Andersson, HW, Bjørngaard, JH, Silje Lill Kaspersen, SL, Wang, CEA, Skre, I, Dahl, T (2010). The effects of individual factors and school environment on mental health and prejudiced attitudes among Norwegian adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
45, 569–577. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0099-0.
Angermeyer, MC, Matschinger, H (2003). The stigma of mental illness: effects of labeling on public attitudes towards people with mental disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Aromaa, E, Tolvanen, A, Tuulari, J, Wahlbeck, K (2010). Attitudes towards people with mental disorders: the psychometric characteristics of a Finnish questionnaire. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology
45, 265–273. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0064-y.
Assefa, D, Shibre, T, Asher, L, Fekadu, A (2012). Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study. BMC Psychiatry
12, 239. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/12/239.
Bagley, C, King, M (2005). Exploration of three stigma scales in 83 users of mental health services: implications for campaigns to reduce stigma. Journal of Mental Health
14, 343–355. doi: 10.1080/09638230500195270.
Baker, JA, Richards, DA, Campbell, M (2005). Nursing attitudes towards acute mental health care: development of a measurement tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing
Barney, LJ, Griffiths, KM, Christensen, H, Jorm, AF (2010). The self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS): development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
19, 243–254. doi: 10.1002/mpr.325.
Batterham, PJ, Griffiths, KM, Barney, LJ, Parsons, A (2013). Predictors of generalized anxiety disorder stigma. Psychiatry Research
Bell, L, Long, S, Garvan, C, Bussing, R (2011). The impact of teacher credentials on ADHD stigma perceptions. Psychology in the Schools
48, 184–197. doi: 10.1002/pits.20536.
Bjorkman, T, Svensson, B, Lundberg, B (2007). Experiences of stigma among people with severe mental illness. Reliability, acceptability and construct validity of the Swedish versions of two stigma scales measuring devaluation/discrimination and rejection experiences. Nordic Journal Psychiatry
61, 332–338. doi: 10.1080/08039480701642961.
Botega, N, Mann, A, Blizard, R, Wilinson, G (1992). General practitioners and depression – first use of the depression attitude questionnaire. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Boyd, JE, Otilingam, PG (2014). Brief version of the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale: psychometric properties and relationship to depression, self esteem, recovery orientation, empowerment, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
37, 17–23. doi: 10.1037/prj000003517.
Boyd, JE, Adler, EP, Otilingam, PG, Peters, T (2014). Internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry
Brockington, IF, Hall, P, Levings, J, Murphy, C (1993). The community's tolerance of the mentally ill. British Journal of Psychiatry
Brohan, E, Slade, M, Clement, S, Thornicroft, G (2010). Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures. BMC Health Services Research
10, 80. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/10/80.
Brohan, E, Gauci, D, Sartorius, N, Thornicroft, G, For the GAMIAN-Europe Study Group (2011). Self-stigma, empowerment and perceived discrimination among people with bipolar disorder or depression in 13 European countries: the GAMIAN-Europe study. Journal of Affective Disorders
Brohan, E, Clement, S, Rose, D, Sartorius, N, Slade, M, Thornicroft, G (2013). Development and psychometric evaluation of the discrimination and stigma scale (DISC). Psychiatric Research
208, 33–40. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.03.007.
Brown, SA (2008). Factors and measurement of mental illness stigma: a psychometric examination of the attribution questionnaire. Psychiatric Rehabilitation J
32, 89–94. doi: 10.2975/32.2.2008.89.94.
Burra, P, Kalin, R, Leichner, P, Waldron, JJ, Handforth, JR, Jarrett, FJ, Amara, IB (1982). The ATP 30 – a scale for measuring medical students’ attitudes of psychiatry. Medical Education
Chang, C, Wu, T, Chen, C, Wang, J, Lin, C (2014). Psychometric evaluation of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale for patients with mental illnesses: measurement invariance across time. PLoS ONE
9, e98767. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098767.
Chowdhury, AN, Sanyal, D, Dutta, SK, Banerjee, S, De, R, Bhattacharya, K, Palit, S, Bhattacharya, P, Monda, RK, Weiss, MG (2000). Stigma and mental illness: pilot study of laypersons and health care providers with the EMIC in rural west Bengal, India. International Medical Journal
Clayfield, JC, Fletcher, KE, Grudzinskas, AJ Jr. (2011). Development and validation of the mental health attitude survey for police. Community Mental Health Journal
47, 742–751. doi: 10.1007/s10597-011-9384-y.
Cohen, J, Struening, EL (1962). Opinions about mental illness in the personnel of two large mental hospitals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology
Corrigan, PW, Rowan, D, Qreen, A, Lundin, R, River, P, Uphoff’-Wasowski, K, White, K, Kubiak, MA (2002). Challenging two mental illness stigmas: personal responsibility and dangerousness. Schizophrenia Bulletin
Corrigan, P, Markowitz, FE, Watson, A, Rowan, D, Kubiak, MA (2003). An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Corrigan, PW, Watson, AC, Warpinski, AC, Gracia, G (2004). Stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and allocation of resources to mental health services. Community Mental Health Journal
Corrigan, PW, Watson, AC, Barr, L (2006). The self-stigma of mental illness: implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy. J Social and Clinical Psychology
Corrigan, PW, Michaels, PJ, Vega, E, Gause, M, Watson, AC, Rusch, N (2012). Self-stigma of mental illness scale-short form: reliability and validity. Psychiatry Research
199, 65–69. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.04.009.
Dalky, HF (2012). Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of the stigma-devaluation scale in Jordan. Journal of Mental Health
21, 72–82. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2011.629238.
Day, EN, Edgren, K, Eshleman, A (2007). Measuring stigma toward mental illness: development and application of the mental illness stigma scale. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Diksa, E, Rogers, ES (1996). Employer concerns about hiring persons with psychiatric disability: results of the employer attitude questionnaire. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin
Evans-Lacko, S, Rose, D, Little, K, Flach, C, Rhydderch, D, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G (2011). Development and psychometric properties of the reported and intended behavior scale (RIBS): a stigma-related behavior measure. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Evans-Lacko, S, London, J, Japhet, S, Rusch, N, Flach, C, Corker, E, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G (2012). Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination. BMC Public Health
Evans-Lacko, S, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G (2013). Public knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding people with mental illness in England 2009–2012. British Journal of Psychiatry
202(Suppl.), 51–57. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.112979.
Friedrich, B, Evans-Lacko, S, London, J, Rhydderch, D, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G (2013). Anti-stigma training for medical students: the education not discrimination project. British Journal of Psychiatry
202(Suppl.), 89–94. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.114017.
Fuermaier, ABM, Tucha, L, Koerts, J, Mueller, AK, Lange, KW, Tucha, O (2012). Measurement of stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. PLoS ONE
7, e51755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051755.
Furlan, AD, Malmivaara, A, Chou, R, Maher, CG, Deyo, RA, Schoene, M, Bronfort, G, van Tulder, MW, Editorial Board of the Cochrane Back, Neck Group (2015). 2015 updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
40, 1660–1673. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001061.
Gabbidon, J, Brohan, E, Clement, S, Henderson, RC, Thornicroft, G, MIRIAD Study Group (2013
a). The development and validation of the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination (QUAD). BMC Psychiatry
13, 297. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/13/297. Accessed 10 June 2016.
Gabbidon, J, Clement, S, Nieuwenhuizen, A, Kassam, A, Brohan, E, Norman, I, Thornicroft, G (2013
b). Mental Illness: Clinicians’ Attitudes (MICA) Scale – Psychometric properties of a version for health care students and professionals. Psychiatry Research
206, 81–87. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.028.
Gabriel, A, Violato, C (2010). The development and psychometric assessment of an instrument to measure attitudes towards depression and its treatments in patients suffering from non-psychotic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders
124, 241–249. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.11.009.
Gibbons, C, Dubois, S, Morris, K, Parker, B, Maxwell, H, Bédard, M (2012). The development of a questionnaire to explore stigma from the perspective of individuals with serious mental illness. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health
Glozier, N, Hough, C, Henderson, M, Holland-Elliott, K (2006). Attitudes of nursing staff towards co-workers returning from psychiatric and physical illnesses. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
52, 525–534. doi: 10.1177/0020764006066843.
Goffman, E (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Granello, DH, Pauley, PS (2000). Television viewing habits and their relationship to tolerance towards people with mental illness. Journal of Mental Health Counseling
Granello, DH, Pauley, PS, Carmichael, A (1999). Relationship of the media to attitudes toward people with mental illness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling
Griffiths, KM, Christensen, H, Jorm, AF, Evans, K, Groves, C (2004). Effect of web-based depression literacy and cognitive-behavioural therapy interventions on stigmatizing attitudes to depression: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry
185, 342–349. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.4.342.
Griffiths, KM, Christensen, H, Jorm, AF (2008). Predicators of depression stigma. BMC Psychiatry
8, 25. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-25.
Griffiths, KM, Batterham, PJ, Barney, L, Parsons, A (2011). The generalized anxiety stigma scale (GASS): psychometric properties in a community sample. BMC Psychiatry
11, 184. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/184. Accessed 10 June 2016.
Gulliver, A, Griffiths, KM, Christensen, H (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry
Gulliver, A, Griffiths, KM, Christensen, H, Mackinnon, A, Calear, AL, Parsons, A, Bennett, K, Batterham, PJ, Stanimirovic, R (2012). Internet-based interventions to promote mental health help-seeking in elite athletes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research
14, e69. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1864.
Haddad, M, Walters, P, Tylee, A (2007). District nursing staff and depression: a psychometric evaluation of depression attitude questionnaire findings. International Journal of Nursing Studies
Haddad, M, Menchetti, M, McKeown, E, Tylee, A, Mann, A (2015). The development and psychometric properties of a measure of clinicians’ attitudes to depression: the revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ). BMC Psychiatry
15, 7. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0381-x.
Harvey, RD (2001). Individual differences in the phenomenological impact of social stigma. Journal of Social Psychology
Hayward, P, Wong, G, Bright, JA, Lam, D (2002). Stigma and self-esteem in manic depression: an exploratory study. Journal of Affective Disorders
Hepperlen, TM, Clay, DL, Henly, GA, Barké, CR, Hehperlen, MH, Clay, DL (2002). Measuring teacher attitudes and expectations toward students with ADHD: development of the test of knowledge about ADHD (KADD). Journal of Attention Disorders
5, 133–142. doi: 10.1177/108795470200500301.
Hinkelmean, L, Granello, DH (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling
Hirai, M, Clum, GA (2000). Development, reliability, and validity of the beliefs toward mental illness scale. Journal of Psychopathology Behavioral Assessment
Ho, AHY, Potash, JS, Fong, TCT, Ho, VFL, Chen, EYH, Lau, RHW, Au Yeung, FS, Ho, RT (2015). Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the stigma scale: examining the complex experience of stigma and its relationship with self-esteem and depression among people living with mental illness in Hong Kong. Comprehensive Psychiatry
56, 198–205. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.09.016.
Högberg, T, Magnusson, A, Ewertzon, M, Lützén, K (2008). Attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden: adaptation and development of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
17, 302–310. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00552.x.
Interian, A, Ang, A, Gara, MA, Link, B, Rodriguez, MA, Vega, WA (2010). Stigma and depression treatment utilization among Latinos: utility of four stigma measures. Psychiatric Services
Isaac, F, Greenwood, KM, Benedetto, M (2012). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the attitudes towards depression and its treatments scale in an Australian sample. Patient Prefer Adherence
6, 349–354. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S26783.
Jackson, D, Heatherington, L (2006). Young Jamaicans’ attitudes toward mental illness: experimental and demographic factors associated with social distance and stigmatizing opinions. Journal of Community Psychology
34, 563–576. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20115.
Jones, EE, Farina, A, Hastorf, AH, Marcus, H, Miller, DT, Scott, RA (1984). Social Stigma: the Psychology of Marked Relationships. Freeman and Company: New York.
Kanter, JW, Rusch, LC, Brondino, MJ (2008). Depression Self-Stigma: a new measure and preliminary findings. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
196, 663–670. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318183f8af.
Karidi, MV, Vasilopoulou, D, Savvidou, E, Vitoratou, S, Rabavilas, AD, Stefanis, CN (2014). Aspects of perceived stigma: the stigma inventory for mental illness, its development, latent structure and psychometric properties. Comprehensive Psychiatry
55, 1620–1625. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.002.
Kassam, A, Glozier, N, Leese, M, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G (2010). Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians’ attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
122, 153–161. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01562.x.
Kassam, A, Papish, A, Modgill, G, Patten, S (2012). The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: the opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). BMC Psychiatry
12, 62. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/12/62. Accessed 14 August 2015.
Kellison, I, Bussing, R, Bell, L, Garvan, C (2010). Assessment of stigma associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychometric evaluation of the ADHD stigma questionnaire. Psychiatry Research
178, 363–369. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.04.022.
Kieling, C, Baker-Henningham, H, Belfer, M, Conti, G, Ertem, I, Omigbodun, O, Rohde, LA, Srinath, S, Ulkuer, N, Rahman, A (2011). Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action. Lancet
378, 1515–1525. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60827-1. Epub 2011 Oct 16.
King, M, Dinos, S, Shaw, J, Watson, R, Stevens, S, Passetti, F, Weich, S, Serfaty, M (2007). The stigma scale: development of a standardized measure of the stigma of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry
190, 248–254. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.024638.
Kira, IA, Ramaswamy, V, Lewandowski, L, Mohanesh, J, Abdul-Khalek, H (2015). Psychometric assessment of the Arabic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) measure in a refugee population. Transcultural Psychiatry
52, 636–658. doi: 10.1177/1363461515569755.
Kobau, R, DiIorio, C, Chapman, D, Delvecchi, P (2010). SAMHSA/CDC Mental Illness Stigma Panel Members. Attitudes about mental illness and its treatment: validation of a generic scale for public health surveillance of mental illness associated stigma. Community Mental Health Journal
46, 164–176. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9191-x.
Komiya, N, Good, GE, Sherrod, NB (2000). Emotional openness as a predictor of college students’ attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology
47, 138–143. doi: 10.1037//0022-022.214.171.124.
Kutcher, S, Bagnell, A, Wei, Y (2015
a). Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics
Kutcher, S, Wei, Y, Morgan, C (2015
b). Successful application of a Canadian mental health curriculum resource by usual classroom teachers in significantly and sustainably improving student mental health literacy. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Kutcher, S, Wei, Y, Coniglio, C (2016). Mental health literacy: past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Lam, DCK, Salkovskis, PM, Warwick, HMC (2005). An experimental investigation of the impact of biological versus psychological explanations of the cause of “mental illness”. Journal of Mental Health
14, 453–464. doi: 10.1080/09638230500270842.
Lien, Y, Kao, Y, Liu, Y, Chang, H, Tzeng, N, Lu, C, Loh, CH (2014). Internalized stigma and stigma resistance among patients with mental Illness in Han Chinese population. Psychiatric Quarterly
86, 181–197. doi: 10.1007/s11126-014-9315-5.
Link, BG (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. American Sociological Review
Link, BG, Cullen, FT, Frank, J, Wozniak, JF (1987). The social rejection of former mental patients: understanding why labels matter. American Journal of Sociology
Link, BG, Cullen, FT, Struening, E, Shrout, PE, Dohrenwend, BP (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: an empirical assessment. American Sociological Review
Link, BG, Mirotznik, J, Cullen, FT (1991). The effectiveness of stigma coping orientations: can negative consequences of mental illness labeling be avoided?
Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Link, BG, Struening, EL, Rahav, M, Phelan, JC, Nuttbrock, L (1997). On stigma and its consequences: evidence from a longitudinal study of men with dual diagnoses of mental illness and substance abuse. Journal of Health Social Behavior
Link, BG, Yang, LH, Phelan, JC, Collins, PY (2004). Measuring mental illness stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin
Luca Pingani, L, Forghieri, M, Ferrari, S, Ben-Zeev, D, Artoni, P, Mazzi, F, Palmieri, G, Rigatelli, M, Corrigan, PW (2012). Stigma and discrimination toward mental illness: translation and validation of the Italian version of the attribution questionnaire-27 (AQ-27-I). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
47, 993–999. doi: 10.1007/s00127-011-0407-3.
Luty, J, Fekadu, D, Umoh, O, Gallagher, J (2006). Validation of a short instrument to measure stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Psychiatric Bulletin
30, 257–260. doi: 10.1192/pb.30.7.257.
Maccoby, EE and Maccoby, N (1954). The interview: a tool of social science. In Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. I. (ed. Lindzey, G.), pp. 449–487. Addison-Wesley: Cambridge, MA.
Madianos, MG, Madianou, D, Vlachonikolis, J, Stefanis, CN (1987). Attitudes towards mental illness in the Athens area: implications for community mental health intervention. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Madianos, M, Economou, M, Peppou, LE, Kallergis, G, Rogakou, E, Alevizopoulos, G (2012). Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: development of a new scale. European Journal of Psychiatry
Magliano, L, Marasco, C, Guarneri, M, Malangone, C, Lacrimini, G, Zanus, P, et al. (1999). A new questionnaire assessing the opinions of the relatives of patients with schizophrenia on the causes and social consequences of the disorder: reliability and validity. European Psychiatry
Mak, WWS, Cheung, RYM (2008). Affiliate stigma among caregivers of people with intellectual disability or mental illness. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities
21, 532–545. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3148.2008.00426.x.
Mak, WWS, Cheung, RYM (2010). Self-stigma among concealable minorities in Hong Kong: conceptualization and unified measurement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
80, 267–281. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01030.x.
Mansouri, L, Dowell, DA (1989). Perceptions of stigma among the long-term mentally ill. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal
McKeague, L, Hennessy, E, O'Driscoll, C, Heary, C (2015). Peer Mental Health Stigmatization Scale: psychometric properties of a questionnaire for children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health
20, 163–170. doi: 10.1111/camh.12088.
McLuckie, A, Kutcher, S, Wei, Y, Weaver, C (2014). Sustained improvements in students’ mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools. BMC Psychiatry
14, 1694. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0379-4.
Michaels, PJ, Corrigan, PW (2013). Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects. Journal of Mental Health
22, 218–226. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2012.734652.
Milin, R, Kutcher, S, Lewis, SP, Walker, S, Wei, Y, Ferrill, N, Armstrong, M (2016). Impact of a mental health curriculum on knowledge and stigma among high school students: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Minnebo, J, Acker, AV (2004). Does television influence adolescents’ perceptions of and attitudes toward people with mental illness?
Journal of Community Psychology
32, 257–275. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20001.
Modgill, G, Knaak, S, Kassam, A, Szeto, A (2014). Opening minds stigma scale for health care providers (OMS-HC): examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness. BMC Psychiatry
14, 120. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-120.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Morris, R, Scott, PA, Cocoman, A, Chambers, M, Guise, V, Välimäki, M, Clinton, G (2011). Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses’ attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing
68, 460–470. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05739.x.
Morrison, JK, Becker, BE (1975). Seminar-induced change in a community psychiatric team's reported attitudes toward “mental illness”. Journal of Community Psychology
Moses, T (2009). Stigma and self-concept among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
79, 261–274. doi: 10.1037/a0015696.
Nevid, JS, Morrison, J (1980). Attitudes toward mental illness: the construction of the libertarian mental health ideology scale. Journal of Humanistic Psychology
20, 71–85. doi: 10.1177/002216788002000207.
Ng, P, Chan, K (2000). Sex differences in opinion towards mental illness of secondary school students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
46, 79–88. doi: 10.1177/002076400004600201.
Patel, V, Flisher, AJ, Hetrick, S, McGorry, P (2007). Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. Lancet
Penn, DL, Guynan, K, Daily, T, Spaulding, WD, Garbin, CP, Sullivan, M (1994). Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: what sort of information is best?
Pinto, MD, Hickman, R, Logsdon, MC, Burant, C (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the revised attribution questionnaire (r-AQ) to measure mental illness stigma in adolescents. Journal of Nursing Measurement
20, 47–58. doi: 10.1891/1061-37126.96.36.199.
RefWorks-COS PL, ProQuest LLC (2001). RefWorks, 2nd edn. ProQuest LLC: Ann Arbour, MI.
Ritsher, JB, Phelan, JC (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry Research
Ritsher, JB, Otilingama, PG, Grajales, M (2003). Internalized stigma of mental illness: psychometric properties of a new measure. Psychiatry Research
121, 31–49. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2003.08.008.
Serra, M, Lai, A, Buizza, C, Pioli, R, Preti, A, Masala, C, Petretto, DR (2013). Beliefs and attitudes among Italian high school students toward people with severe mental disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sevigny, R, Yang, W, Zhang, P, Marleau, JD, Yang, Z, Lin, S, Li, G, Xu, D, Wang, Y, Wang, H (1999). Attitudes toward the mentally ill in a sample of professionals working in a psychiatric hosptital in Beijing. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
45, 41. doi: 10.1177/002076409904500106.
Scheerder, G, De Coster, I, Van Audenhove, C (2009). Community pharmacists’ attitude toward depression: a pilot study. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Schneider, J, Beeley, C, Repper, J (2011). Campaign appears to influence subjective experience of stigma. Journal of Mental Health
20, 89–97. doi: 10.3109/09638237.2010.537403.
Sibitz, I, Amering, M, Unger, A, Seyringer, ME, Bachmann, A, Schrank, B, Benesch, T, Schulze, B, Woppmann, A (2011
a). The impact of the social network, stigma and empowerment on the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry
Sibitz, I, Unger, A, Woppmann, A, Zidek, T, Amering, M (2011
b). Stigma resistance in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sorsdahl, KR, Kakuma, R, Wilson, Z, Stein, DJ (2012). The internalized stigma experienced by members of a mental health advocacy group in South Africa. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
58, 55. doi: 10.1177/0020764010387058.
Streiner, DL, Norman, GR (2008). Health Measurement Scales: a Practical Guide to their Development and Use, 4th edn. Oxford University Press: New York.
Struening, EL, Cohen, J (1963). Factorial invariance and other psychometric characteristics of five opinions about mental illness factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement
23, 289–298. doi: 10.1177/001316446302300206.
Struening, EL, Perlick, DA, Link, BG, Hellman, FH, Herman, D, Sirey, JA (2001). The extent to which caregivers believe most people devalue consumers and their families. Psychiatric Services
Stuart, H, Milev, R, Koller, M (2005). The inventory of stigmatizing experiences: its development and reliability. World Psychiatry
4: S1, 35–39.
Svensson, B, Markström, U, Bejerholm, U, Björkman, T, Brunt, D, Eklund, M, Hansson, L, Leufstadius, C, Gyllensten, AL, Sandlund, M, Ostman, M (2011). Test – retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness. BMC Psychiatry
11, 11. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/11. Accessed 14 August 2015.
Swami, V, Furnham, A (2011). Preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Psychiatric Scepticism Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
52, 399–403. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2011.00881.x.
Świtaj, P, Paweł Grygiel, P, Jacek Wciórka, J, Humenny, G, Anczewska, M (2013). The stigma of subscale of the Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (CESQ): a psychometric evaluation in Polish psychiatric patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry
54, 713–719. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.001.
Taylor, SM, Dear, MJ (1981). Scaling community attitudes toward the mentally ill. Schizophrenia Bulletin
Terwee, CB, Bot, SD, de Boer, MR, van der Windt, DA, Knol, DL, Dekker, J, Bouter, LM, de Vet, HC (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Terwee, CB, Mokkink, LB, Knol, DL, Ostelo, RW, Bouter, LM (2012). Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Quality of Life Research
21, 651–657. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9960-1.
Thornicroft, G (2006). Shunned: Discrimination Against People with Mental Illness. OUP Oxford: London.
Thornicroft, G, Brohan, E, Rose, D, Sartorius, N, Leese, M, For the INDIGO Study Group (2009). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet
Thornicroft, G, Mehta, N, Clement, S, Evans-Lacko, S, Doherty, M, Rose, D, Koschorke, M, Shidhaye, R, O'Reilly, C, Henderson, C (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. Lancet
387, 1123–1132. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00298-6.
Uijen, AA, Heinst, CW, Schellevis, FG, van den Bosch, WJ, van de Laar, FA, Terwee, CB, Schers, HJ (2012). Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review. PLoS ONE
Vega, WA, Rodriguez, MA, Ang, A (2010). Addressing stigma of depression in Latino primary care patients. General Hospital Psychiatry
32, 182–191. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.10.008.
Vogel, DL, Wade, NG, Haake, S (2006). Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology
53, 325–337. doi: 10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.525.
Vogel, DL, Wade, NG, Ascheman, PL (2009). Measuring perceptions of stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help: reliability and validity of a new stigma scale with college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology
56, 301–308. doi: 10.1037/a0014903.
Vogt, D, Di Leone, BAL, Wang, JM, Sayer, NA, Pineles, SL (2014). Endorsed and anticipated stigma inventory (EASI): a tool for assessing beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment among military personnel and veterans. Psychological Services
11, 105–113. doi: 10.1037/a0032780.
Watson, AC, Miller, FE, Lyons, JS (2005). Adolescent attitudes toward serious mental illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
193, 769–772. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000185885.04349.99.
Wei, Y, McGrath, P, Hayden, J, Kutcher, S (2015). Mental health literacy measures evaluating knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking: a scoping review. BMC Psychiatry
15, 291. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0681-9.
Wolff, G, Pathare, S, Graig, T, Leff, J (1996). Community attitudes to mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry
Wu, TH, Chang, CC, Chen, CY, Wang, JD, Lin, CY (2015). Further psychometric evaluation of the self-stigma scale – short: measurement invariance across mental illness and gender. PLoS ONE
10, e0117592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117592.
Yamaguchi, S, Koike, S, Watanabe, K, Ando, S (2014). Development of a Japanese version of the reported and intended behavior scale: reliability and validity. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience
68, 448–455. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12151.
Zisman-Ilani, Y, Levy-Frank-Levy, I, Hasson-Ohayon, I, Kravetz, S, Mashiach-Eizenberg, M, Roe, D (2013). Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease