1 Lalonde, MarkA New Perspective on the Health of Canadians: A Working Document 1974 OttawaReport of the Government of Canada); and Surgeon General of the United States Healthy People: Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 1979 Washington, D.C.Government Printing Office).
2 Knechtle, Stuart et al. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease Surgery 1992 112 no. 4694703; Sherman, DavidWilliams, RogerLiver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease Journal of Hepatology 1995 23 no. 4474–79; and Ubel, Peter ABaron, JonathanAsch, DavidSocial Responsibility, Personal Responsibility, and Prognosis in Public Judgments about Transplant Allocation Bioethics 1999 13 no. 15768.
3 Scruton, Roger The Risks of Being Risk-Free Wall Street Journal Europe January 7, 2000; and Scruton, RogerWHO, WHAT, and WHY: Trans-National Government, Legitimacy, and the World Health Organization 2000Occasional Paper No. 113London, Institute of Economic Affairs). In 2002 the Guardian revealed that Scruton was on the payroll of a multinational tobacco company, which hired him to place pro-smoking articles in British newspapers and magazines.
4 Scruton, , “The Risks of Being Risk-Free.”
6 Roemer has gone the furthest in addressing the assignment of responsibility for health from a luck-egalitarian perspective. His elegant proposal, which avoids the harsher implications of other theories that combine equality and responsibility, is discussed along with other philosophical considerations in Roemer, John E A Pragmatic Theory of Responsibility for the Egalitarian Planner Philosophy & Public Affairs 1993 22 no. 2146–66; and Roemer, John EEquality and Responsibility Boston Review 1995 20 no. 2.
7 Boyer, PaulNissenbaum, StephenSalem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft 1974 CambridgeHarvard University Press 11 ff.
8 Lynch, J WKaplan, G ASalonen, J TWhy Do Poor People Behave Poorly? Variation in Adult Health Behaviors and Characteristics by Stages of the Socioeconomic Lifecourse Social Science and Medicine 1997 44 no. 6809–19.
9 Ubel, Baron, Asch, Social Responsibility, Personal Responsibility, and Prognosis in Public Judgments about Transplant Allocation
10 Marchand, SarahWikler, DanielPowah, Julia Tao Lai Equality and the Distribution of Health in Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Impossibility of Global Bioethics 2002 DordrechtKluwer Academic Publishers); Marchand, SarahWikler, DanielLandesman, BruceClass, Health, and Justice Milbank Quarterly 1998 76 no. 3449–67; see also Daniels, NormanKennedy, BruceKawachi, IchiroIs Inequality Bad for Our Health 2000 BostonBeacon Press).
11 MacDonald, HeatherThe Burden of Bad Ideas: How Modern Intellectuals Misshape Our Society 2000 ChicagoIvan R. Dee); and Satel, SallyPC, M.D.: How Political Correctness is Corrupting Medicine 2000 New YorkBasic Books).
12 Lantz, P MHouse, J SLepkowski, J MWilliams, D R et al. Socioeconomic Factors, Health Behaviors, and Mortality: Results from a Nationally Representative Prospective Study of U.S. Adults Journal of the American Medical Association 1998 279 no. 31703–708.
13 Scanlon, ThomasMcMurrin, Sterling M The Significance of Choice in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1988 vol. 8 Salt Lake CityUniversity of Utah Press).
14 Crawford, RobertReverby, SusanRosner, David Individual Responsibility and Health Politics in the 1970s in Health Care in America: Essays in Social History 1977 PhiladelphiaTemple University Press); and Crawford, RobertYou Are Dangerous to Your Health: The Ideology and Politics of Victim Blaming International Journal of Health Services 1977 7 no. 4663–80. See also Wikler, DanielStalker, DouglasGlymour, Clark Holistic Medicine: Concepts of Personal Responsibility for Healthin Examining Holistic Medicine 1985 Buffalo, N.Y.Prometheus Press).
* The author offers thanks to Sarah Marchand, Robert Beaglehole, Dan Brock, and Fabienne Peter for valuable criticism. For a longer version of this essay, see Daniel Wikler, “Social and Personal Responsibility for Health,” in Sudhir Anand, Fabienne Peter, and Amartya Sen, eds., Health, Ethics, Equity (Oxford: Clarendon Press, forthcoming).