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Broken Bones and Broken Stones: Exploring Fragmentation in Middle and Late Bronze Age Settlement Contexts in Ireland

  • Kerri Cleary
Abstract

This article examines the evidence for fragmentation practices on Middle–Late Bronze Age (c. 1600–700 bc) settlement sites in Ireland by looking at two kinds of material: human remains, both burnt and non-burnt, and quern stones. It highlights evidence for the manipulation of non-burnt skulls through ‘de-facing’ and the potential retention of cranial and other fragments for ‘burial’ in settlements. It also explores the more difficult task of determining whether incomplete skeletal representation in cremated remains can be interpreted as deliberate fragmentation, and how the context of deposition must be considered. Human agency in relation to the fragmentation patterns of querns is also examined to understand whether the act of breaking these objects was intentional or unintended and if depositing them was symbolic or simply fortuitous. By discussing this evidence, I hope to contribute to the argument that the funerary and settlement spheres in later prehistoric Ireland were becoming increasingly intertwined.

Les données concernant les pratiques de fragmentation sur les sites d'habitat de l’âge du Bronze moyen et récent (environ 1600–700 av. J.-C.) en Irlande sont à la base d'une étude dédiée à deux types de vestiges matériels : les restes d'ossements humains (calcinés ou non) et les pierres à moudre, particulièrement les meules. Cette étude met en relief des indices sur la manipulation de crânes non-brûlés par mutilation (« défigurement ») et la possibilité que certaines parties du crâne et autres éléments du corps aient été conservés pour « enterrement » dans les habitats. On considèrera également la tâche plus difficile qui consiste à établir si les éléments incomplets de squelettes incinérés résultent d'actes de fragmentation intentionnels ou non ainsi que les façons d'examiner le contexte des actes de dépôt. Le facteur humain dans les exemples de fragmentation des pierres meulières fait l'objet d'un examen visant à déterminer si la brisure de ces objets était voulue ou non, et si leur dépôt était symbolique ou fortuit. Le but de cette discussion est de contribuer à une prise de conscience du fait que les domaines funéraires et domestiques s'entremêlaient de plus en plus étroitement vers la fin de l’époque préhistorique en Irlande. Translation by Madeleine Hummler

In diesem Artikel werden die Hinweise auf die Fragmentierungsbräuche in mittel- und spätbronzezeitlichen (ca. 1600–700 v.Chr.) Siedlungen in Irland untersucht. Dies wird hier anhand zwei verschiedener Fundtypen analysiert: menschliche Überreste (verbrannt und nicht verbrannt) und Mahlsteine, besonders Reibesteine. Diese Untersuchung stellt heraus, dass unverbrannte Schädel durch Verunstaltung manipuliert worden sind und dass möglicherweise Schädelteile und andere Körperteile für „Bestattung” auf Siedlungen behalten worden sind. Die schwierigere Aufgabe, zu bestimmen, ob man die unvollständigen Skelettreste von Leichenbränden als absichtliche Fragmentierung deuten kann und welche Umstände zur Deponierung dieser Fragmente geführt haben, werden auch angesprochen. Die Untersuchung der menschlichen Wirkung auf die Gliederung der Fragmentierung von Mahlsteinen hat zum Ziel, zu verstehen, ob der Bruch von diesen Gegenständen absichtlich oder nicht war und ob die Deponierung symbolisch oder zufällig war. Diese Diskussion wird hoffentlich zur Anerkennung, dass die Grab- und Siedlungsbereiche während der späten Urgeschichte in Irland immer enger zusammenruckten, beitragen. Translation by Madeleine Hummler

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