Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-9m8n8 Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2022-09-30T22:30:27.718Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Models of creativity abroad: migrants, strangers and travellers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 July 2009

Feiwel Kupferberg
University of Aalborg, (Aalborg).
Get access


Migration, the role of the stranger and travelling are all creativity-enhancing although for different reasons. The migrant model verifies Koestler's hypothesis that new ideas often arise out of combinations of separate frames of thinking. Simmel's theory of the stranger emphasizes the increased objectivity of limited commitments. Rudwick's recently suggested model of liminal experience might help us explain why the seemingly purposeless activity of travelling might also stimulate creativity.

L'émigration, le statut d'étranger, le voyage sont des facteurs de création littéraire. Le modèle de l'émigration vérifie l'hypothèse de Koestler selon laquelle les idées nouvelles naissent souvent de la rencontre de plusieurs cadres de pensée. Simmel insistait sur le gain d'objectivité du regard de l'étranger soumis à peu d'engagements. Plus récemment, Rudwick suggère que le choc du premier regard peut expliquer pourquoi le voyage, apparemment sans propos précis, peut stimuler la créativité.

Auswanderung, Stellung des Ausländers, Reisen zählen zu den Elementen der literarischen Schöpfung Das Modell der Auswanderung wird mit der Hypothese Koesders konfrontiert, die besagt, daß neue Ideen häufig durch die Begegnung mehrerer Gedankengebäude entstehen. Simmel betonte, daß der Blick des Ausländers aufgrund seiner wenigen Verpflichtungen an Objektivität gewinnt. Vor kurzem legte Rudwick nahe, daß der Schock des erstmaligen Betrachtens erkläten könnte, weshalb die Reise, scheinbar unbeabsichtigt, die Kreativität fördert.

Note Critique
Copyright © Archives Européenes de Sociology 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Barnett, H.G., 1953, Innovation—the Basis of Cultural Change (New York: McGraw-Hill Books).Google Scholar
Beller, Steven, 1989, Vienna and the Jews. 1867–1938 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
Bierstedt, Robert, 1981, American Sociological Theory. A Critical History (New York: Academic Press).Google Scholar
Boden, Margaret A., 1991, The Creative Mind (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
Bok, Sissela, 1988, Alva. Ett kvinnoliv (Stockholm: Bonniers).Google Scholar
Bradford, Sarah, 1983, Disraeli (New York: Stein and Day).Google Scholar
Brandell, Gunnar, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, Strindberg—ett författarliv I–IV (Stockholm: Alba).Google Scholar
Browne, Janet, 1996, Charles Darwin. Voyaging (London: Jonathan Cape).Google Scholar
Clark, Ronald W., 1971, Einstein. The Life and Times (New York and Cleveland: The World Publishing Co).Google Scholar
Clark, Ronald W., 1984, The survival of Charles Darwin (New York: Ramdon House).Google Scholar
Cohen-Solal, Annie, 1987, Sartre. A Life (New York: Pantheon Books).Google Scholar
Coser, Lewis A., 1954, The Functions of Social Conflict (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Coser, Lewis A., 1967, Continuities in the Study of Social Conflict (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Coser, Lewis A., 1970, Men of Ideas. A Sociologist's View (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Coser, Lewis A., 1984, Refugee Scholars in America. Their Impact and Their Experiences (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Costello, Peter, 1992, James Joyce. The Years of Growth, 1882–1915 (New York: Pantheon Books).Google Scholar
Cziksmenthalyi, Michaly, 1996, Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention (New York: Harper and Collins).Google Scholar
DahmsHarry, F. Harry, F., 1995, From Creative Action to the Social Rationalization of the Economy: Joseph A. Schumpeter's Social Theory, Sociological Theory, 13(1): 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darwin, Charles, 1959, Voyage of the Beagle (London: Dent).Google Scholar
Darwin, Charles, 1964, On the Origins of Species (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
Denvir, Bernard (ed.), 1987, The Impressionists at First Hand (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
Edel, Leon, Henry James. A Life (New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
Ellmann, Richard, 1976, James Joyce (New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Epstein, Joseph, 1997, O, Brother!, Commentary, 103(4), 04: 5154.Google Scholar
Felt, Ulrike, Nowotny, Helga and Taschwer, Klaus, 1995, Wissenschaftsforschung (Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag).Google Scholar
Fenton, Charles A., 1987, The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway (Oxford: Planing Paperbacks).Google Scholar
Foner, Anne and Kertzer, David, 1978, Transitions over the Life-Course: Lessons from Age-Set Societies, American Journal of Sociology, 83(5): 10811104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedrich, Otto, 1992, Olympia. Paris in the Age of Manet (New York: Harper Collins).Google Scholar
Gardner, Howard, 1993, Creating Minds (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
Gay, Peter, 1988, Freud. A Life For Our Times (New York: W.W. Norton & Co).Google Scholar
Ghiselin, Michael T., 1984, The Triumph of the Darwinian Method (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
Gilder, Georg., 1985, The Entrepreneurial Spirit (New York: Viking).Google Scholar
Glaser, Barney G. and Strauss, Anselm L., 1971, Status Passages (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).Google Scholar
Gould, Stephen J., 1996, Why Darwin?, The New York Review of Books, XLIII(g): 1014.Google Scholar
Gouldner, Alvin, 1979, The Future of the Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class (London and Basingstoke: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, Peter, 1990, Less than a Treason-Hemingway in Paris (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Grosskurth, Phyllis, 1991, The Secret Ring. Freud's Inner Circle and the Politics of Psychoanalysis (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley).Google Scholar
Haymann, Ronald, 1986, Writing Against. A Biography of Sartre (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson).Google Scholar
Herbert, Robert L., 1988, Impressionism. Art, Leisure and Parisian Society (New Haven & London: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Herbig, Paul A. and Kramer, Hugh, 1992, The phenomenon of information over-load, Technology in Society, 14 (4): 441461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoch, Paul K., 1987, Migration and the Generation of Scientific Ideas, Minerva, XXV (3), Autumn: 209237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holmes, Colin (ed.), 1996, Migration in European History. Vol. I (Cheltenham, UK / Brookfield, US: Edward Elgar Publishing).Google Scholar
Howe, Irving, 1989, American Jews and Israel, Tikkun, 4(3) 05/06: 71.Google Scholar
Janik, Allan and Toulmin, Stephen, 1973, Wittgenstein's Vienna (New York: Simon & Schuster).Google Scholar
Jardin, André, 1988, Tocqueville. A Biography (New York: Farrar Strauss Giroux).Google Scholar
Jay, Martin, 1976, The Dialectical Imagination. A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research 1923–1950 (London: Heinemann).Google Scholar
Josephson, Ragnar, 1975, Konstverkets födelse (Stockholm: Natur och Kultur).Google Scholar
Kennedy, J. Gerald, 1993, Imagining Paris. Exile, Writing and American Identity (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Koestler, Arthur, 1989, The Act of Creation (London: Arcana).Google Scholar
Koht, Halvdan, 1928 & 1929, Henrik Ibsen—Eit diktarliv I–II (Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag).Google Scholar
Leed, Erik J., 1991, The Mind of the Traveller (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
Lessing, Doris, 1994, Under My Skin. Volume One of My Autobiography. To 1949 (New York: Harper Collins).Google Scholar
Lessing, Doris, 1997, Walking in the Shade. 1949 to 1962 (New York: Harper Collins).Google Scholar
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 1977, Tristes Tropiques (New York: Washington Square Press).Google Scholar
Lewis, Bernard, 1966, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years (New York: Scribner).Google Scholar
Lyotard, Jean-Francois, 1979, La Condition Postmodern (Paris: Minuit).Google Scholar
McGuiness, Brian, 1988, Wittgenstein—a life (London: Duckworth).Google Scholar
Merton, Robert K., 1967, On the Shoulder of Giants. A Shandean Postscript (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Merton, Robert K., 1968, Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Merton, Robert K., 1973, The Sociology of Science (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
Monk, Ray, 1990, Ludwig Wittgenstein. The Duty of Genius (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Moorehead, Caroline, 1992, Bertrand Russell. A Life (New York: Viking).Google Scholar
Muhlstein, Anka, 1983, Baron James. The Rise of the French Rothschilds (New York: Vintage Books).Google Scholar
Myrdal, Alva and Myrdal, Gunnar, 1946, Konktakt med Amerika (Copenhagen: Athnenaeum).Google Scholar
Ostow, M., 1982, Judaism and Psychoanalysis (New York: Ktaw Press).Google Scholar
Parsons, Talcott, 1968, The Structure of Social Action I & II (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Paucker, Arnold, 1987, The Jewish Defence against Antisemitism in Germany, 1889–1933, in Reinharz, Jehuda (ed.), Living with Antisemitism. Modern Jewish Responses (Hanover and London: University Press of America).Google Scholar
Pawel, Ernst, 1984, The Nightmare of Reason. A Life of Kafka (New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux).Google Scholar
Polanyi, Michael, 1962, Personal Knowledge. Toward a Post-critical Philosophy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
Pool, Phoebe, 1988. Impressionism (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
Price, Derek de Solla, 1986, Little Science, Big Science and Beyond (New York: Colombia University Press).Google Scholar
Reich-Ranicki, Marcel, 1989, Über Ruhestörer. Juden in den deutschen Literatur (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt).Google Scholar
Rewald, John, 1976, The History of Impressionism (New York: The Modern Museum of Art).Google Scholar
Rudwick, Martin, 1996, Geological Travel and Theoretical Innovation: The Role of ‘Liminal’ Experience, Social Studies of Science, 26: 143159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schluchter, Wolfgang, 1996, Neubeginn duch Anpassung? Studien zum ostdeutschen Übergang (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
Schumpeter, Joseph, 1942, Capitalism Socialism and Democracy (New York: Harper).Google Scholar
Schutz, Alfred, 1976, Collected Papers II (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmel, Georg., 1964, The Sociology of Georg Simmel, ed. by Wolff, Kurt H. (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
Storr, Anthony, 1989, Solitude: a return to self (New York: The Free Press).Google Scholar
Sulloway, Frank J., 1996, Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives (New York: Pantheon).Google Scholar
Symons, Julian, 1987, Makers of the New. The Revolution in Literature 1912–1939 (New York: Random House).Google Scholar
Timms, Edward, 1986, Karl Kraus. Apocalyptic Satirist. Culture and Catastrophe in Habsburg Vienna (New Haven: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Van Gennep, Arnold, 1981, Ces rites de passage. Étude systématique des rites de la porte et du seuil [etc.] (New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation/Paris, La Haye: Mouton [1969]).Google Scholar
Veblen, Thorstein, 1962, The Portable Veblen, ed. by Lerner, Max (New York: Viking Press).Google Scholar
White, Michael and Gribbin, John, 1996, Darwin. A Life in Science (London: Simon & Schuster).Google Scholar
Winch, Peter, 1958, The Idea of a Social Science and its Relation to Philosophy (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Models of creativity abroad: migrants, strangers and travellers
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Models of creativity abroad: migrants, strangers and travellers
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Models of creativity abroad: migrants, strangers and travellers
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *