Skip to main content

Prediction of hydration status using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis during exercise and recovery in horses

  • G McKeen (a1) and MI Lindinger (a1)

The present study tested the hypothesis that multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) can be used to provide reasonable estimates of body mass, total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) and plasma volume (PV) at rest, during exercise-induced dehydration and subsequent recovery. Seven exercise-conditioned horses were administered indicators for measurement of resting TBW, ECFV and PV. MFBIA measurements at 24 frequencies between 5 and 280 kHz were obtained at rest, during prolonged submaximal exercise and for up to 13 h of recovery with food and water provided. Impedance–frequency response curves were described by a double-exponential decay equation from which coefficients were used, together with height and length, to generate predictive equations for estimating body mass, TBW, ECFV and PV. Predictive equations for body mass, ECFV and PV provided reasonable estimates of the parameter at rest and during exercise and recovery that were within 6% of absolute values determined using indicators. Despite the inherent error in estimating absolute volumes, the technique allowed accurate (within 1%) determination of the change in compartment volumes within individual horses over time. The number of frequencies at which impedance was measured could be reduced to seven without sacrificing the accuracy of the impedance–frequency relationships or the predictive equations – this enabled a 70% reduction in data-acquisition time (to ∼35 s) for each MFBIA measurement series. It is concluded that MFBIA can be used in individual horses to track changes in compartmental hydration status resulting from dehydration and rehydration.

Corresponding author
Hide All
1Naylor, JR, Bayly, WM, Gollnick, PD, Brengelmann, GL and Hodgson, DR (1993). Effects of dehydration on thermoregulatory responses of horses during low-intensity exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 75: 9941001.
2Friend, TH (2000). Dehydration, stress, and water consumption of horses during long-distance commercial transport. Journal of Animal Science 78: 25682580.
3Carlson, GP (1997). Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance. In: Kanko, JJ, Harvey, JW & Bruss, ML (eds), Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, Toronto: Academic Press, pp. 485516.
4Maughan, RJ and Lindinger, MI (1995). Preparing for and competing in the heat: the human perspective. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 20: 815.
5Forro, M, Cieslar, S, Ecker, GL, Walzak, A, Hahn, J and Lindinger, MI (2000). Total body water and ECFV measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and indicator dilution in horses. Journal of Applied Physiology 89: 663671.
6De Lorenzo, A, Andreoli, A, Matthie, J and Withers, P (1997). Predicting body cell mass with bioimpedance by using theoretical methods: a technological review. Journal of Applied Physiology 82: 15421558.
7Chumlea, WC and Guo, SS (1994). Bioelectrical impedance and body composition: present status and future directions. Nutrition Reviews 52: 123131.
8Cornish, BH, Thomas, BJ and Ward, LC (1993). Improved prediction of extracellular and total body water using impedance loci generated by multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physics in Medicine and Biology 38: 337346.
9Gudivaka, R., Schoeller, DA, Kushner, RF and Bolt, MJ (1999). Single- and multifrequency models for bioelectrical impedance analysis of body water compartments. Journal of Applied Physiology 87: 10871096.
10Lehnert, ME, Clarke, DD, Gibbons, JG, Ward, LC, Golding, SM, Shepherd, RW et al. (2001). Estimation of body water compartments in cirrhosis by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Nutrition 17: 3134.
11Cornish, BH, Wotton, MJ, Ward, LC, Thomas, BJ and Hills, AP (2001). Fluid shifts detected from exercise in rats as detected by bioelectrical impedance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33: 249254.
12Koulmann, N, Jimenez, C, Regal, D, Bolliet, P, Launay, J-C, Savourey, G et al. (2000). Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body fluid compartments after acute variations of the body hydration level. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32: 857864.
13Jürimäe, J, Jürimäe, T and Pihl, E (1999). Changes in body fluids during endurance rowing training. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 873: 353358.
14Cole, KS and Cole, RH (1941). Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics. I. Alternating current characteristics. Journal of Chemical Physics 9: 341351.
15Siconolfi, SF, Gretebeck, RJ, Wong, WW, Pietrzyk, RA and Suire, SS (1997). Assessing total body and extracellular water from bioelectrical response spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physiology 82: 704710.
16Ward, L, Fuller, N, Cornish, B, Elia, M and Thomas, B (1999). A comparison of the Siconolfi and Cole–Cole procedures for multifrequency impedance data analysis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 873: 370373.
17Bradbury, MG, Smye, SW and Brocklebank, JT (2001). Measurement of intercompartmental fluid shifts during haemodialysis in children. Physiological Measurement 22: 351363.
18Lindinger, MI, McKeen, G and Ecker, GL (2004). Time course and magnitude of changes in total body water, extracellular fluid volume, intracellular fluid volume and plasma volume during submaximal exercise and recovery in horses. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology 1: 131139.
19Cornish, BH, Thomas, BJ and >Ward, LC (1998). Effect of temperature and sweating on bioimpedance measurements. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 48: 475476.
20Ward, L., Cornish, BH, Paton, NI and Thomas, BJ (1999). Multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis: a cross-validation study of the inductor circuit and Cole models. Physiological Measurement 20: 333347.
21Schoeller, DA (1999). Bioelectrical impedance analysis. What does it measure? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 873: 159162.
22Forro, M, Bioelectrical impedance analysis, body fluid volumes and distribution in resting horses. Master of Science thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada197 pp.
23Thomas, BJ, Cornish, BH and Ward, LC (1999). Bioimpedance: is it a predictor of true water volume? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 873: 8993.
24Rees, AE, Ward, LC, Cornish, BH and Thomas, BJ (1999). Sensitivity of multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to changes in ion status. Physiological Measurement 20: 349362.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology
  • ISSN: 1478-0615
  • EISSN: 1479-070X
  • URL: /core/journals/equine-and-comparative-exercise-physiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed