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Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy in the Making: Ethics, Politics, and Gender

  • Karin Aggestam and Annika Bergman-Rosamond
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1 Swedish Foreign Action Plan for feminist foreign policy 2015–2018 including focus areas for 2016, Government Offices of Sweden, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, www.government.se/contentassets/b799e89a0e06493f86c63a561e869e91/action-plan-feminist-foreign-policy-2015-2018.

2 Jacqui True, “Why We Need a Feminist Foreign Policy to Stop War,” Open Democracy, April 20, 2015.

3 Jenny Nordberg, “Who's Afraid of a Feminist Foreign Policy?” New Yorker, April 15, 2015.

4 Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013); Laura Sjoberg, Gender, Justice, and the Wars in Iraq: A Feminist Reformulation of Just War Theory (Lexington: Lanham, 2006); Sylvester, Christine, “Empathetic Cooperation: A Feminist Method for IR,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 23, no. 2 (1994), pp. 315–34.

5 Dunne, Tim and Wheeler, Nicholas, “Good International Citizenship: A Third Way for British Foreign PolicyInternational Affairs 74, no. 4 (1998), pp. 847–70.

6 Jacqui True, “Gender and Foreign Policy,” in Mark Beeson and Shahar Hamieri, eds., Australia in World Affairs: Navigating New International Disorders (Australian Institute of International Affairs, 2016, forthcoming).

7 Valerie Hudson and Patricia Leidl, The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015); Nossel, Suzanne, “A Feminist Foreign Policy: Hillary Clinton's Hard Choices,” Foreign Affairs 95, no. 2 (2016).

8 Margot Wallström, “Speech by the Minister for Foreign Affairs at the United States Institute for Peace 29 January 2015,” Government Offices of Sweden, www.government.se/speeches/2015/01/speech-by-the-minister-for-foreign-affairs-at-the-unites-states-institute-for-peace/.

9 Nordberg, “Who's Afraid of a Feminist Foreign Policy?”

10 Government Offices of Sweden, “Women's Participation Helps Ensure that Peace is More Sustainable”, October 29, 2015, www.government.se/articles/2015/10/womens-participation-helps-ensure-that-peace-is-more-sustainable/.

11 Valerie Hudson, Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad Emmett, Sex and World Peace (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012).

12 Available at www.womanstats.org.

13 Ann Bernes, Ambassador for Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy, Interview with Karin Aggestam, Foreign Office, Stockholm, December 15, 2015.

14 Margot Wallström, “Speech by the Minister for Foreign Affairs at Helsinki University,” Government Offices of Sweden, March 3, 2015, www.government.se/speeches/2015/03/speech-by-margot-wallstrom-at-helsinki-university/.

15 Bergman-Rosamond, Annika, “Protection Beyond Borders: Gender Cosmopolitanism and Co-Constitutive Obligation,” Global Society 27, no. 3 (2013), pp. 319–36.

16 Sweden is one of Europe's largest per capita donors of foreign aid and a top-ten contributor to UN-Women; www.unwomen.org/en/partnerships/donor-countries/top-contributions.

17 Swedish Foreign Action Plan for feminist foreign policy 2015–2018.

18 Fiona Robinson, The Ethics of Care: A Feminist Approach to Human Security (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011).

19 Sylvester, “Empathetic Cooperation: A Feminist Method for IR.”

20 UN Women, “Facts and Figures: Leadership and Political Representation,” 2015, Impact World Champion Leader,” www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/leadership-and-political-participation/facts-and-figures.

21 Ann Towns and Birgitta Niklasson, “Gender, International Status, and Ambassador Appointments,” Foreign Policy Analysis, April 2016.

22 UN-Women, “Women's Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections between Presence and Influence,” October 2012, www.unwomen.org.

23 Margot Wallström and Timo Soini, “Mediation: The Real Weapon for Peace,” Huffington Post, January 29, 2016.

24 Karin Aggestam, “Genus, medling och fredsdiplomati,” in Jenny Björkman and Arne Jarrick, eds., Krig, Fred, RJ:s Årsbok 2016/2017 (Göteborg: Makadams förlag, 2016).

25 Younes El Ghazi, “Smart Diplomacy and the Future of Diplomatic Undertaking,” Georgtown Journal of International Affairs, November 6, 2015, journal.georgetown.edu/smart-diplomacy-and-the-future-of-diplomatic-undertaking/.

26 Hillary Clinton, “Keynote Address at the International Crisis Group's ‘In Pursuit of Peace’ Award Dinner,” New York, December 16, 2011, www.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2011/12/178967.htm.

27 Thania Paffenholz, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter, and Jacqui True, “Making Women Count—Not Just Counting Women: Assessing Women's Inclusion and Influence on Peace Negotiations,” Geneva: Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative, UN-Women, April 2016, www.inclusivepeace.org.

28 True, “Gender and Foreign Policy.”

29 Government Offices of Sweden, “HeForShe Launched in Sweden,” June 18, 2015, www.government.se/articles/2015/06/heforshe-launched-in-sweden/.

30 Margot Wallström, “Tal i Riksdagen; ‘Hur Feministisk är Sveriges Utrikespolitik?’” Regeringskansliet, March 7, 2016, www.regeringen.se/tal/2016/03/tal-i-riksdagen-7-mars-om-hur-feministisk-ar-sveriges-utrikespolitik/.

31 Isabella Lövin, “How Does SRHR Fit into the Feminist Foreign Policy as Part of the Post-2015 Agenda?” Government Offices of Sweden, June 10, 2015, www.government.se/speeches/2015/06/srhr-speech-in-swedish-riksdag/.

32 Concord, “Hur Feministisk är Sveriges Utrikespolitik?” Stockholm, 2016, www.concord.se/wp-content/uploads/Hur-feministisk-%C3%A4r-Svensk-utrikespolitik-CONCORD-2016.pdf.

33 To note, of all refugees seeking asylum in Sweden during 2015, 70 percent were men and around 25 percent were children and minors under eighteen years of age, of whom 90 percent were boys, Migrationsverket, “Aktuell Statistik” 2015, www.migrationsverket.se/Om-Migrationsverket/Statistik/Aktuell-statistik.html.

34 Concord, “Hur Feministisk är Sveriges Utrikespolitik?”

35 Mark Bromley and Siemon Wezeman, “Current Trends in the International Arms Trade and Implications for Sweden,” Stockholm: SIPRI, October 2013.

36 True, “Why We Need a Feminist Foreign Policy to Stop War.”

37 Annika Bergman-Rosamond, “Swedish Internationalism and Development Aid,” in Jon Pierre, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

38 David Crouch, “Sweden's Foreign Minister Unrepentant over Saudi Flogging Row,” Guardian, June 8, 2015.

39 Adam Taylor, “Sweden's Subtly Radical ‘Feminist’ Foreign Policy is Causing a Stir,” Washington Post, October 7, 2015.

40 Aggestam, Lisbeth, “Introduction: Ethical Power Europe?International Affairs 84, no. 1 (2008), pp. 112 .

41 Robert Egnell, “Feministisk Utrikespolitik i Teori och Praktik,” Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift (2016, forthcoming).

42 True, “Gender and Foreign Policy.”

43 Ibid.

44 Laura Shepherd, “Gender and Global Social Justice: Peacebuilding and the Politics of Participation,” in Heather Widdows and Nicola Smith, eds., Global Social Justice (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2011); McBride, Keally and Wibben, Annick, “The Gendering of Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan,” Humanity 3, no. 2 (2012), pp. 199215 .

45 Anthony Burke, Katrina Lee-Koo, and Matt McDonald, Ethics and Global Security: A Cosmopolitan Approach (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014).

46 Kim Hutchings, “Ethics,” in Laura J. Shepherd, ed., Gender Matters in Global Politics: A Feminist Introduction to International Relations (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2015), p. 56.

47 Tim Dunne and Nicholas Wheeler have made significant contributions to the debates on ethical foreign policy in theory and practice. Tim Dunne and Nicholas Wheeler, “Blair's Britain: A Force for Good in the World?” in Karen Smith and Margot Light, eds., Ethics and Foreign Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). See also Andrew Linklater, The Transformation of Political Community: Ethical Foundations of the Post-Westphalian Era (Polity, 1998); Smith and Light, Ethics and Foreign Policy; and David Chandler and Volker Heins, Rethinking Ethical Foreign Policy (London: Routledge, 2016).

48 Hedley Bull, Justice in International Relations, Hagey Lectures, Ontario: University of Waterloo, 1984; Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977); Nicholas Wheeler, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Linklater, The Transformation Of Political Community; Tim Dunne, Inventing International Society (London: Macmillan, 1998).

49 Bull, Justice in International Relations, p. 32; Bull, The Anarchical Society, p. 304.

50 Jacqui True, “Feminism,” in Alex Bellamy, ed., International Society and its Critics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

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