2 Vinton Cerf, “The Internet Is for Everyone,” Request for Comments: 3271, Internet Society Memo, April 2002, tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3271.
3 The first major challenge to the free flow of information on the Internet came as the World Wide Web was achieving rapidly growing levels of use across the United States and the world. It became clear that, along with the many valuable sources of information on the Web, there was also material that was inappropriate for minors. The U.S. Congress soon felt compelled to act to protect children from sexually explicit content online, and so enacted a law known as the Communications Decency Act, which made it a crime to make such material available to minors. Immediately upon enactment, a large coalition of civil liberties organizations, leading technology companies (Microsoft, Apple, America Online), news organizations, and libraries all came together to challenge the law as a threat to free expression online and to the very viability of the Internet. These organizations were not seeking to protect access to pornography, but rather to be sure that the broadest possible First Amendment protections applied to the new medium they were hoping to build. The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the law, finding that the Internet is “a unique and wholly new medium of worldwide human communication. . . . As the most participatory form of mass speech yet developed, the Internet deserves the highest protection from governmental intrusion.” Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521 U.S. 844 (1997).
4 In U.S. law the two key components of this Internet policy foundation are a general liability limitation known by its legal shorthand as “Section 230” and an online copyright statute known as the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Section 230 relieves platforms of responsibility for harm arising out of content created by a user, as opposed to the platform itself. The DMCA establishes a so-called notice-and-takedown system under which platforms can avoid vicarious copyright liability for their users’ postings if they remove allegedly infringing material upon notice from the copyright owner. 47 USC § 230; 17 USC § 512 et seq. Section 230 was enacted along with legislation that banned sexually explicit speech accessible to minors. That censorship component of the law was struck down by the United States Supreme Court in Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521 U.S. 844 (1997).
6 47 USC § 230(b)(3)–(4).
7 Morris, J. B. Jr., and Wong, Cynthia M., “Revisiting User Control: The Emergence and Success of a First Amendment Theory for the Internet Age,” First Amendment Law Review 8 (2009), pp. 109–38.
9 European Convention on Human Rights, Articles 7 and 8.
10 Abelson, Harold et al. , “Keys under Doormats: Mandating Insecurity by Requiring Government Access to All Data and Communications,” Journal of Cybersecurity 1, no. 1 (2015), pp. 69–79.
11 DeNardis, Laura, The Global War for Internet Governance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 22.
12 Kenneth Neil Cukier, “Rich Man, Poor Man: The Geopolitics of Internet Policy Making,” in INET Conferences, 1998.
14 See generally Weitzner, Daniel J., “Privacy for a Global Information Society: High Standards, Global Cooperation, Flexibility for the Future,” in Hijmans, Hielke and Kranenborg, Herke, eds., Data Protection Anno 2014: How to Restore Trust? Contributions in Honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004–2014) (Cambridge, U.K.: Intersentia, 2014), pp. 237–52.
15 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Restoring Internet Freedom Order (2017).
19 For a review of various national approaches to net neutrality see Marsden, Christopher T., Network Neutrality: From Policy to Law to Regulation (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017).
21 United Nations General Assembly, “International Code of Conduct for Information Security,” in “Letter dated 12 September 2011 from the Permanent Representatives of China, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations,” A/66/359, September 14, 2011.