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Modernisation de la caste et indianisation de la démocratie: le cas des Lingayat

  • Jackie Assayag
Extract

À travers les âges, l'unité de l'lnde — « India is one » disait Dumont — a été symbolisée par une continuité culturelle enchâssée dans une structure sociale fondamentalement religieuse, comme l'exprimait Srinivas: « The concept of the unity of India is essentially a religious one », mais l'on peut ajouter que la structure de cette tradition a contribué à la projection d'une image unifiée de la civilisation qui a atteint le point de son plus haut développement à la fin de la période Gupta. Non qu'il n'y ait pas eu de changements, mais, vers la fin de cette période, la plupart des traités systématiques dans les champs de la réligion, de la littérature, de l'art, de la science et de philosophie ou de l'éthique s'étaient cristallisés dans ce qu'on a pu recemment appeler la « Grande Tradition ». Les périodes qui suivirent revinrent à une particularisation graduelle des institutions et des valeurs à l'intérieur de la tradition culturelle hindoue et aboutirent, dans certains cas, à des phénoménes de segmentarisation de cette « Grande Tradition ». Le centre de l'effervescence culturelle émigra du nord au sud de l'lnde et se régionalisa, donnant lieu a des mouvements hétérodoxes de reformulation et de reinterpretation des croyances socio-religieuses et des structures rituelles fondamentales de l'hindouisme. Sous la poussée des divers mouvements de bhakti, des saints-philosophes comme Śankara, Rāmānuja, Madhya rapprochérent la « Grande Tradition » du peuple, tout en modifiant son enseignement et en orientant leurs efforts vers un mouvement plus libéral vis-à-vis des Śūdra ou des basses castes; comme l'exprimait Stein: « In the eleventh century […] doctrinal issues come to be related quite directly to the place of Sūdrain the sect » (Stein 1968, p. 83).

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European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie
  • ISSN: 0003-9756
  • EISSN: 1474-0583
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