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A Tale of Eight Pesticides: Risk Regulation and Public Health in China

  • Francis SNYDER and Lili NI

Abstract

This article focuses on the use and regulation of eight toxic pesticides in agricultural production in China. The pesticides are bifenthrin, chlorpyrifus, diazinon, dimethoate, methidathion, omethoate, phosmet and phosphamidon. These pesticides pose widely recognised public health risks in China. So far as we know, the article is the first article in English ever to treat these pesticides systematically from the standpoint of the regulation of risks to human beings and to the environment. Adopting perspectives from public health, economic sociology and law, the article considers the principal characteristics of these pesticides, the main health risks associated with their use in agricultural production and how these pesticides in agricultural production are currently regulated in Chinese law. It identifies a series of policy implications and makes specific policy recommendations concerning risk regulation of these eight pesticides.

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Copyright

Footnotes

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*

CV Starr Professor of Law, EU Jean Monnet Chair ad personam and Director, Centre for Research on Transnational Law, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China; Special Endowed Chair Professor of Food Safety, Northwest University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Emeritus Professor, CERIC, Aix-Marseille University, France; Visiting Professor, College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium.

**

BA, Nanchang University; JD and JM Candidate, Peking University School of Transnational Law, and Research Assistant, Centre for Research on Transnational Law, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China.

Footnotes

References

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1 A draft of this article was presented at the Faculty Research Workshop, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, 1 March 2017. We are grateful for the many comments on that occasion. We also wish to thank Wei Gong, Norman P Ho, KS Leung, Imelda Maher, Qianlan Wu, Ting Xu for detailed comments. We are grateful to Hu Zhouke, Yi Seul Kim, Anne-Lise Strahtmann and the Food Safety Research Group, Peking University School of Transnational Law, for research assistance and other contributions to the article. We are also grateful to an anonymous reader for the EJRR for helpful comments. We wish to thank Peking University School of Transnational Law and Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School for financial support.

2 Carson, R, Silent Spring (New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1962). On the earlier period, see Whorton, JC, Before Silent Spring: Pesticides and Public Health in Pre-DDT America (Princeton University Press, Princeton, reprinted 2015). As early as 1936, pesticide residues were raised as a public health issue in the United States. See R deforest Lamb [chief executive officer of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)], American Chamber of Horrors: The Truth about Food and Drugs (Farrar and Rinehart, New York, 1936), noted in Courtney Thomas, IP, In Food We Trust: The Politics of Purity in American Food Regulation (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 2014) 25–26. Dr Lamb’s book led to enactment of the US 1938 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

3 For a recent overview, see Forum on Health, Environment and Development (FORHEAD), “Food Safety in China: A Mapping of Problems, Governance and Research”, FORHEAD and Social Science Research Council, Working Group on Food Safety, February 2014, 32–35.

4 D Patton, “China farm pollution worsens, despite moves to curb excessive fertilizers, pesticides”, Reuters Environment (14 April 2015) available at www.reuters.com/article/us-china-agriculture-pollution-idUSKBN0N50L720150414, accessed 15 August 2017. See also Jikun Huang et al, “Ignoring The Labels: An Analysis of Pesticide Use in China”, Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, EEPSA Policy Brief No 2001 – PB3, available at www.eepsea.org/pub/pb/116128.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017.

5 Supra, note 3, 32–35, which reported (at 32) that “[o]veruse of pesticides is recognized to be a major problem”.

6 Worldometers, “China Population”, available at www.worldometers.info/world-population/china-population/, accessed 1 December 2016.

7 OECD, Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015 (Paris, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2015) 113; United States Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/fields/2097.html, accessed 3 September 2017 (more specifically, China’s arable land accounts for 11.3%).

8 See also Zhang, C et al., “Overuse or underuse? An observation of pesticide use in China” (2015) 538 Science of the Total Environment 16 , available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26296070, accessed 15 August 2017; and Max Roser, “Fertilizer and Pesticides” (2016), published online at OurWorldInData.org, available at https://ourworldindata.org/fertilizer-and-pesticides/, accessed 21 February 2017.

9 Ji’yun, Nie, et al, “苹果农药残留风险评估” [pinyin version: Ping guo nong yao can liu feng xian ping gu; Original Source: NKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure)] [“Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Apples”] 中国农业科学 [(2015) 47(18) Scientia Agricultura Sinica] 36553667 , doi 10.3864/j/issn. 0578-1752.2014.18.013 [in Chinese]. The authors are specialists in apples, agriculture, and quality standards and testing technology for agricultural products.

10 See Matthews, GA, Pesticides: Health, Safety and the Environment, 2nd edn (Wiley Blackwell, 2016) 67 , 110–113; Wikipedia, “Organophosphates”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organophosphate, accessed 15 August 2017. As early as 1962, Rachel Carson warned that “The organic phosphorus insecticides act on the living organism in a peculiar way. They have the ability to destroy enzymes – enzymes that perform necessary functions in the body. Their target is the nervous system…”: Carson, Silent Spring, supra, note 2, 28.

11 See Matthews, supra, note 10; Wikipedia, “Pyrethroid”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrethroid, accessed 23 January 2017.

12 MacBean, C, The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 16th edn (BCPC, 2012) xvi .

13 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Glossary”, available at https://iaspub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&vocabName=IRIS%20Glossary, accessed 15 August 2017; Wikipedia, “Reference dose”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reference_dose, accessed 15 August 2017.

14 The WHO/FAO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) regularly publishes toxicological reports on pesticide residues: see www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/jmpr-monographs/en/, accessed 28 March 2017. This article mainly concerns the use of pesticides in agricultural production, not pesticide residues in food. Consequently, it does not refer to JMPR monographs unless directly relevant to agricultural use of pesticides.

15 MacBean, supra, note 12, 1305. On the WTO toxicity classification system, see The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009, available at www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_2009.pdf?ua=1, accessed 24 January 2017.

16 See MacBean, supra, note 12, 1307–1308. The EU system was based originally on Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances, OJ 196, 16.8.1967, 1–98, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:31967L0548, accessed 15 August 2017. To ensure uniform application throughout the EU, this Directive was amended and repealed by Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, OJ 196, 16.8.1967, 1–98. For the consolidated version of this Regulation, see http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:02008R1272-20150601&from=EN, accessed 15 August 2017.

17 http://pan-international.org/, accessed 15 August 2017.

18 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/List_ChemicalsAlpha.jsp, accessed 15 August 2017.

19 On cholinesterase inhibitors, see Extoxnet (Extension Toxicology Network), “Cholinesterase Inhibition”, Toxicology Information Brief, Extoxnet is A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and University of California at Davis. [publication date: 9/93], available at http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/TIB/cholinesterase.html, accessed 15 August 2017. See also Wikipedia, “Acetylchonesterase inhibitor”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitor: Wikipedia, “Acetylcholine”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine, and Wikipedia,”SLUDGE syndrome”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLUDGE_syndrome, all accessed 15 August 2017.

20 Mutagenicity refers to “a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level”: Wikipedia, “Mutagen”, available at www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutagen, accessed 15 August 2017.

21 Genotoxicity is “the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell, causing mutations, which may lead to cancer”. “All mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic”: Wikipedia, “Genotoxicity”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genotoxicity, accessed 15 August 2017. See also Wikipedia, “Mutagen”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutagen, accessed 15 August 2017; Extoxnet, “Carcinogenicity”, available at http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/TIB/carcinogenicity.html, accessed 15 August 2017; Wikipedia, “Carcinogen”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinogen, accessed 15 August 2017.

22 Teratogenicity refers to the capacity to cause abnormalities in human development, either before or at birth or later: Wikipedia, “Teratology”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teratology, accessed 15 August 2017.

23 Endocrine disruption refers to “interfere[nce] with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding action or elimination of natural hormones in the body that are responsible for development, behaviour, fertility and maintenance of homeostatis (normal cell metabolism)”: Thomas M Crisp, and others “Environmental Endocrine Disruption: An Effects Assessment and Analysis” (1998) 106(1) Environmental Health Perspectives 11–56, doi:10.2307/3433911. PMC 1533291, freely accessible, PMID 9539004. See also Wikipedia, “Endocrine Disruptor”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_disruptor, accessed 15 August 2017, and Wikipedia, “Hormone”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone, accessed 15 August 2017.

24 See PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, “Chlorpyrifos”, available at www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33392, accessed 15 August 2017.

25 See MacBean, supra, note 12, 119–201. Each pesticide has a unique reference number in the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry. CAS is a division of the American Chemical Society: see www.cas.org/, accessed 15 August 2017.

26 MacBean, supra, note 12, 200.

27 They included the following in China: Fengle, Fentshan, Hebei Kaidi, Hubei Sanonda, Jiangsu Baoling, Lianyungang Liben, Red Sun, Saeryung, Zhejiang DongFeng, Zhejiang Yongnong, Zhong Xi: MacBean, supra, note 12, 200.

28 Including Agromil ([manufacturer:] Weststrade), Chlorfet (Vapso), Chlorofos (Mobedco), Clarnet (Lainco), Clinch II (Barclay), Cyren (Inquiport, Luxembourg), Dursban (Dow AgroSciences), Force (Nagarjuna Agrichem), Fullback (Reposo), Heraban (Heranba), Hilban (Hindustan), Hollywood (Rocca), Kirfos (Kemio), Knocker (Ingenieria Industrial), Lorsban (Dow AgroSciences), Mukka (Crop Health), Panda (Cequisa), Phantom (Sundat), Pyriban (Aimco), Pyrifoz (Hubei Sanonda), Pyrinex (Makhteshim-Agan), Radar (RPG), Robon (Ramcides), Strike (Biostadt), Tafaban (Rallis), Terraguard (Gharda) and Tricel (Excel Crop Care) as well as various mixtures. For a selection, see MacBean, supra, note 12, 200.

29 See www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/CN/chlorpyrifos.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

30 Wikipedia, “Teratology”, supra, note 22.

31 MacBean, supra, note 12, 201.

32 MacBean, supra, note 12, 201. See also supra, note 24.

33 See also PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, “Compound Summary for CID 2730, Chlorpyrifos”, NIH, US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, available at https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/chlorpyrifos, accessed 15 August 2017, which notes “a likely link between chlorpyrifos application and lung cancer”.

34 Supra, note 18.

35 United States EPA, “About Pesticide Registration”, available at www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/about-pesticide-registration, accessed 15 August 2017.

36 See United States EPA, “Proposal to Revoke Chlorpyrifos Food Residue Tolerances”, available at www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/revised-human-health-risk-assessment-chlorpyrifos, accessed 3 September 2017. See also AgroNews, “Court tells US EPA to decide to ban chlorpyrifos or not”, 12 June 2015, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---15068.htm, and AgroNews, “US EPA need more time to decide to ban chlorpyrifos or not”, 8 July 2016, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---18620.htm, both accessed 15 August 2017.

37 MacBean, supra, note 12, pp 200–201, 1305–1308.

38 Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VI, Table 3.1. OJ 196, 16.8.1967, 1–98. The classification system is explained in this Regulation, Annex I, Part 1, Table 1.1.

39 Supra, note 18.

40 Supra, note 18.

41 Supra, note 24.

42 Supra, note 24.

43 Supra, note 24.

44 Supra, note 24. Chlorpyrifos is on the Cholinesterase Inhibitor List of Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

45 Supra, note 24. For further discussion, see IK Ngirakesau, BLM Sato and AC Collier, “Chlorpyrifos is an endocrine disruptor in the human placenta via effects on steroidogenic and elimination enzymes”, paper presented at Society for Comparative and Integrative Biology, 2013 Annual Meeting, 6 January 2013, available at www.sicb.org/meetings/2013/schedule/abstractdetails.php?id=489, accessed 15 August 2017.

46 MacBean, supra, note 12, 317–318.

47 MacBean, supra, note 12, 317.

48 Including “Aako; Agrochem; Cerexagri; Chizhou Sincerity; Dongu Fine; Drexel; E-tong; Fengshan; Heben; Hegang Heyou; Hunan Haili; Makhteshim-Agan; Nantong Jiangshan; Nippon Kayaku; Sundat; [and] Zhejiang Yongnong”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 317.

49 MacBean lists selected products (and manufacturers) as “Cekuzinin (Cequisa), Dianozyl (Agriphar), Diazate (Mobebco), Diazin (Chemia), Diazol (AgroSan, Makhteshin-Agan=m Laidan (Lainco), Sabion (Sundat), Vibasu (Vipesco) and Zak (Kemio)”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 318.

50 See www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/CN/diazinon.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

51 MacBean, supra, note 12, 318.

52 MacBean, supra, note 12, 317, 1307–1308 [quotation from 1308].

53 MacBean, supra, note 12, 317.

54 Supra, note 18.

55 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35079.

56 Supra, note 55.

57 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Some Organophosphate Pesticides and Herbicides: Diazinon, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 112, 2017, available at http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol112/mono112-09.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017. See also Thèves, Julien and Dussère, Chloé, “Environnement: Pesticides: Attention cancer!” (2015) 367 Vivre, Magazine de la Ligue contre le Cancer 2831 .

58 Supra, note 55.

59 Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

60 Supra, note 55.

61 Supra, note 55. For details on this classification, see PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity4.html#ReproDevelopmental, accessed 15 August 2017.

62 Supra, note 55.

63 MacBean, supra, note 12, 369–371.

64 MacBean, supra, note 12, 369.

65 “Agrochem; Cheminova; Chizhou Sincerity; Drexel; Hubei Sanonda; Hunan Haili; Lucavia; Mico; Nortox; Rallis; Sannong; Sanonda Zhenzhou; Sundat; Tenglong; United Phosphorus; [and] Zhejiang Huaxing”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 370.

66 Selected products included: “Alkedo” (Kemio); “DBi 58” (BASF); “Danadim” (Cheminova); “Devigon” (Devidayal); “Diadhan” (Dhanuka); “Dimethate” (Mobedco); “Dimezyl” (Agriphar); “Efdacon” (Efthymiadis); “Hermootrox” (Hermoo); “Kilgor” (Baocheng); “Laiton” (Lainco); “Perfekthion” (BASF); “Robgor” (Ramcides); “Rogor” (Agricultura Nacional, Cheminova); “Romethoate” (Rotam); “Stinger” (Sundat); “Tara 909” (United Phosphorus); “Teeka” (Nagarjuna Agrichem); [and] “Vidithoate” (Vipesco)”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 370.

67 Aliaba.com, “Suppliers: Dimethoate”, available at www.alibaba.com/trade/search?fsb=y&IndexArea=company_en&CatId=&SearchText=dimethoate+, accessed 8 February 2017.

68 MacBean, supra, note 12, 370.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid.

71 Ibid.

72 MacBean, supra, note 12, 371.

73 Supra, note 18.

74 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33349.

75 Supra, note 74.

76 Supra, note 74.

77 MacBean, supra, note 12, 369; Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

78 Supra, note 74.

79 Supra, note 74.

80 Supra, note 74.

81 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity5.html#EU. On endocrine disruptors, see Wikipedia, “Endocrine disruptor”, supra, note 23.

82 See MacBean, supra, note 12, 748–749.

83 The principal manufacturers as of 2012 were “Syngenta; Fertiagro; Hansen Biologic; Hakhteshim-Agan; Sega; Sharda; Sundat; Tide; Zhejiang Yongnong”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 748.

84 Methidathion was the active ingredient in products such as ““Sunmeda” (Sundat); Supracide” (Gowan, Syngenta); Supradate” (Mobedco); “Suprathion” (Makhteshim-Agari); “Suspect” (Baocheng); “Ultracide” (Syngenta); [and] “Ultracidin” (Vapco)”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 749.

85 Made-in-China.com, “Products, Insecticide: Methidathion”, www.made-in-china.com/companysearch.do?subaction=hunt&mode=and&code=0&style=b&isOpenCorrection=1word=Methidathion&comProvice=nolimit, accessed 3 September 2017.

86 Alibaba.com, “Suppliers: Methidathion”, www.alibaba.com/trade/search?indexArea=company_en&keyword=methidathion, accessed 15 August 2017.

87 MacBean, supra, note 12, 749.

88 MacBean, supra, note 12, 749.

90 Supra, note 89. On US EPA rating, see www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity2.html#EPACategory.

91 MacBean, supra, note 12, 749, 1307–1308.

92 MacBean, supra, note 12, 749.

93 Supra, note 18. Note that “PAN Bad Actors are chemicals that are one or more of the following: highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor, known/probable carcinogen, known groundwater pollutant or known reproductive or developmental toxicant. NOTE! Because there are no authoritative lists of Endocrine Disrupting (ED) chemicals, EDs are not yet considered PAN Bad Actor chemicals”: supra, note 74.

94 Supra, note 89.

95 Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

96 Supra, note 89. This category means “The data show limited evidence of carcinogenicity in the absence of human data”: www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity3.html#EPACancer.

97 Supra, note 89.

98 MacBean, supra, note 12, 826–827.

99 MacBean, supra, note 12, 826.

100 Arysta Life Science France, “L’actualité du groupe: Arysta rachétée par Platform Specialty Products Corporation”, Dublin, 17 February 2015, www.arystalifescience.fr/actualites/l-actualite-du-groupe/14-2015/2-arysta-lifescience-rachete-par-platform-specialty-products-corporation, accessed 15 August 2017. On Platform Specialty Products, see its website at www.platformspecialtyproducts.com/, accessed 15 August 2017.

101 Made-in-China.com, “Suppliers: Omethoate”, www.made-in-china.com/manufacturers/omethoate.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

102 MacBean, supra, note 12, 826.

103 MacBean, supra, note 12, 827, 1305–1308.

104 MacBean, supra, note 12, 827.

105 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33332.

106 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC30.

108 Supra, note 106. On cholinesterase inhibitors, see www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity6.html#CholinesteraseInhibitors.

109 Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

110 Supra, note 106; CK EU List.

111 See MacBean, supra, note 12, 886–887.

112 MacBean, supra, note 12, 886.

113 The main manufacturers were General Quimica and Xianlong. MacBean lists as the following as selected products and manufacturers: “Barco” (Gowan), “Fosdan” (General Quimica); “Imidan” (Gowan); “Inovitan” (Efthymiadis); “Prolate” (Gowan): MacBean, supra, note 12, 886.

114 Alibaba.com, “Products: Phosmet”, at www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/CN/phosmet.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

115 MacBean, supra, note 12, 886.

116 MacBean, supra, note 12, 887.

117 MacBean, supra, note 12, 887, 1305–1308.

118 This category means “Suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential: This descriptor is appropriate when the evidence from human or animal data is suggestive of carcinogenicity, which raises a concern for carcinogenic effects, but is judged not sufficient for a conclusion as to human carcinogenic potential. Examples of such evidence may include; a marginal increase in tumors that may be exposure-related, or evidence is observed only in a single study, or the only evidence is limited to certain high background tumors in one sex of one species. Dose-response assessment is not indicated for these agents. Further studies would be needed to determine human carcinogenic potential”: www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity3.html#EPACancer, accessed 15 August 2017.

119 Supra, note 18.

120 Supra, note 105.

121 Supra, note 105.

122 Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

123 Supra, note 105.

124 MacBean, supra, note 12, 887.

125 MacBean, supra, note 12, 887–889.

126 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

127 “Aimco; Hui Kwang; India Pesticides; Pilarquim; Sharda; Sudarshan; [and] United Phosphorus”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

128 Selected products (and manufacturers) included “Don? (Daavidayal); “Kinadon” (United Phosphorous); “Mashidon” (Crop Health); “Midon” (Nagarjuna Agrichem); [and] Phosron” (Hui Kwang): MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

129 ChemNet, “China Phosphamidon Suppliers, China Phosphamidon Manufacturers”, at www.chemnet.com/Suppliers/3900/Phosphamidon--160849.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

130 Chemical Register, The Online Chemical Buyer’s Guide, “Phosphamidon (CAS No. 13171-21-6) Suppliers (China)”, available at www.chemicalregister.com/Phosphamidon/Suppliers/pid10871.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

131 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

132 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888; PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity2.html#WHOHazardRanking, accessed 15 August 2017.

133 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

134 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888, 1307–1308.

135 MacBean, supra, note 12, 888.

136 Supra, note 18.

137 PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35125.

138 Supra, note 137.

139 Supra, note 137.

140 Extoxnet, supra, note 19.

141 Supra, note 137.

142 Supra, note 137.

143 MacBean, supra, note 12, 105–106.

144 MacBean, supra, note 12, 105.

145 “FMC; Amvac; Chunjiang; Fertiagro; Jiansu Ruidong; Jiangsu Yangnong; JIE; Ningbo Finechem; Sundat”: MacBean, supra, note 12, 105.

146 Selected products included: “Milord” (Cequisa); “Sun-bif” (Sundat); “Talstar” (FMC); “Wudang” (Rocca), Selected mixtures: “SmartChoice” (Amvac): MacBean, supra, note 12, 105–106.

147 Alibaba.com, “Suppliers: Pesticide: Insecticide: Bifenthrin”, available at www.alibaba.com/trade/search?fsb=y&IndexArea=company_en&CatId=&SearchText=pesticide+insecticide+bifenthrin&isGalleryList=G, accessed 15 August 2017.

148 Made-in-China.com, “Supplier discovery: Suppliers: Bifenthrin”, available at www.made-in-china.com/manufacturers/bifenthrin.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

149 MacBean, supra, note 12, 106.

150 MacBean, supra, note 12, 106, 1305–1308 [quotations from 1307–1308].

151 MacBean, supra, note 12, 106.

152 Supra, note 18.

154 Supra, note 153. “The data show limited evidence of carcinogenicity in the absence of human data”: www.pesticideinfo.org/Docs/ref_toxicity3.html#EPACancer, accessed 15 August 2017.

155 Supra, note 153.

156 Supra, note 153.

157 MacBean, supra, note 12, 106.

158 John Krohnfeldt, “Top 5 pesticide companies in the world (SYT, DOW)”, Investopedia, 25 August 2016, www.investopedia.com/articles/markets-economy/082516/top-5-pesticide-companies-world-syt-dow.asp, accessed 15 August 2017.

159 AgroNews, “Top global agrochemicals firms: rise of Chinese firms”, Grace Yuan, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---13350.htm, accessed 15 August 2017. See also GMWatch, “The world’s top 10 pesticide firms”, 31 January 2009, available at www.gmwatch.org/latest-listing/1-test/10560-the-worlds-top-10-pesticide-firms-who-owns-nature, accessed 15 August 2017.

160 See Syngenta, “A transaction in the interests of all stakeholders: The last information and updates”, available at www.syngenta-growth.com/en/home/, accessed 15 August 2017.

161 European Commission Competition Cases, M.7962 ChemChina/Syngenta, at http://ec.europa.eu/competition/elojade/isef/case_details.cfm?proc_code=2_M_7962, accessed 20 May 2017; European Commission, Press Release, “Mergers: Commission clears ChemChina acquisition of Syngenta, subject to conditions”, European Commission Press Release Database, 5 April 2017, at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-882_en.htm, last accessed 20 May 2017.

162 AgroNews, “12 pesticides export value exceeded US 100 million in China in 2012”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---9820.htm, accessed 6 February 2017.

163 United Nations, FAO Corporate Document Depository, available at www.fao.org/docrep/008/af340e/af340e08.htm, accessed 10 January 2017.

164 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, supra, note 164, 541.

165 On market exit as a problem, see Zheng, Wentong, “State Capitalism and the Regulation of Competition in China”, in Michael W Dowdle, John Gillespie and Imelda Maher (eds), Asian Capitalism and the Regulation of Competition: Towards a Regulatory Geography of Global Competition Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013) 144163 .

166 Agrow World Crop Protection News, “Annual Review”, January 2016, p 15, available at www.agra-net.com/agra/agrow/supplements-reports/supplements/article505168.ece/BINARY/AGROW-2015-Annual+Review-Supplement.pdf, accessed 2 March 2017.

167 The 13th Five-Year for Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China, 2016-2020, translated by Translation and Compilation Bureau, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the People’s Republic of China, Central Compilation & Translation Press, Beijing, nd [2015], Part IV, Chapter 18, Sections 4 and 5 [no pagination], available at http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201612/P020161207645765233498.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017.

168 See www.alibaba.com, accessed 20 May 2017. The Alibaba Group is described by Wikipedia as “the world’s largest retailer… with operations in over 200 countries, as well as one of the largest Internet companies”: Wikipedia, “Alibaba”, at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alibaba_Group, accessed 15 August 2017.

169 www.made-in-china.com, accessed 15 August 2017.

170 www.chemnet.com, accessed 15 August 2017.

172 http://news.agropages.com, accessed 15 August 2017.

173 ChemLinked by REACH24H Consulting Group, at https://chemlinked.com/, accessed 15 August 2017. This database is available by subscription only.

174 United Nations, FAO Corporate Document Depository, available at www.fao.org/docrep/008/af340e/af340e08.htm, accessed 15 August 2017; OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, supra, note 164, 541.

175 Statistical Communique on the Second National Agricultural Census (No 1), National Bureau of Statistics of People’s Republic of China. Available at www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjgb/nypcgb/qgnypcgb/200802/t20080221_30461.html, last consulted 12 February 2017. The census began on 31 December 2006 and information was updated on 21 February 2008.

176 Wang, Yongqiang et al, “Why some restricted pesticides are still chosen by some farmers in China ? Empirical evidence from a survey of vegetable and apple growers” (2015) 51 Food Control 417424 at 418.

177 See eg Wentong Zheng, “State Capitalism and the Regulation of Competition in China” in Dowdle, Gillespie and Maher (eds), supra, note 165, 144–163.

178 See Snyder, Francis, Food Safety Law in China: Making Transnational Law (EJ Brill for the Xiamen Academy of International Law, 2016).

179 American Insect Control Delegation, Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, submitted to the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China (National Academy of Sciences 1977) 64, 75–77 (quotation is from 64). The visit followed a 1973 visit to the United States by a scientific delegation sent by the Scientific and Technical Association of the People’s Republic of China (ibid at iii). BHC seems to refer to lindane: see Wikipedia, “Lindane”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lindane, accessed 15 August 2017.

180 Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, supra, note 179, 141–150. The 1975 US delegation remarked (at 142) that “Clearly, the Chinese have progressed beyond levels attained in the United States both in widespread enthusiasm for integrated control and, in many respects, in the application of the ecological principles fundamental to its development”. The quotation is also from 142.

181 Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, supra, note 179, 142: “The value of insecticides in crop production is recognized throughout China; indeed, most of their serious pests are primarily controlled with chemicals. Many of the problems associated with heavy dependence on insecticides so familiar to use in the United States are becoming increasingly apparent in China”.

182 Jikun Huang et al, “Farm Pesticides, Rice Production, and Human Health in China”, EEPSEA Research Report No 2001-RR3 (Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia 2001) 37, which (at 2–3) describes itself as “the first attempt to quantify the impacts of pesticide use on agricultural production and farmers’ health in a major grain production region in China”.

183 Zhou, Jiehong and Jin, Shaosheng, Food Safety Management in China: A Perspective from Food Quality Control System (Zhejiang University Press, 2013) 3346 . See also Zhou, Jiehong and Jin, Shaosheng, “Safety of Vegetables and the Use of Pesticides by Farmers in China: Evidence from Zhejiang Province” (2009) 20 Food Control 10431048 .

184 Cornelius van der Meer, et al, “China’s Compliance with Food Safety Requirements for Fruit and Vegetables: Promoting Food Safety, Competitiveness and Poverty Reduction” (World Bank) 2, available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.worldbank.org.cn/ContentPages/43434457.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017.

185 Sun, Bo et al, “Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in China: Causes and Mitigation Measures” (2012) 41(4) Ambio 370379 .

186 Shi, Y et al, “Residues of Organic Chlorinated Pesticides in Agricultural Soils of Beijing, China” (2005) 49 Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 37 .

187 See Jia, Hongliang, et al, “Endosulfan in China 1–Gridded Use Inventories” (2009) 16 Environmental Science and Pollution Research 295301 .

188 Zhang, Anping et al, “Residues of Currently and Never Used Organochlorine Pesticides in Agricultural Soils from Zhejiang Province, China” (2012) 60 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [Publication of the American Chemical Society] 29822988 (quotation from 2984).

189 UNDP in China, “Endosulfan – Phasing-Out in China, UNDP Research and Publications, available at www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/library/environment_energy/issue-brief--endosulfan-phasing-out-in-china.html, accessed 15 August 2017. The trade website Made-in-China.com currently lists 13 endosulfan manufacturers and suppliers with 39 products in China: Made-in-China.com, “Suppliers: endosulfan”, available at www.made-in-china.com/manufacturers/endosulfan.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

190 van der Meer, supra, note 184, 31. Methamidofos (methamidophos) is a highly toxic pesticide that is widely used in rice cultivation and rice-fish agriculture in China and southeast Asia. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor: see Wikipedia, “Methamidophos”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methamidophos, accessed 20 February 2017. See also Qiao, F et al, “Pesticide Use and Farmers’ Health in China’s Rice Production” (2012) 4(4) China Agricultural Economic Review 468494 .

191 Hu, Ruifa et al, “Long- and Short-Term Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure: A Cohort Study from China” (2015) 10, June 4 PLoS ONE pp 113; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128766.t004 . The first quotation is from p 7, and the second from p 10. The types of pesticides are mentioned at pp 4 and 11. Note that only 14 per cent of sampled farmers wore masks and/or gloves. See also Li, Yifan et al, “Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China” (2014) 11(4) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 39954008 , available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025041/pdf/ijerph-11-03995.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017; Zhang, H et al, “Pesticide Poisoning and Neurobehavioral Function among Farm Workers in Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China” (2016) 74 Cortex 396404 , available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26475098, accessed 15 August 2017.

192 Bai, Y, Zhou, L and Li, J, “Organochlorine Pesticide(HCH and DDT) Residues in Dietary Products from Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China” (2016) 16 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 422 (quotation from 425).

193 Chu, Xiao-Gang, Hu, Xiao-Zhong and Yao, Hui-Yuan, “Determination of 266 Pesticide Residues in Apple Juice by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Gas Chromatography – Mass Selective Detection” (2005) 1063 Journal of Chromatography A 201 at 209.

194 Chen, Chen et al, “Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables from Xiamen, China” (2011) 22(7) Food Control 11141120 .

195 Li Lixin et al, “避暑山莊及周圍寺廟景區園林園藝處; 河北農業大學” [“Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Apples of Hebei Province”] 河北省林果桑花質量監督檢驗中心; 河北林果研究 [Heibei Journal of Forestry and Orchard Research], editorial mailbox (2 July 2016), available at http://cnki.sris.com.tw/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=cjfd&dbname=cjfdtotal&filename=HBLY201602011, accessed 3 September 2017.

196 Wu, Linhai and Zhu, Dian, Food Safety in China: A Comprehensive Review (CRC Press, 2015) 22 .

197 Wang, Shumei et al, “Pesticide Residues in Market Foods in Shaanxi Province of China in 2010” (2013) 138(2–3) Food Chemistry 20162025 .

198 Gao, Xishan et al, “Developing a novel sensitive visual screening card for rapid detection of pesticide residues in food” (2013) 30 Food Control 1523 at 23. On trace analysis of carbamate pesticides in apples, see also Zhang, Shuaihui et al, “Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with sweeping micellar electrokinestic chromatography for trace analysis of six carbamate pesticides in apples” (2010) 2 Analytical Methods [Journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry] 5464 , available at www.rsc.org/methods, accessed 15 August 2017.

199 Zhou and Jin (2013), supra, note 183, 34. For an example of the problems of eliminating food poisoning by toxic pesticides, see Roberts, Darren M et al, “Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka” (2003) 81 Bulletin of the World Health Organization 11 , available at www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0042-96862003001100005, accessed 15 August 2017. Based mainly on hospital records, this study concerns only intentional self-poisoning, not occupational poisoning, so it is not directly relevant here. However, it shows that if highly toxic pesticides such as methamidiphos and omethoate are not available due to tighter regulation, farmers switched to endosulfan, and when that was banned, to less toxic but still dangerous pesticides.

200 Chen, C, Yang, J and Findlay, C, “Measuring Effect of Food Safety Standards on China’s Agricultural Exports” (2008) 144 Review of World Economics 83106 . See also Calvin, Linda et al, “Food Safety Improvements Underway in China” (2006) Amber Waves 4 , 5, [USDA Economic Research Service] np, available at www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves, accessed 15 August 2015.

201 Calculated by Ni Lili from US Food and Drug Administration, “Import Refusal Reports for OASIS”, available at www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/importrefusals/, accessed 15 August 2017.

202 European Commission, RASFF Portal, available at https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=searchResultList, accessed 15 August 2017.

203 Supra, note 202. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide which is regarded as a possible carcinogen. Agricultural use is banned in the EU for environmental reasons [but permitted for use as a wood preservative] and in the US [permitted from greenhouse use]. See MacBean, supra, note 12, 888; PAN Pesticide Database – Chemicals, “Chlorpenafyr”, available at www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35810, accessed 15 August 2017; David Lunn, Dugald MacLachlan and Weili Shan, “Chlorfenapyr (254), first draft prepared for the FAO CCPR” [Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues], www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/documents/Pests_Pesticides/JMPR/Evaluation12/Chlorfenapyr.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017 [no MRL or ADI recommended]; EU, Final Regulatory Action, “Chlorpenafyr”, http://archive.pic.int/CH/Demo/embed/view_displayFRA.php?id=195, accessed 10 February 2017; Commission Directive 2013/27/EU of 17 May 2013 amending Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council to include chlorfenapyr as an active substance in Annex I thereto, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:135:0010:0013:EN:PDF, accessed 15 August 2017; United States EPA, “Pesticide Fact Sheet: Chlorfenapyr”, available at www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC-129093_01-Jan-01.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017 [greenhouse use only]; Wikipedia, “Chlorfenapyr”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorfenapyr, accessed 15 August 2017.

204 Metcalf, Robert L and Kelman, Arthur, “Integrated Pest Management in China” (1981) 23(4) Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 613 , available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00139157.1981.9933131, accessed 15 August 2017. For the period up to 1975, a useful source is Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, supra, note 179.

205 See Snyder, Francis, Zhouke, Hu and Lili, Ni, ““Transnational Law and Pesticide Regulation in China: An Exploration of Legal Pluralism”, forthcoming in Peer Zumbansen (ed), Jessop’s Bold Proposal: Transnational Law After 60 Years (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

206 On regulatory paths, see also Snyder, Francis, Yi, Lu and Yazdani, Gulrez, “Traditional Chinese Medicine and European Union Law” (2014) 2(1) Peking University Law Journal 129200 .

207 McBeath and McBeath reported in 2010 that “In China, it is widely believed that farmers do not eat the products they produce for the market”: McBeath, Jenifer Huang and McBeath, Jerry, Environmental Change and Food Security in China (Springer, 2010) 155 .

208 See Snyder, Zhouke and Lili, supra, note 205; Francis Snyder and Ni Lili, “Navigating Food Safety Standards in International Law: EU – China Regulatory Cooperation”, work in progress [on file with the authors].

209 For further information on the hierarchy of norms in Chinese law, see Corne, Peter Howard, Foreign Investment in China: The Administrative Legal System (Hong Kong University Press, 1997); Otto, Jan-Michiel et al (eds), Law-Making in the People’s Republic of China (Brill, 2000); Chen, Jienfu, Chinese Law: Context and Transformation (Martinus Nijhoff, 2008).

210 The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products (中华人民共和国农产品质量安全法, zhong hua ren min gong he guo nong chan pin zhi liang an quan fa), amended and adopted at the 21st Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on 29 April 2006, with effect as of 1 November 2006, Order of the People’s Republic of China No 49, available at LawinfoChina, accessed 31 March 2017.

211 Food Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China (中华人民共和国食品安全法》 (2015 Revision) zhong hua ren min gong he guo shi pin an quan fa), revised and adopted at the Fourteenth Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on 24 April 2015, coming into force on 1 October 2015 (Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China, No 21). available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

212 Food Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China (2009, Revised) (中华人民共和国食品安全法》(2009)zhong hua ren min gong he guo shi pin an quan fa), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

213 Chinese laws, regulations or other measures do not define “highly toxic pesticides”. For the international working definition of “highly hazardous pesticides” (HHPs), see Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “AGP – Highly Hazardous Pesticides (HHPs), available at www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/pests/code/hhp/en/, accessed 1 December 2016. As agreed by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Management (JMPM), HHPs include “Pesticide formulations that meet the criteria of classes Ia or Ib of the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard; or Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of carcinogenicity Categories 1A and 1B of the Globally Harmonized System on Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS); or Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of mutagenicity Categories 1A and 1B of the Globally Harmonized System on Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS); or Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of reproductive toxicity Categories 1A and 1B of the Globally Harmonized System on Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS); or Pesticide active ingredients listed by the Stockholm Convention in its Annexes A and B, and those meeting all the criteria in paragraph 1 of annex D of the Convention; or Pesticide active ingredients and formulations listed by the Rotterdam Convention in its Annex III; or Pesticides listed under the Montreal Protocol; or Pesticide active ingredients and formulations that have shown a high incidence of severe or irreversible adverse effects on human health or the environment”.

214 Detention by the public security bureau, in addition to sanctions under other laws and regulations.

215 If not criminally punishable: confiscation of illegal income and pesticides, tools, equipment, raw materials; fine of between 50,000 and 100,000 RMB if the value of the goods is less than 10,000 RMB or between ten times and 20 times the value of the goods if the goods are worth 10,000 RMB or more; and, if the circumstances are serious, revocation of permit.

216 Regulations on Pesticide Administration (2001 Revision) (Effective) (《农药管理条例》(2001)nong yao guan li tiao li) Order No 326 of the State Council, promulgated by Decree No 216 of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China on 8 May 1997, amended in accordance with the Decision of the State Council on Amending the Regulations on Pesticide Administration on 29 November 2001, amended in 2009 with effect as of 2012, see www.cirs-reach.com/China_Chemical_Regulation/China_Pesticides_Herbicides_Registration.html, but the amendment does not change these articles, available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

217 Art 2, para 1. See also Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, “Guidelines for Legislation on the Use of Pesticides”(Rome, January 1989) 2, which defines pesticide as “any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products, or animal feedstuffs, or which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies. The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit, and substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport”.

218 Regulations on Pesticide Administration (2001 Revision), supra, note 216, Arts 4 (registration required for manufacture, sale, use), 6–11 (registration procedure), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017; amended 2009 with effect as of 2012, see www.cirs-reach.com/China_Chemical_Regulation/China_Pesticides_Herbicides_Registration.html, but the amendment does not change these articles. See also OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, supra, note 164, 541.

219 For a list of laws, standards and specifications related to pesticidal persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in China as of 2009, see Yin Lau, Melody Hoi et al, “Environmental Policy, Legislation and Management of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in China” (2012) 165 Environmental Pollution 182192 at 187, Table 4. For an overview of Chinese law on pesticides as of 8 September 2016, see Lin Fang, “Chinese Pesticide Legislation Overview”, CHEMLINKED by REACH24H Consulting Group, Agrochemical Regulatory News and Database, available at https://agrochemical.chemlinked.com/chempedia/chinese-pesticide-legislation-overview, accessed 5 January 2017.

220 Measures for the GLP Accreditation of Pesticide Laboratories – MoA Announcement 739 《中华人民共和国农业部公告 第 739 号》– 农药良好实验室考核管理办法 (zhong hua ren min gong he guo nong ye bu gong gao di 739 hao- nong yao liang hao shi yan shi kao he guan li ban fa), available at http://english.agri.gov.cn/, accessed 4 April 2017.

221 Measures for the Administration of the Manufacturing of Pesticides, National Development and Reform Commission Order No 23《农药生产管理办法》 (nong yao sheng chan guan li ban fa), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

222 Rules for Implementing Production License on Pesticide Products 《农药产品生产许可证实施细则》(nong yao chan pin sheng chan zheng xu ke zheng shi shi xi ze); [General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China].

223 Measures for the Management on Residue Testing Facilities for Pesticide Registration 《农药登记残留实验单位认证管理办法》(nong yao deng ji can liu shi yan dan weir en zheng guan li ban fa); available at pkulaw, accessed 4 April 2017.

224 Data Requirement on Pesticide Administration, issued in 2001 and replaced by Order No. 10 of the Ministry of Agriculture《农药登记资料要求》 (nong yao deng ji zi liao yao qiu), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

225 Regulation on Pesticide Administration (2001 Revision) [Effective], issued on 29 November 2001 as Order No 326 of the State Council; Measures for Implementing the Regulation on Pesticide Administration, Order No 7 of the Ministry of Agriculture, 2007,《农药管理条例实施办法》 (nong yao guan li tiao li shi shi ban fa) available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

226 Measures for the Management of Pesticide Labels and Manuals, Order No 7 of the Ministry of Agriculture of 2007 《农药标签和说明书管理办法》 (nong yao biao qian he shuo ming shu guan li ban fa), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

227 Measures for Examination of Pesticide Advertisement, SAIC&MoA Order 30 of 1995, revised by SAIC&MoA Order 88 of 1998《农药广告审查办法》 (nong yao guang gao shen cha ban fa), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

228 Procedures for Restricting Pesticide Uses, Ministry of Agriculture Order No 17 of 2002 《农药限制使用管理规定》(农业部令 2002 第 17 号)《nong yao xian zhi shi yong guan li gui ding》(nong ye bu ling 2002 di 17 hao), available at http://english.agri.gov.cn/, accessed 4 April 2017.

229 GB 2763-2016 National food Safety Standard-Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides in Food.

230 Measures for Implementing the Regulation on Pesticide Administration(Ministry of Agriculture Order 9 of 2007) 《农药管理条例实施办法》 (nong yao guan li tiao li shi shi ban fa), available at pkulaw, accessed 31 March 2017.

231 See the ICAMA website at www.chinapesticide.gov.cn/ywb/index.jhtml, accessed 15 August 2017.

232 See “2015 Tianjin explosions”, available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015_Tianjin_explosions, accessed 15 August 2017.

233 For a summary, see Xiaolu Wang, “China to increase information transparency for hazardous chemical management”, 3E Company website, 20 December 2016, available at http://3ecompany.com/resource-center/blog/china-increase-information-transparency-hazardous-chemical-management, accessed 15 August 2017. On regulation of hazardous chemicals up to then see CIRS, “Hazardous Chemical Management Regulations in China (2016)”, updated to 17 November 2016, available at www.cirs-reach.com/news-and-articles/hazardous-chemical-management-regulations-in-china-2015.html, accessed 15 August 2017.

234 Chemical Inspection & Regulation Service (CIRS), English Edition of the Guide to Hazardous Chemicals in China (2015) [cf also earlier editions], available from CIRS Shanghai (2002 edition prepared in 2011). The eight pesticides discussed here are not on the CIRS list.

235 For a summary, see Lin Fang, “China MoA Compiles Plan for Hazardous Pesticides Control”, 6 January 2017, available at https://agrochemical.chemlinked.com/news/news/china-moa-compiles-plan-hazardous-pesticides-control, accessed 15 August 2017.

236 See Mi Gao, “State Council Passes Draft of Revised Regulations on Pesticide Administration”, ChemLinked, Agrochemical Regulatory News and Database, 10 February 2017, available at https://agrochemical.chemlinked.com/news/news/state-council-passes-draft-revised-regulations-pesticide-administration, accessed 15 August 2017. Under the current Regulations, other administrative departments at or above county level are responsible for pesticide supervision and administration “within their respective functions and responsibilities” (Art 5, para 2). The current Regulations provide sanctions of marketing inferior quality pesticide but do not specify clearly that manufacturer and suppliers bear responsibility for safety and efficiency of pesticides (see Arts 32, 43). On fake pesticides, see Art 43.

237 See Gao, supra, note 236; and Knoell Germany, “China approved new draft pesticide regulations”, available at www.knoellconsult.com/en/news/china-approved-new-draft-pesticide-regulations, accessed 15 August 2017.

238 Shaanxi Province Regulations on Pesticide Administration (《陕西省人民政府办公厅关于推进耕地轮作休耕实行化肥农药使用减量化的意见》Shaanxi Ren Min Zheng Fu Ban Gong Ting Guan Yu Tui Jin Geng Di Lun Zuo Xiu Geng Shi Xing Hua Fei Nong Yao Shi Yong Jian Liang Hua Yi Jian, Art 40, available at http://knews.shaanxi.gov.cn/0/sxzb/8963.htm, accessed 26 March 2017.

239 《农药登记费》(Xi”an Nong Yao Deng Ji Fei), available at http://www.xa.gov.cn/ptl/def/def/index_1121_6774_ci_trid_1250608.html, accessed 26 March 2017; 《西安市人民政府办公厅关于调整优化种植结构实行化肥农药使用减量化的意见》(Xi’an Ren Min Zheng Fu Ban Gong Ting Guan Yu Tiao Zheng You Hua Zhong Zhi Jie Gou Shi Xing Hua Fei Nong Yao Shi Yong Jian Liang Hua De Yi Jian), available at www.xa.gov.cn/ptl/def/def/index_1121_6774_ci_trid_2118743.html, accessed 26 March 2017.

240 Shandong Regulations on Pesticide Administration/Management (Provincial Order No 121) (《山东农药管理办法》 Shandong Nong Yao Guan Li Ban Fa), available at www.shandong.gov.cn/art/2006/1/8/art_284_180.html, accessed 26 March 2017.

241 Shandong Province Agricultural Product Quality Regulation (Order No 277) (《山东省农产品质量安全监督管理规定》 Shandong Nong Chan Pin Zhi Liang An Quan Jian Du Guan Li Gui Ding), available at www.shandong.gov.cn/art/2014/4/15/art_285_5755.html, accessed 26 March 2017.

242 Shandong Pesticide Management in Supervising and Spot-checking Regulation (《山东省农药监督抽查管理办法》 Shandong Nong Yao Jian Du Chou Cha Guan Li Ban Fa), available at www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zcfg/dffg/201411/t20141119_4213600.htm, accessed 26 March 2017.

243 Shandong Registration of Pesticide Selling Administration (《山东省农药经营告知管理办法》 Shandong Nong Yao Jing Ying Gao Zhi Guan Li Ban Fa), available at www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zcfg/dffg/201411/t20141119_4213598.htm, accessed 26 March 2017.

244 Shandong Import Agricultural Product Administration (Order No 189) (山东出口农产品质量安全监督管理规定 Shandong Chu Kou Nong Chan Pin Zhi Liang An Quan Jian Du Guan Li Gui Ding), available at www.shandong.gov.cn/art/2006/10/23/art_285_6104.html, accessed 26 March 2017.

245 Volume/List of High-risky Pesticide (高风险农药目录 Gao Feng Xian Nong Yao Mu Lu), available at www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zcfg/dffg/201411/t20141119_4213537.htm, accessed 26 March 2017.

246 Shandong Province Note on the Quality Improvement of Plowed Land (2014~2020) (山东省人民政府办公厅关于印发山东省耕地质量提升规划的通知 (2014~2020), Geng Di Zhi Liang Ti Sheng Gui Hua Tong Zhi (2014~2020), available at www.shandong.gov.cn/art/2014/12/23/art_285_6753.html, accessed 26 March 2017.

247 Ministry of Agriculture, Announcement No 1 of 2008, together with four ministries and commissions (8 January 2008), available at www.agropages.com, accessed 15 August 2017.

248 Agronews, “Minister of Agriculture prohibits or restricts the use of high-toxic pesticides”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---15472.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

249 AgroNews, “China conducts risk reviews of acephate, three other pesticide products [including dimethoate]”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---15646.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

250 Pesticide Action Network International, “PAN International Consolidated List of Banned Pesticides, 2nd edn (July 2015), available at http://pan-international.org/pan-international-consolidated-list-of-banned-pesticides/, accessed 15 August 2017.

251 Ministry of Agriculture, Announcement No 194 of 22 April 2002 and No 1586 of 15 June 2011 (《中华人民共和国农业部公告 第 194 号》zhong hua ren min gong he guo nong ye bu gong gao di 194 hao 《中华人民共和国农业部公告 第 1586 号》zhong hua ren min gong he guo nong ye bu gong gao di 1586 hao). As of 10 May 2010, the use of omethoate was banned in the production of cabbages: see Agronews, “Pesticide Banned or Restricted by Chinese Government”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---2265.htm, accessed 6 February 2017.

252 AgroNews, “China announces insecticide resistance monitoring results for 13 major insect pests”, http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---17929.htm, accessed 6 February 2017.

253 Ministry of Agriculture, Announcement No. 2032 of 9 December 2013 (《中华人民共和国农业部公告 第 2032 号》zhong hua ren min gong he guo nong ye bu gong gao di 2032 hao). Source: www.agropages.com, accessed 15 August 2017. On the use of chlorpyrifos, see AgroNews, “China announces insecticide resistance monitoring results for 13 major insect pests”, http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---17929.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

254 AgroNews, supra, note 253.

255 AgroNews, “China approved 34 pesticide as [active ingredient] registrations in May”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---15084.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

256 AgroNews, “China to set MRLS on 2,4-D and other pesticides”, available at http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---4552.htm, accessed 15 August 2017.

257 General Office of Ministry of Agriculture’s Notice on Guidelines on Demonstration Project of Selling High Toxic Pesticides at Fixed Places in 2015 and Guidelines on Demonstration Project of Compensating sale of Low Toxic Pesticides in 2015 农业部办公厅关于印发《2015 年高毒农药定点经营示范项目指导方案》和《2015 年低毒生物农药示范补助试点项目实施指导方案》的通知, available at pkulaw, accessed 8 February 2017.

258 As reported on 23 March 2017, available at http://news.ifeng.com/a/20170323/50823792_0.shtml, accessed 26 March 2016.

259 Calculated from the national standards. GB 2005/2012/2014/2016 is an abbreviation for the National food safety standard-maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB2763-2005/2012/2014/2016).

260 This litigation will be examined in Francis Snyder and Hu Zhouke, “Courts as Regulators: Pesticides in the Chinese Courts”, work in progress.

261 We are grateful to Hu Zhouke for this information (emails on file with the authors). The pkudata (北大法宝) database classifies and filters cases instead of collecting every judgment throughout China. The openlaw (开放法律联盟) database purports to collect all judgments throughout China.

262 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, supra, note 164, 545. It is not clear from the OECD review whether this is the total number of cases or only those concerning intellectual property rights

263 Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China (97 Revision) [已被修订] 法规标题】中华人民共和国刑法(97 修订) [Revised] (zhong hua ren min gong he guo xing fa); available at pkulaw, enacted 14 March 1997, effective as of 1 October 1997, Art 147, accessed 28 March 2017.

264 Wu and Zhu, supra, note 196, 28–29.

265 China Pesticide Information Network, Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China, “ICAMA investigates carbofuran and carbosulfan in Hunan Province”, available at https://agrochemical.chemlinked.com/news/news/china-icama-initiates-re-assessment-24-d-butylate#sthash.QqUW6RXo.dpbs, accessed 3 September 2017. In July 2015 the National Review Committee of Pesticide Administration recommended the revocation of the registration of carbofuran for use on sugarcane: see China Pesticide Information Network, Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China, “Minutes of the Seventeenth Plenary Meeting of the Eighth National Review Committee of Pesticide Administration, available at www.chinapesticide.gov.cn/zwxw/821.jhtml, accessed 3 September 2017.

266 Wang et al, supra, note 176.

267 Huiqi Yan, “Why Chinese Farmers Obey the Law: Pesticide Compliance in Hunan Province, China” (PhD Thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam 2014) 78–81, available at http://hdl.handle.net/11245/1.431998 [UvA-DARE, the institutional repository of the University of Amsterdam (UvA)]. The thesis is expected to be published in August 2017 as Pesticide Law and Compliance Decision-Making: A Study of Chinese Farmers (Springer).

268 曹涤环,淘汰国家禁用农药品种任重道远,今日农药, 2014 年 7 月,第 15-16 页 (Cao Dihuan, “A long haul for the phase-out of the banned pesticides in China”, The New Century of Agrochem (2014/07) 15–16, available at www.cqvip.com/QK/86834A/201407/661803742.html, accessed 7 February 2017.

269 Supra, note 268. See also Huang, Qiao, Zhang, Rozelle, supra note 4. Even today, Made-in-China.com lists four suppliers for chlordimeform: see Made-in-China.com, available at www.made-in-china.com/companysearch.do?word=chlordimeform&subaction=hunt&style=b&mode=and&code=0&comProvince=nolimit&order=0&isOpenCorrection=1, accessed 15 August 2017; pin yin version: tao tai guo jia jin yong nong yao pin zhong ren zhong dao yuan.

270 Regulations on Pesticide Administration (2001 Revision), supra, note 216, Arts 40, 43, available at pkulaw, accessed 28 March 2017.

271 Pesticide Action Network International, “PAN International List of Highly Hazardous Pesticides (PAN List of HHPs)”, PAN International, c/o PAN Germany, Hamburg, December 2016, available at http://pan-international.org/wp-content/uploads/PAN_HHP_List.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017.

272 Commission Regulation (EU) No 834/2013 of 30 August 2013 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for acequinocyl, bixafen, diazinon, difenoconazole, etoxazole, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, isopyrazam, lambda-cyhalothrin, OJEU 31.8.2013 L233/11, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32013R0834, accessed 15 August 2017.

273 National food safety standard – Maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2016) GB 2763-2016 食品安全国家标准 食品中农药最大残留量》; GB 2763-2016 (shi pin an quan guo jia biao zhun shi pin zhong nong yao zui da can liu liang).

274 USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, Global Agricultural Information Network, “Russia – New Russian MRLS for Pesticides in Agricultural and Food Products”, GAIN Report RS1401, 10 January 2014, available at http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/New%20Russian%20MRLs%20for%20Pesticides%20in%20Agricultural%20and%20Food%20Products_Moscow_Russian%20Federation_1-10-2014.pdf, accessed 15 August 2017.

275 § 180.442 available at www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c14d8f5a3b4ecbe7d9fbe57348bd6938&mc=true&node=se40.26.180_1442&rgn=div8 but the MRL will expire on 31 December 2018.

276 Supra, note 273.

277 Commission Regulation (EU) No 310/2011 of 28 March 2011 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for aldicarb, bromopropylate, chlorfenvinphos, endosulfan, EPTC, ethion, fenthion, fomesafen, methabenzthiazuron, methidathion, simazine, tetradifon and triforine in or on certain products, OJEU 1.4.2011 L86/1, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:086:0001:0050:EN:PDF, accessed 15 August 2017.

278 Supra, note 274.

279 § 180.298 available at www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=c14d8f5a3b4ecbe7d9fbe57348bd6938&mc=true&node=se40.26.180_1298&rgn=div8 but the tolerance expired on 31 December 2016.

280 Supra, note 274.

281 No MRL is established, hence the agricultural use of the product is not permitted: Fortin, Neal D, Food Regulation: Law, Science, Policy and Practice, 2nd edn (Wiley, 2017) 173 .

282 Supra, note 273.

283 Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011of 25 May 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances, OJEU 11.6.2011 L153/1, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:153:0001:0186:EN:PDF, accessed 15 August 2017.

284 See eg Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China, Information Office, “National Food Safety Standard Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides in Food”, the new release of the pesticide residue limits increased to 4140”, 28 December 2016, available at www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zwdt/201612/t20161228_5419643.htm, accessed 15 August 2017; supra, note 273.

285 Fortunately, the gap in communication and understanding between scientists and regulators has narrowed dramatically since 1975, when an American delegation could gain the impression that “[t]he understanding of our scientific colleagues in China about [governmental regulation of pesticides] was evidently roughly equivalent to U.S. scientists’ “understanding of the complexities of our FDA [Food and Drug Administration] and EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] processes”: Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, supra, note 179, 88.

286 See also Corne, supra, note 209, and Benjamin van Rooij, Rachel E Stern and Kathinka Fürst, “The Authoritarian Logic of Regulatory Pluralism: Understanding China’s New Environmental Actors”, Legal Studies Research Paper Series No 2014-26 (School of Law, University of California Irvine), available at www.law.berkeley.edu/php-programs/faculty/facultyPubsPDF.php?facID=15878&pubID=14, accessed 9 March 2017. On implementation of environmental law and recommendations for improvement as of 2006, see Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in China: An Assessment of Current Practices and Ways Forward (OECD, 2006).

287 Smith, LED and Siciliano, G, “A Comprehensive Review of Constraints to Improved Management of Fertilizers in China and Mitigation of Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture” (2015) 209 Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 1525 at 18.

288 Decision of the State Council about Further Strengthening Food Safety, issue on 9 January 2004, effective date 9 January 2004 (No 23 [2004] of the State Council), CLI2.55522 (EN), Chinalawinfo, Section 3, “Several Significant Measures”.

289 See the discussion in Snyder, supra, note 178, 65–78.

290 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, supra, note 164, 545.

291 See Smith and Siciliano, supra, note 287; Patten, supra, note 4.

292 Corne, supra, note 209, 284.

293 See Gao, supra, note 236.

294 See Heilman, Sebatian, Perry, Elizabeth J and Thornton, Patricia M (eds), Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge MA, 2011 .

295 We are grateful to our colleague Hu Zhouke for this information.

296 Wang et al, supra, note 176. See also Yan, supra, note 267, 193–194, 198–199, 205.

297 A very recent study of pesticide use in Guangdong, Jiangxi and Hebei Provinces indicated that less than 14 per cent of 224 farmers in the study took protective measures during spraying: Chao Zhang at al, “Health Effect of Agricultural Pesticide Use in China: Implications for the Development of GM Crops”, Scientific Report, 6, article number: 34918, 2016, available at www.nature.com/articles/srep34918, accessed 15 August 2017. See also Huang, JG et al, “The setting of an occupational exposure limit for phosphamidon in the workplace – a Chinese approach” (1993) 37(1) Annals of Occupational Hygiene 8999 .

298 See also Wang et al, supra, note 176. For an empirical study of the extent of farmers’ compliance with pesticide regulations, see Yan Huiqi, Benjamin van Rooij and Jeroen van der Heijden, “The Enforcement-Compliance Paradox: Lessons about Matching Regulatory Priorities to Compliance Motivations from Pesticide Regulation in China”, University of California Irvine, School of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 2015-24, available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2576888, accessed 15 August 2017. The authors argue that pesticide compliance policy often concentrates on rules which are the least likely to be broken and those actors which are most likely to comply with the rules. For the broader theoretical framework of which this work is a part, see Rooij, Benjamin van, Regulating Law and Pollution in China: Lawmaking, Compliance, and Enforcement; Theory and Cases (Leiden University Press, 2006).

299 Attempts to reduce agricultural use of pesticides in France have encountered resistance by large agrochemical companies and farmers, as well as lack of government investment in subsidies for pollution-free agriculture and for basic research to find alternatives to toxic pesticides. See Garric, Audrey and Hir, Pierre Le, “Timide recul de l”usage des pesticides en France”, Le Monde (Paris) (2 February 2017) 11 .

300 On specification of law and normative flexibility in the Chinese legal system, see Corne, supra, note 209, 105, passim.

301 On the United States example, see Thomas, In Food We Trust: The Politics of Purity in American Food Regulation, supra, note 2, pp 83–85. On soft law, see Haocai, Luo and Gongde, Song, Soft Law Governance: Towards an Integrated Approach, translated by Ben Armour and Tang Hailong (William S Hein & Co Inc, 2013).

302 The importance of transparency in ensuring food safety is discussed in Arthur PJ Moi, “Governing China’s Food Quality through Transparency: A Review” (2014) 43 Food Control 49–56, available at www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713514001030, accessed 15 August 2017, which concluded (at 55) that, as of 2013, “the current transparency architecture in China’s food safety regime is ill-functioning and as such plays only a minor role in providing food quality and safety”. A useful comparator, suggested by Mark Feldman, is the negotiation of increased regulatory transparency in international investment treaties by China today as compared to a decade ago.

303 See eg Whorton, supra, note 2; Carson, Silent Spring, supra, note 2; Insect Control in the People’s Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Insect Control Delegation, supra, note 179; MacBean, supra, note 12.

304 Art 23 provides that that relevant government departments “shall, under the principles of ‘scientific, objective, timely, and open’ organize food producers and business operators, food testing agencies, certification agencies, food industry associations, consumers’ associations, and news media, etc to exchange information on food safety risk assessment and the information on food safety supervision and administration in a scientific, objective, timely and open manner”. This is the translation of Westlaw China, which may differ slightly in wording but not in substance as compared to other translations. We borrow the term “society co-governance” from Sun Ying, “From Risk Communication to Society Co-Governance: Ways of Dealing with Crisis in Governmental Administration of Food Safety” (2016) 4(4) China Legal Science 100–117. For empirical support for this policy suggestion, see Yan, supra, note 267, 87–103, 248–250.

305 An indicator of the importance of taking the broader context into account concerns the proposal favouring widespread adoption glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops. The health risks of glyphosate are very controversial, yet China is the world’s largest producer and user. Similar, the health and environmental risks of GM food are very controversial: China is probably the world’s largest producer, and though GM soya beans are imported in large quantities, the sale of China-produced GM food crops is forbidden. For the proposal, see Zhang, et al, supra, note 297. In the EU, the Court of Justice of the European Union recently ruled that “information that relates to emissions into the environment” that must be disclosed by governmental authorities to the public includes plant protection and biocidal products: Case C-673/13 P European Commission v Stichting Greenpeace Nederland and Pesticide Action Network Europe (PAN Europe), Judgment of the Court (Fifth Chamber) of 23 November 2016, available at http://curia.europa.eu/juris/celex.jsf?celex=62013CJ0673&lang1=en&type=TXT&ancre=, and Case C-442/14 Bayer CropScience SA-NV, Stichting De Bijenstichting v College voor de toelating van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden, Judgment of the Court (Fifth Chamber) of 23 November 2016, available at http://curia.europa.eu/juris/celex.jsf?celex=62013CJ0673&lang1=en&type=TXT&ancre=, both accessed 15 August 2017. For a brief summary, see Covington and Burling, “CJEU Adopts Broad Interpretation of Emissions Information That Authorities Must Disclose”, available at www.cov.com/en/news-and-insights/insights/2016/11/cjeu-adopts-broad-interpretation-of-emissions-information-that-authorities-must-disclose, accessed 15 August 2017.

306 By “campaign”, we mean the continuous provision to all levels of governance, economic actors and citizens of general and specific information about the health risks of toxic pesticides, as distinguished from short-lived, targeted law enforcement campaigns analysed by Benjamin van Rooij “The Politics of Law in China: Enforcement Campaigns in the Post-Mao PRC”, Working Paper, 25 March 2009, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1368181, accessed 15 August 2017.

* CV Starr Professor of Law, EU Jean Monnet Chair ad personam and Director, Centre for Research on Transnational Law, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China; Special Endowed Chair Professor of Food Safety, Northwest University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Emeritus Professor, CERIC, Aix-Marseille University, France; Visiting Professor, College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium.

** BA, Nanchang University; JD and JM Candidate, Peking University School of Transnational Law, and Research Assistant, Centre for Research on Transnational Law, Peking University School of Transnational Law, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China.

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