Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-89lq7 Total loading time: 2.22 Render date: 2022-06-26T09:10:08.142Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon, Portugal): Catchment, Diet, and Patterns of Mobility of a Middle Neolithic Population

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

António Faustino Carvalho*
Affiliation:
University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal
Francisca Alves-Cardoso*
Affiliation:
New University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
David Gonçalves*
Affiliation:
University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Raquel Granja*
Affiliation:
University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal
João Luís Cardoso*
Affiliation:
Open University, Lisbon, Portugal
Rebecca M. Dean*
Affiliation:
University of Minnesota-Morris, Morris, MN, USA
Juan Francisco Gibaja*
Affiliation:
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Barcelona, Spain
Maria A. Masucci*
Affiliation:
Drew University, Madison, NJ, USA
Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo*
Affiliation:
Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Eva Fernández-Domínguez*
Affiliation:
Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Fiona Petchey*
Affiliation:
University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
T. Douglas Price*
Affiliation:
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, NJ, USA
José Eduardo Mateus*
Affiliation:
Terra Scenica, Lisbon, Portugal
Paula Fernanda Queiroz*
Affiliation:
Terra Scenica, Lisbon, Portugal
Pedro Callapez*
Affiliation:
University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Carlos Pimenta*
Affiliation:
Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Lisbon, Portugal
Frederico T. Regala*
Affiliation:
Associação de Estudos Subterrâneos e Defesa do Ambiente, Torres Vedras, Portugal

Abstract

The study of the Bom Santo Cave (central Portugal), a Neolithic cemetery, indicates a complex social, palaeoeconomic, and population scenario. With isotope, aDNA, and provenance analyses of raw materials coupled with stylistic variability of material culture items and palaeogeographical data, light is shed on the territory and social organization of a population dated to 3800–3400 cal BC, i.e. the Middle Neolithic. Results indicate an itinerant farming, segmentary society, where exogamic practices were the norm. Its lifeway may be that of the earliest megalithic builders of the region, but further research is needed to correctly evaluate the degree of this community's participation in such a phenomenon.

L’étude de la nécropole néolithique découverte dans la grotte de Bom Santo (Portugal central) révèle un scénario social, économique et démographique complexe. Les analyses des isotopes, de l'ADN ancien et de la provenance des matières premières ainsi que l'examen des variations stylistiques du mobilier et des données de la paléogéographie donnent un aperçu du territoire et de l'organisation sociale d'une population datant du Néolithique moyen, soit entre 3800 et 3400 cal BC. Nos résultats indiquent la présence d'une communauté agricole itinérante et segmentée où les pratiques de l'exogamie étaient en vigueur. Ce mode de vie était peut-être aussi celui des premiers constructeurs de mégalithes de la région mais cette hypothèse devra être testée par des études ultérieures ayant pour but d’évaluer le degré de participation de notre communauté au phénomène mégalithique. Translation by Madeleine Hummler.

Die Untersuchung der Betsattungsstätte in der Höhle von Bom Santo (Zentralportugal) ergibt ein komplexes soziales, wirtschaftliches und demografisches Bild. Die Auswertung der Isotopen, der alten DNA (aDNA), der Herkunft der Rohstoffe, sowie auch der stilistischen Variationen in der materiellen Kultur und der paläogeografischen Angaben verdeutlicht wie eine mittelneolithische Gemeinschaft wischen 3800 und 3400 cal BC räumlich und sozial organisiert war. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es sich um eine wandernde, segmentierte Bauerngesellschaft handelte, die wahrscheinlich Exogamie ausübte. Die ersten Megalithbauer der Gegend haben vielleicht auch solch eine Lebensweise gefolgt, aber weitere Untersuchungen müssen noch unternommen werden, um das Ausmaß der Beteiligung der Bom Santo Bevölkerung am megalithischen Phänomen richtig zu bewerten. Translation by Madeleine Hummler.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 the European Association of Archaeologists 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Araújo, A.C. & Lejeune, M. 1995. Gruta do Escoural: necrópole neolítica e arte rupestre paleolítica. Lisboa: IPPAR.Google Scholar
Bentley, R.A. 2006. Strontium Isotopes from the Earth to the Archaeological Skeleton: A Review. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 13 (3): 135–87.Google Scholar
Bentley, R.A., Bickle, P., Fibiger, L., Nowell, G.M., Dale, C.W., Hedges, R.E.M., Hamilton, J., Wahl, J., Francken, M., Grupe, G., Lenneis, E., Tescher-Nicola, M., Arbogast, R.-M., Hofmann, D. & Whittle, A. 2012. Community Differentiation and Kinship Among Europe's First Farmers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (24): 9326–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boaventura, R. 2011. Chronology of Megalithism in South-Central Portugal. Menga, 1: 159–90.Google Scholar
Bronk-Ramsey, C. 2012. OxCal Program V4.1.5. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
Callapez, P.M. 2014. Terrestrial gastropods. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 4560.Google Scholar
Cardoso, J.L. 2002. Pré-História de Portugal. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta.Google Scholar
Cardoso, J.L. 2003. A utensilagem óssea de uso comum do povoado pré-histórico de Leceia (Oeiras). Estudos Arqueológicos de Oeiras, 11: 2584.Google Scholar
Cardoso, J.L. 2014. Polished Stone Tools. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 185–94.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F. 2014. Bom Santo Cave in context. A Preliminary Contribution to the Study of the First Megalith Builders of Southern Portugal. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 209–30.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F. & Cardoso, J.L. 2015. Insights on the Changing Dynamics of Cemetery Use in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Southern Portugal. Radiocarbon Dating of Lugar do Canto Cave (Santarém). Spal, 24: 3553.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F. & Gibaja, J.F. 2014. Knapped Stone Tools. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 173–84.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F. & Masucci, M.A. 2014. Pottery. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 161–72.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F. & Petchey, F. 2013. Stable Isotope Evidence of Neolithic Palaeodiets in the Coastal Regions of Southern Portugal. Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology, 8 (3): 361–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carvalho, A.F., Gonçalves, D., Granja, R. & Petchey, F. 2012. Algar do Bom Santo: a Middle Neolithic Necropolis in Portuguese Estremadura. In: Gibaja, J.F., Carvalho, A.F. and Chambon, P., eds. Funerary Practices in the Iberian Peninsula from the Mesolithic to the Chalcolithic (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2417). Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 7790.Google Scholar
Carvalho, A.F., Gibaja, J.F. & Cardoso, J.L. 2013. Insights Into the Earliest Agriculture of Central Portugal: Sickle Implements from the Early Neolithic Site of Cortiçóis (Santarém). Comptes Rendus Palevol, 12: 3143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Correia, A.M. & Teixeira, C. 1949. A jazida pré-histórica de Eira Pedrinha (Condeixa). Lisbon: Serviços Geológicos de Portugal.Google Scholar
Costa, F.A.P. 1868. Noções sobre o estado prehistórico da Terra e do Homem seguidas da descripção de alguns dolmins ou antas de Portugal. Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias.Google Scholar
Dean, R.M. & Carvalho, A.F. 2014. Faunal Remains, Adornments and Bone Tools. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 195205.Google Scholar
Deguilloux, M.-F., Soler, L., Pemonge, M.-H., Scarre, C., Joussaume, R. & Laporte, L. 2011. News from the West: Ancient DNA from a French Megalithic Burial Chamber. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144 (1): 108–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delgado, J.F.N. 1884. La Grotte de Furninha a Peniche. Congrès International d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie Préhistoriques. Lisbonne: Académie Royale des Sciences, pp. 17278.Google Scholar
Duarte, C. 1998. Necrópole neolítica do Algar do Bom Santo: contexto cronológico e espaço funerário. Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia, 1 (2): 107–18.Google Scholar
Duarte, C. & Arnaud, J.M. 1996. Algar do Bom Santo: une nécropole néolithique dans l'Estremadura portugaise. I Congrès del Neolític a la Península Ibèrica, 2. Gavà: Museo de Gavà, pp. 505–08.Google Scholar
Duday, H. & Guillon, M. 2006. Understanding the Circumstances of Decomposition when the Body is Skeletonized. In: Schmitt, A., Cunha, E. and Pinheiro, J., eds. Forensic Anthropology and Medicine. New Jersey: Humana Press, pp. 117–58.Google Scholar
Fernández, E. & Arroyo-Pardo, E. 2014. Palaeogenetic Study of the Human Remains. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 133–42.Google Scholar
Fischer, A., Olsen, J., Richards, M., Heinemeier, J., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E. & Bennike, P. 2007. Coast-Inland Mobility and Diet in the Danish Mesolithic and Neolithic: Evidence from Stable Isotope Values of Humans and Dogs. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34: 2125–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frei, K.M. & Price, T.D. 2012. Strontium Isotopes and Human Mobility in Prehistoric Denmark. Journal of Anthropological and Archaeological Sciences, 4: 103–14.Google Scholar
Gamba, C., Fernández, E., Tirado, M., Deguilloux, M.F., Pemonge, M.H., Utrilla, P., Edo, M., Molist, M., Rasteiro, R., Chikhi, L. & Arroyo-Pardo, E. 2012. Ancient DNA from an Early Neolithic Iberian Population Supports a Pioneer Colonization by First Farmers. Molecular Ecology, 21: 4556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibaja, J.F. & Carvalho, A.F. 2014. Use-Wear Analysis of Chipped Stone Assemblages from Neolithic Burial Caves in Portuguese Estremadura: The Case of Bom Santo (Lisbon). In: Marreiros, J., Bicho, N.F. and Gibaja, J.F., eds. Use-Wear 2012. International Conference on Use-Wear Analysis. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 597606.Google Scholar
Gómez-Sánchez, D., Olalde, I., Pierini, F., Matas-Lalueza, L., Gigli, E., Lari, M., Civit, S., Lozano, M., Vergès, J.M., Caramelli, D., Ramírez, O. & Lalueza-Fox, C. 2014. Mitochondrial DNA from El Mirador Cave (Atapuerca, Spain) Reveals the Heterogeneity of Chalcolithic Populations. PLoS ONE, 9: e105105. Available at: <http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105105> [accessed 3 June 2015].CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonçalves, D., Granja, R., Alves-Cardoso, F. & Carvalho, A.F. 2014. Sample-Specific Sex Estimation in Archaeological Contexts with Commingled Human Remains: A Case Study from the Middle Neolithic Cave of Bom Santo in Portugal. Journal of Archaeological Science, 49: 185–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Granja, R., Alves-Cardoso, F. & Gonçalves, D. 2014a. Taphonomy and Funerary Practices. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 79100.Google Scholar
Granja, R., Gonçalves, D. & Alves-Cardoso, F. 2014b. Osteological Sample Profile. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 101–20.Google Scholar
Haak, W., Brandt, G., De Jong, H.N., Meyer, C., Ganslmeier, R., Heyd, V., Hawkesworth, C., Pike, A.W.G., Meller, H. & Alt, K.W. 2008. Ancient DNA, Strontium Isotopes, and Osteological Analyses Shed Light on Social and Kinship Organization of the Later Stone Age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (47): 18226–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hedges, R.E.M. & Reynard, L.M. 2007. Nitrogen Isotopes and the Trophic Level of Humans in Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34: 12401251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hervella, M., Izagirre, N., Alonso, S., Fregel, R., Alonso, A., Cabrera, V.M. & de la Rúa, C. 2012. Ancient DNA from Hunter-Gatherer and Farmer Groups from Northern Spain Supports a Random Dispersion Model for the Neolithic Expansion into Europe. PLoS ONE, 7: e34417. Available at: <http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034417> [accessed 3 June 2015].CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lacan, M., Keyser, C., Ricaut, F.-X., Brucato, N., Tarrús, J., Bosch, A., Guilaine, J., Crubézy, E. & Ludes, B. 2011. Ancient DNA Suggests the Leading Role Played by Men in the Neolithic Dissemination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108: 18255–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lillios, K.T. 2000. A Biographical Approach to the Ethnogeology of Late Prehistoric Portugal. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 57 (1): 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lillios, K.T., Read, C. & Alves, F. 2000. The Axe of the Óbidos Lagoon (Portugal): An Uncommon Find Recovered during an Underwater Archaeological Survey (1999). Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia, 1 (3): 514.Google Scholar
Lubell, D., Jackes, M., Schwarcz, H., Knyf, M. & Meiklejohn, C. 1994. The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in Portugal: Isotopic and Dental Evidence of Diet. Journal of Archaeological Science, 21: 201–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maurer, A.-F., Stephen, J.G., Galer, C.K., Beierlein, L., Nunn, E.V., Peters, D., Tutken, T., Alt, K.W. & Schöne, B.R. 2012. Bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr in Different Environmental Samples: Effects of Anthropogenic Contamination and Implications for Isoscapes in Past Migration Studies. Science of the Total Environment, 433: 216–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, J. 2010. Passports from the Past: Investigating Human Dispersals Using Strontium Isotope Analysis of Tooth Enamel. Annals of Human Biology, 37: 325–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, J., Evans, J.A. & Wildman, G. 2006. 87Sr/86Sr Isotope Composition of Bottled British Mineral Waters for Environmental and Forensic Purposes. Applied Geochemistry, 21: 1626–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neves, C. 2013. A evolução do processo de neolitização numa paisagem estuarina: a ocupação do Monte da Foz 1 (Benavente, Portugal). In: Soares, J., ed. Pré-História das zonas húmidas. Paisagens de sal. Setúbal: MAEDS, pp. 123–44.Google Scholar
Pétrequin, P., Errera, M., Martin, A., Fábregas, R. & Vaquer, J. 2012. Les haches en jades alpines pendant les Ve et IVe millénaires. L'exemple de l'Espagne et du Portugal dans une perspective européenne. In: Borrell, M., Borrell, F., Bosch, J., Clop, X. and Molist, M., eds. Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de matèries, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII–III mil·lenni a.C.). Barcelona: Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya, pp. 213–22.Google Scholar
Pimenta, C. 2014. Microvertebrates. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 81–76.Google Scholar
Price, T.D., ed. 1989. The Chemistry of Prehistoric Human Bone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Price, T.D. 2014. Isotope Proveniencing. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 151–58.Google Scholar
Price, T.D., Bentley, R.A., Lünning, J., Gronenborg, D. & Wahl, J. 2001. Prehistoric Human Migration in the Linearbandkeramik of Central Europe. Antiquity, 75: 593603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T.D., Burton, J.H. & Bentley, A.R. 2002. The characterisation of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry, 44: 117–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T.D., Grupe, G. & Schröter, P. 1994. Reconstruction of Migration Patterns in the Bell Beaker Period by Stable Strontium Isotope Analysis. Applied Geochemistry, 9: 413–7.Google Scholar
Queiroz, P.F. & Mateus, J.E. 2014. Carbonized Plant Remains. In: Carvalho, A.F., ed. Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon) and the Middle Neolithic Societies of Southern Portugal. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 2944.Google Scholar
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk-Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T.J., Hoffman, D.L., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Niu, M., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Scott, E.M., Southon, J.R., Staff, R.A., Turney, C.S.M. & van der Plicht, J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 55 (4): 1869–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribeiro, C. 1884. Les kjoekkenmoedings de la vallée du Tage. Congrès International d’Anthropologie et d’Archéologie Préhistoriques. Lisbonne: Académie Royale des Sciences, pp. 279290.Google Scholar
Rocha, L. 1999. Povoamento megalítico de Pavia. Contributo para o conhecimento da Pré-História regional. Pavia: Câmara Municipal de Pavia.Google Scholar
Rocha, L. 2001. Povoamento pré-histórico da área de Pavia. Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia, 4 (1): 1744.Google Scholar
Rodrigues, F. 2006. Moita do Ourives: um habitat do Neolítico médio no Baixo Tejo. IV Congresso de Arqueologia Peninsular. Do Epipaleolítico ao Calcolítico na Península Ibérica. Faro: Universidade do Algarve, pp. 249–62.Google Scholar
Sampietro, M.L., Lao, O., Caramelli, D., Lari, M., Pou, R., Martí, M., Bertranpetit, J. & Lalueza-Fox, C. 2007. Palaeogenetic Evidence Supports a Dual Model of Neolithic Spreading into Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 274: 2161–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sillen, A. & Kavanagh, M. 1982. Strontium and Paleodietary Research: A Review. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 25: 6790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sillen, A., Sealy, J.C. & Van Der Merwe, N.J. 1998. Chemistry and Paleodietary Research. No more Easy Answers. American Antiquity, 54: 504–12.Google Scholar
Sjögren, K.-G., Price, T.D. & Ahlström, T. 2009. Megaliths and Mobility in South-Western Sweden. Investigating Relationships between a Local Society and its Neighbours Using Strontium Isotopes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28: 85101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slovak, N.M. & Paytan, A. 2011. Applications of Sr Isotopes in Archaeology. Advances in Isotope Geochemistry, 5: 743–68.Google Scholar
Spindler, K. 1981. Cova da Moura. Die Besiedlung des atlantischen Küstengebietes Miittelportugals vom Neolithikum bis an das Ende der Bronzezeit. Mainz: von Zabern.Google Scholar
Valente, M.J. & Carvalho, A.F. 2014. Zooarchaeology in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Southern Portugal. Environmental Archaeology, 19 (3): 226–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valera, A.C. 2012. Ditches, Pits and Hypogea: New Data and New Problems in South Portugal Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Funerary Practices. In: Gibaja, J.F., Carvalho, A.F. and Chambon, P., eds. Funerary Practices in the Iberian Peninsula from the Mesolithic to the Chalcolithic (British Archaeological Reports International Series, 2417). Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 103112.Google Scholar
Van Klinken, G.J., Richards, M.P. & Hedges, R.E.M. 2000. An Overview of Causes for Stable Isotopic Variations in past European Human Populations: Environmental, Ecophysiological and Cultural Effects. In: Ambrose, S.H. and Katzenberg, H.A., eds. Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, pp. 3963.Google Scholar
Vis, G.-J. & Kasse, C. 2009. Late Quaternary Valley-Fill Succession of the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal. Sedimentary Geology, 221: 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vis, G.-J., Kasse, C. & Vandenberghe, J. 2008. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Palaeogeography of the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal): Effects of Relative Sea Level, Valley Morphology and Sediment Supply. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27: 1682–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waterman, A.J., Peate, D.W., Silva, A.M. & Thomas, J.T. 2014. In Search of Homelands: Using Strontium Isotopes to Identify Biological Markers of Mobility in Late Prehistoric Portugal. Journal of Archaeological Science, 42: 119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zvelebil, M. 2000. The Social Context of the Agricultural Transition in Europe. In: Renfrew, C. & Boyle, K., eds. Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population Prehistory of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 5779.Google Scholar
12
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon, Portugal): Catchment, Diet, and Patterns of Mobility of a Middle Neolithic Population
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon, Portugal): Catchment, Diet, and Patterns of Mobility of a Middle Neolithic Population
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Bom Santo Cave (Lisbon, Portugal): Catchment, Diet, and Patterns of Mobility of a Middle Neolithic Population
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *