mental Health 14, 453464. doi: 10.1080/09638230500270842.
Lien Y, Kao Y, Liu Y, Chang H, Tzeng N, Lu C, Loh CH (2014). Internalized stigma and stigma resistance among patients with mental Illness in Han Chinese population. Psychiatric Quarterly 86, 181197. doi: 10.1007/s11126-014-9315-5.
Link BG (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. American Sociological Review 52, 96112.
Link BG, Cullen FT, Frank J, Wozniak JF (1987). The social rejection of former mental patients: understanding why labels matter. American Journal of Sociology 92, 14611500.
Link BG, Cullen FT, Struening E, Shrout PE, Dohrenwend BP (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: an empirical assessment. American Sociological Review 54, 400423.
Link BG, Mirotznik J, Cullen FT (1991). The effectiveness of stigma coping orientations: can negative consequences of mental illness labeling be avoided? Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32, 302320.
Link BG, Struening EL, Rahav M, Phelan JC, Nuttbrock L (1997). On stigma and its consequences: evidence from a longitudinal study of men with dual diagnoses of mental illness and substance abuse. Journal of Health Social Behavior 38, 177190.
Link BG, Yang LH, Phelan JC, Collins PY (2004). Measuring mental illness stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin 30, 511541.
Luca Pingani L, Forghieri M, Ferrari S, Ben-Zeev D, Artoni P, Mazzi F, Palmieri G, Rigatelli M, Corrigan PW (2012). Stigma and discrimination toward mental illness: translation and validation of the Italian version of the attribution questionnaire-27 (AQ-27-I). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 993999. doi: 10.1007/s00127-011-0407-3.
Luty J, Fekadu D, Umoh O, Gallagher J (2006). Validation of a short instrument to measure stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Psychiatric Bulletin 30, 257260. doi: 10.1192/pb.30.7.257.
Maccoby EE and Maccoby N (1954). The interview: a tool of social science. In Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. I. (ed. Lindzey G.), pp. 449487. Addison-Wesley: Cambridge, MA.
Madianos MG, Madianou D, Vlachonikolis J, Stefanis CN (1987). Attitudes towards mental illness in the Athens area: implications for community mental health intervention. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 75, 158165.
Madianos M, Economou M, Peppou LE, Kallergis G, Rogakou E, Alevizopoulos G (2012). Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: development of a new scale. European Journal of Psychiatry 26, 5567.
Magliano L, Marasco C, Guarneri M, Malangone C, Lacrimini G, Zanus P, et al. (1999). A new questionnaire assessing the opinions of the relatives of patients with schizophrenia on the causes and social consequences of the disorder: reliability and validity. European Psychiatry 14, 7175.
Mak WWS, Cheung RYM (2008). Affiliate stigma among caregivers of people with intellectual disability or mental illness. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 21, 532545. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3148.2008.00426.x.
Mak WWS, Cheung RYM (2010). Self-stigma among concealable minorities in Hong Kong: conceptualization and unified measurement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80, 267281. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01030.x.
Mansouri L, Dowell DA (1989). Perceptions of stigma among the long-term mentally ill. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 13, 7991.
McKeague L, Hennessy E, O'Driscoll C, Heary C (2015). Peer Mental Health Stigmatization Scale: psychometric properties of a questionnaire for children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 20, 163170. doi: 10.1111/camh.12088.
McLuckie A, Kutcher S, Wei Y, Weaver C (2014). Sustained improvements in students’ mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools. BMC Psychiatry 14, 1694. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0379-4.
Michaels PJ, Corrigan PW (2013). Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects. Journal of Mental Health 22, 218226. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2012.734652.
Milin R, Kutcher S, Lewis SP, Walker S, Wei Y, Ferrill N, Armstrong M (2016). Impact of a mental health curriculum on knowledge and stigma among high school students: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55, 383391.
Minnebo J, Acker AV (2004). Does television influence adolescents’ perceptions of and attitudes toward people with mental illness? Journal of Community Psychology 32, 257275. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20001.
Modgill G, Knaak S, Kassam A, Szeto A (2014). Opening minds stigma scale for health care providers (OMS-HC): examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness. BMC Psychiatry 14, 120. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-120.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62, 10061012.
Morris R, Scott PA, Cocoman A, Chambers M, Guise V, Välimäki M, Clinton G (2011). Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses’ attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68, 460470. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05739.x.
Morrison JK, Becker BE (1975). Seminar-induced change in a community psychiatric team's reported attitudes toward “mental illness”. Journal of Community Psychology 3, 281284.
Moses T (2009). Stigma and self-concept among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 79, 261274. doi: 10.1037/a0015696.
Nevid JS, Morrison J (1980). Attitudes toward mental illness: the construction of the libertarian mental health ideology scale. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 20, 7185. doi: 10.1177/002216788002000207.
Ng P, Chan K (2000). Sex differences in opinion towards mental illness of secondary school students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 46, 7988. doi: 10.1177/002076400004600201.
Patel V, Flisher AJ, Hetrick S, McGorry P (2007). Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. Lancet 369, 13021313.
Penn DL, Guynan K, Daily T, Spaulding WD, Garbin CP, Sullivan M (1994). Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: what sort of information is best? Schizophrenia Bulletin 20, 567577.
Pinto MD, Hickman R, Logsdon MC, Burant C (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the revised attribution questionnaire (r-AQ) to measure mental illness stigma in adolescents. Journal of Nursing Measurement 20, 4758. doi: 10.1891/1061-3749.20.1.47.
RefWorks-COS PL, ProQuest LLC (2001). RefWorks, 2nd edn. ProQuest LLC: Ann Arbour, MI.
Ritsher JB, Phelan JC (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry Research 129, 257265.
Ritsher JB, Otilingama PG, Grajales M (2003). Internalized stigma of mental illness: psychometric properties of a new measure. Psychiatry Research 121, 3149. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2003.08.008.
Serra M, Lai A, Buizza C, Pioli R, Preti A, Masala C, Petretto DR (2013). Beliefs and attitudes among Italian high school students toward people with severe mental disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 201, 311318.
Sevigny R, Yang W, Zhang P, Marleau JD, Yang Z, Lin S, Li G, Xu D, Wang Y, Wang H (1999). Attitudes toward the mentally ill in a sample of professionals working in a psychiatric hosptital in Beijing. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 45, 41. doi: 10.1177/002076409904500106.
Scheerder G, De Coster I, Van Audenhove C (2009). Community pharmacists’ attitude toward depression: a pilot study. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 5, 242252.
Schneider J, Beeley C, Repper J (2011). Campaign appears to influence subjective experience of stigma. Journal of Mental Health 20, 8997. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2010.537403.
Sibitz I, Amering M, Unger A, Seyringer ME, Bachmann A, Schrank B, Benesch T, Schulze B, Woppmann A (2011 a). The impact of the social network, stigma and empowerment on the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry 26, 2833.
Sibitz I, Unger A, Woppmann A, Zidek T, Amering M (2011 b). Stigma resistance in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 316323.
Sorsdahl KR, Kakuma R, Wilson Z, Stein DJ (2012). The internalized stigma experienced by members of a mental health advocacy group in South Africa. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 58, 55. doi: 10.1177/0020764010387058.
Streiner DL, Norman GR (2008). Health Measurement Scales: a Practical Guide to their Development and Use, 4th edn. Oxford University Press: New York.
Struening EL, Cohen J (1963). Factorial invariance and other psychometric characteristics of five opinions about mental illness factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement 23, 289298. doi: 10.1177/001316446302300206.
Struening EL, Perlick DA, Link BG, Hellman FH, Herman D, Sirey JA (2001). The extent to which caregivers believe most people devalue consumers and their families. Psychiatric Services 52, 16331638.
Stuart H, Milev R, Koller M (2005). The inventory of stigmatizing experiences: its development and reliability. World Psychiatry 4: S1, 3539.
Svensson B, Markström U, Bejerholm U, Björkman T, Brunt D, Eklund M, Hansson L, Leufstadius C, Gyllensten AL, Sandlund M, Ostman M (2011). Test – retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness. BMC Psychiatry 11, 11. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/11. Accessed 14 August 2015.
Swami V, Furnham A (2011). Preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Psychiatric Scepticism Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 52, 399403. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2011.00881.x.
Świtaj P, Paweł Grygiel P, Jacek Wciórka J, Humenny G, Anczewska M (2013). The stigma of subscale of the Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (CESQ): a psychometric evaluation in Polish psychiatric patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 713719. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.001.
Taylor SM, Dear MJ (1981). Scaling community attitudes toward the mentally ill. Schizophrenia Bulletin 7, 226240.
Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, Bouter LM, de Vet HC (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 60, 3442.
Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL, Ostelo RW, Bouter LM (2012). Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Quality of Life Research 21, 651657. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9960-1.
Thornicroft G (2006). Shunned: Discrimination Against People with Mental Illness. OUP Oxford: London.
Thornicroft G, Brohan E, Rose D, Sartorius N, Leese M, For the INDIGO Study Group (2009). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 373, 408415.
Thornicroft G, Mehta N, Clement S, Evans-Lacko S, Doherty M, Rose D, Koschorke M, Shidhaye R, O'Reilly C, Henderson C (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. Lancet 387, 11231132. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00298-6.
Uijen AA, Heinst CW, Schellevis FG, van den Bosch WJ, van de Laar FA, Terwee CB, Schers HJ (2012). Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 7, e42256.
Vega WA, Rodriguez MA, Ang A (2010). Addressing stigma of depression in Latino primary care patients. General Hospital Psychiatry 32, 182191. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.10.008.
Vogel DL, Wade NG, Haake S (2006). Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology 53, 325337. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.53.3.325.
Vogel DL, Wade NG, Ascheman PL (2009). Measuring perceptions of stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help: reliability and validity of a new stigma scale with college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology 56, 301308. doi: 10.1037/a0014903.
Vogt D, Di Leone BAL, Wang JM, Sayer NA, Pineles SL (2014). Endorsed and anticipated stigma inventory (EASI): a tool for assessing beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment among military personnel and veterans. Psychological Services 11, 105113. doi: 10.1037/a0032780.
Watson AC, Miller FE, Lyons JS (2005). Adolescent attitudes toward serious mental illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 769772. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000185885.04349.99.
Wei Y, McGrath P, Hayden J, Kutcher S (2015). Mental health literacy measures evaluating knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking: a scoping review. BMC Psychiatry 15, 291. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0681-9.
Wolff G, Pathare S, Graig T, Leff J (1996). Community attitudes to mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 168, 183190.
World Health Organization (2011). Global burden of mental disorders and the need for a comprehensive, coordinated response from health and social sectors at the country level. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB130/B130_9-en.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2016.
Wu TH, Chang CC, Chen CY, Wang JD, Lin CY (2015). Further psychometric evaluation of the self-stigma scale – short: measurement invariance across mental illness and gender. PLoS ONE 10, e0117592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117592.
Yamaguchi S, Koike S, Watanabe K, Ando S (2014). Development of a Japanese version of the reported and intended behavior scale: reliability and validity. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 68, 448455. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12151.
Zisman-Ilani Y, Levy-Frank-Levy I, Hasson-Ohayon I, Kravetz S, Mashiach-Eizenberg M, Roe D (2013). Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1, 183187.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
  • ISSN: 2045-7960
  • EISSN: 2045-7979
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-psychiatric-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 100 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 505 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd May 2017 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.