Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Effects of chromium supplementation on selected metabolic responses in resting and exercising horses

  • I Vervuert (a1), D Cuddeford (a2) and M Coenen (a3)
Abstract

Chromium (Cr) is required for insulin function in the control of cellular glucose uptake. Other functions of Cr relate to its effects on growth, lipid metabolism, immune responses and interactions with nucleic acids. This study was conducted to obtain information on the effect of Cr supplementation on the metabolic responses of five exercising Standardbred horses. During the experiment, horses were fed every day for a 21-day period in a randomized order either a yeast product without Cr (control) or with 4.15 or 8.3 mg Cr day−1. Horses were exercised on a treadmill, alternating a work day of low-speed exercise at 5 m s−1 on a 3% incline for 45 min with a rest day. Each horse was adapted over a 21-day period to his or her respective supplementation before undergoing a standardized exercise test (SET). The SET comprised five incremental steps, each of 4 min duration, on a treadmill with a 3% incline; the first step was at 5 m s−1 and was followed with increments of 1 m s−1. Blood samples were taken for lactate, plasma glucose, serum insulin and cortisol estimation before, during and after each SET (30, 120 min and 24 h post-exercise). Blood Cr was estimated 2 h after feeding the control or Cr-enriched yeast (intake 8.3 mg Cr) in two horses. Heart rate was monitored throughout each SET. Blood lactate and plasma glucose peaks were highest at 8 and 9 m s−1 during the SET when 8.3 mg Cr was supplied. Serum insulin levels declined during the SET and there were no treatment-related changes. Twenty-four hours after exercise, plasma glucose and serum cortisol concentrations returned to basal levels or lower. Serum insulin rebounded 30 min after exercise but 24 h later, serum insulin concentrations were below resting levels. During the recovery period, Cr supplementation did not clearly affect metabolic responses. These results suggest that Cr supplementation had no beneficial effect in healthy, exercising horses.

Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
1Mertz, W (1993). Chromium in human nutrition: a review. Journal of Nutrition 123: 626633.
2Lukaski, HC (1999). Chromium as a supplement. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 19: 279302.
3Cefalu, WT, Wang, ZQ, Zhang, XH, Baldor, LC and Russell, JC (2002). Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats. Journal of Nutrition 132: 11071114.
4McDowell, LR (2003). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 497504.
5Mordenti, A, Piva, A and Piva, G (1997). The European perspective on organic chromium in animal nutrition. In: Proceedings of Alltech's 13th Annual Symposium. Nottingham, UK: University of Nottingham Press, pp. 227240.
6Anke, M, Dorn, W and Jaritz, M (2005). Chrom in der nahrungskette von pflanze, tier und mensch. Rekasan Journal 12: 5973.
7Puls, R (1994). Mineral Levels in Animal Health: Diagnostic Data Clearbrooh, BC Canada: Sherpa International, pp. 7274.
8Anderson, RA, Bryden, NA, Polansky, MM and Deuster, PA (1988). Exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained men consuming a constant diet. Journal of Applied Physiology 64: 249252.
9Rubin, MA, Miller, JP, Ryan, AS, Treuth, MS, Patterson, KY, Pratley, RE, Hurley, BF, Veillon, C, Moser-Veillon, PB and Anderson, RA (1998). Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in man as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. Journal of Nutrition 128: 7378.
10Volpe, SL, Huang, HW, Larpadisorn, K and Lesser, I (2001). Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20: 293306.
11Pagan, JD, Rotmensen, T and Jackson, SG (1995). The effect of chromium supplementation on metabolic response to exercise in Thoroughbred horses. In: Proceedings of the Equine and Nutrition Symposium. California, pp. 96101.
12Henneke, DR, Potter, GD, Kreider, JL and Yeates, BF (1983). Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Veterinary Journal 15: 371372.
13Gesellschaft für Ernährungsphysiologie der Haustiere (GEH), (1994). Empfehlungen zur Energie- und Nährstoffversorgung der Pferde. Frankfurt (Main): DLG Verlag Frankfurt.
14Klein, HJ, Deegen, E, Hoogen, H and Hoppen, HO (1989). Funktionstest der equinen nebennierenrinde. Pferdeheilkunde 5: 225230.
15Trow, LG, Lewis, J, Greenwood, RH, Sampson, MJ, Self, KA, Crews, HM and Fairweather-Tait, SJ (2000). Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Vitamin Nutrition Research 70: 1418.
16Sherman, L, Glennon, JA, Brech, WJ, Klomberg, GH and Gordon, ES (1968). Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 17: 439442.
17Rabinowitz, MB, Gonick, HC, Levin, SR and Davidson, MB (1983). Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 6: 319327.
18Glinsmann, WH and Mertz, W (1966). Effect of trivalent chromium on glucose tolerance. Metabolism 15: 510520.
19Uusitupa, MI, Kumpulainen, JT, Voutilainen, E, Hersio, K, Sarlund, H, Pyorala, KP, Koivistoinen, PE and Letho, JT (1983). Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38: 404410.
20Potter, JF, Levin, P, Anderson, RA, Freiberg, JM, Andres, R and Elahi, D (1985). Glucose metabolism in glucose-intolerant older people during chromium supplementation. Metabolism 34: 199204.
21Wilson, BE and Gondy, A (1995). Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 28: 179184.
22Nath, R, Minoelia, J, Lyall, V, Sander, S, Kumar, V, Kapoor, S and Dhar, KL (1979). Assessment of chromium metabolism in maturity onset and juvenile diabetes using chromium-51 and therapeutic response of chromium administration on plasma lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels. In: Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Shapcott, D and Hubert, J (Eds.), Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 213222.
23Mossop, RT (1983). Effects of chromium III on fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and cholesterol HDL levels in diabetics. Central African Journal of Medicine 29: 8082.
24Ravina, A, Slezak, L, Rubal, A and Mirsky, N (1995). Clinical use of the trace element chromium (III) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Trace Elements in Experi-mental Medicine 8: 183190.
25Evans, GW (1989). The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. International Journal of Biosocial and Medicine Resarch 11: 163180.
26Lee, NA and Reasner, CA (1994). Beneficial effects of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 17: 14491452.
27Anderson, RA, Cheng, N, Bryden, NA, Polansky, MM, Cheng, N, Chi, J and Feng, J (1997). Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 46: 17861791.
28Jovanovic, L, Gutierrez, M and Peterson, CM (1999). Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 12: 9197.
29Morris, BW, Kouta, S, Robinson, R, MacNeil, S and Heller, S (2000). Chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 17: 684685.
30Cheng, N, Zhu, X, Shi, H, Wu, W, Chi, J, Cheng, J and Anderson, RA (1999). Follow-up survey period in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming supplemental chromium. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 12: 5560.
31Uusitupa, MI, Mykkanen, L, Siitonen, O, Laakso, M, Sarlund, H, Kolehmainen, P, Rasanen, T, Kumpulainen, JT and Pyorala, K (1992). Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. British Journal of Nutrition 68: 209216.
32Boleman, SL, Boleman, SJ, Bidner, TD, Southern, LL, Ward, TL, Pontif, JE and Pike, MM (1995). Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, and tissue accretion in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73: 20332042.
33Lindemann, MD, Wood, CM, Harper, AF, Kornegay, ET and Anderson, RA (1995). Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain: feed and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. Journal of Animal Science 73: 457465.
34Chang, X and Mowat, DN (1992). Supplemental chromium for stressed and growing feeder calves. Journal of Animal Science 70: 559565.
35Moonsie-Shageer, S and Mowat, DN (1993). Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. Journal of Animal Science 71: 232238.
36Mowat, DN, Chang, X and Yang, WZ (1993). Chelated chromium for stressed feeder calves. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 73: 4955.
37Burton, JL, Mallard, BA and Mowat, DN (1993). Effects of supplemental chromium on immune responses of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 71: 15321539.
38Davis, CM, Sumrall, KH and Vincent, JB (1996). A biologically active form of chromium may activate a membrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Biochemistry 35: 1296312969.
39Davis, CM and Vincent, JB (1997). Isolation and characterization of a biologically active chromium oligopeptide from bovine liver. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 339: 335343.
40Davis, CM and Vincent, JB (1997). Chromium oligopeptide activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Biochemistry 36: 43824385.
41Vincent, JB (2000). The biochemistry of chromium. Journal of Nutrition 130: 715718.
42Althuis, MD, Jordan, NE, Ludington, EA and Wittes, JT (2002). Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76: 148155.
43Anderson, RA (1994). Stress effects on chromium nutrition of humans and farm animals. In: Proceedings of Alltech's 10th Annual Symposium. Nottingham, UK: Nottinghom University Press, pp. 267274.
44Gentry, LR, Thompson, DL, Fernandez, JM, Smith, LA, Horohov, DW and Leise, BS (1999). Effects of chromium tripicolinate supplementation on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and immune function in adult mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 19: 259265.
45Ott, EA and Kivipelto, J (1999). Influence of chromium tripicolinate on growth and glucose metabolism in yearling horses. Journal of Animal Science 77: 30223030.
46Anderson, RA, Polansky, MM, Bryden, NA, Roginski, EE, Patterson, KY, Veillon, C and Glinsmann, W (1982). Urinary chromium excretion of human subjects: effects of chromium supplementation and glucose loading. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 11841193.
47Hallmark, MA, Reynolds, TH, DeSouza, CA, Dotson, CO, Anderson, RA and Rogers, MA (1996). Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28: 139144.
48Kaats, GR, Blum, K, Fisher, JA and Adelman, JA (1996). Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research 57: 747756.
49Hasten, DL, Rome, EP, Franks, BD and Hegsted, M (1992). Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. International Journal of Sport and Nutrition 2: 343350.
50Clancy, SP, Clarkson, PM, DeCheke, ME, Nosaka, K, Freedson, PS, Cunningham, JJ and Valentine, B (1994). Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. International Journal of Sport and Nutrition 4: 142153.
51Trent, LK and Thieding-Cancel, D (1995). Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 35: 273280.
52Lukaski, HC, Bolonchuk, WW, Siders, WA and Milne, DB (1996). Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63: 954965.
53Grant, KE, Chandler, RM, Castle, AL and Ivy, JL (1997). Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29: 992998.
54Campbell, WW, Joseph, LJ, Davey, SL, Cyr-Campbell, D, Anderson, RA and Evans, WJ (1999). Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. Journal of Applied Physiology 86: 2939.
55Desmecht, D, Linden, A, Amory, H, Art, T and Lekeux, P (1996). Relationship of plasma lactate production to cortisol release following completion of different types of sporting events in horses. Veterinary Research Communications 20: 371379.
56Lawrence, LM, Williams, J, Soderholm, LV, Roberts, AM and Hintz, HF (1995). Effect of feeding state on the response of horses to repeated bouts of intense exercise. Equine Veterinary Journal 27: 2730.
57Judson, GH, Frauenfelder, HC and Mooney, (1983). Biochemical changes in Thoroughbred racehorses following submaximal and maximal exercise. In: Snow, DH, Perrsson, SGB & Rose, RJ (eds), Equine Exercise Physiology. Cambridge: Granta Editions, pp. 408415.
58Snow, DH, Mason, DK, Ricketts, SW and Douglas, TA (1983). Post-race blood biochemistry in Thoroughbreds. In: Snow, DH, Perrsson, SGB & Rose, RJ (eds), Equine Exercise Physiology. Cambridge: Granta Editions (pp. 389407).
59Lawrence, LM (1990). Nutrition and fuel utilization in the athletic horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice 6: 393417.
60Moshtaghie, AA, Ani, M and Bazrafshan, MR (1992). Comparative binding study of aluminum and chromium to human transferrin. Effect of iron. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 32: 3946.
61Ani, M and Moshtaghie, AA (1992). The effect of chromium on parameters related to iron metabolism. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 32: 5764.
62Campbell, WW, Beard, JL, Joseph, LJ, Davey, SL and Evans, WJ (1997). Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron-status and hematologic indexes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66: 944949.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology
  • ISSN: 1478-0615
  • EISSN: 1479-070X
  • URL: /core/journals/equine-and-comparative-exercise-physiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed