Skip to main content

Radicalization: The Evolution of an Analytical Paradigm

  • Stefan Malthaner (a1)

Over the course of the past decade, “radicalization” has become prevalent as an analytical paradigm to interpret and explain phenomena of political violence, notably in research on jihadist terrorism and Western “foreign fighters” in Syria and Iraq. Thereby, while to some extent opening up new avenues of investigation, the concept also significantly re-shaped the way in which phenomena of political violence were analyzed and explained, focusing analytical attention on processes of cognitive and ideological transformation, mainly at the individual level. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the main strands of development in recent research on radicalization, with reference to and within the context of broader sociological research on political violence as well as reviewing critical debates and recently emerging sub-fields of investigation.

Au cours de la dernière décennie, la « radicalisation » est devenue un paradigme analytique très répandu pour interpréter et expliquer les formes de violence politique, notamment dans les travaux consacrés au terrorisme djihadiste et aux « combattants étrangers » occidentaux en Syrie et en Irak. Ainsi, alors qu’il a permis d’ouvrir dans une certaine mesure de nouvelles pistes de recherche, le concept a également contribué à transformer la manière dont les formes de violence politique ont été analysées, en mettant l’accent sur les processus de transformation cognitive et idéologique, principalement au niveau individuel. Le but de cet article est de cartographier et discuter certains des axes de recherche sur la radicalisation, en référence et dans le contexte plus large de la recherche sociologique sur la violence politique, mais également d’étudier l’évolution de la notion dans les débats critiques et les nouveaux sous-domaines de recherche.

Im Laufe der vergangenen Dekade avancierte “Radikalisierung” zu einem der vorherrschenden analytischen Paradigmata um Phänomene politischer Gewalt zu untersuchen und zu erklären, insbesondere in Studien zum dschihadistischen Terrorismus und westlichen „foreign fighters” in Syrien und dem Irak. Dabei eröffnete das Konzept neue Wege der Untersuchung. Zugleich jedoch veränderte es fundamental die Art und Weise, in der Politische Gewalt analysiert wurde, indem es den Schwerpunkt der Analyse auf kognitive und ideologische Veränderungen und auf die Ebene individueller Radikalisierungsprozesse verschob. Dieser Aufsatz zeichnet die wichtigsten Linien in der Radikalisierungsforschung nach und setzt diese zur breiteren soziologischen Forschung zu politischer Gewalt in Beziehung. Mit Blick auf konzeptuelle Debatten der jüngeren Zeit und neu entstehende Forschungsfelder zeigt er weitere Entwicklungen und Entwicklungspotentiale von „Radikalisierung” als analytischem Paradigma zur Untersuchung politischer Gewalt auf.

Hide All
Alimi, Eitan Y., 2011 “Relational Dynamics in Factional Adoption of Terrorist Tactics: A Comparative Perspective”, Theory and Society, 40 (1): 95-119.
Alimi, Eitan Y., Lorenzo, Bosi and Demetriou, Chares, 2012. “Relational Dynamics and Processes of Radicalization: A Comparative Framework”, Mobilization: An International Journal, 17 (1): 7-26.
Alimi, Eitan, Demetriou, Chares and Bosi, Lorenzo, 2015. The Dynamics of Radicalization: A Relational and Comparative Perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Bakker, Edwin, 2006. “Jihadi Terrorists in Europe. Their Characteristics and the Circumstances in Which They Joined the Jihad: An Exploratory Story” (Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael). (08.06.2009).
Bakker, Edwin and de Graaf, Beatrice, 2010. “Lone Wolves: How to Prevent this Phenomenon?” International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Hague (Expert Meeting Lone Wolves, November 2010). Expert Meeting Paper.
Bakker, Edwin and De Leede, Seran, 2015. “European Female Jihadists in Syria: Exploring an Under-Researched Topic” (ICCT Background Note. International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Hague)., pdf.
Basra, Rajan and Neumann, Peter R. 2016. “Criminal Pasts, Terrorist Futures: European Jihadists and the New Crime-Terror Nexus”, Perspectives on Terrorism, 10 (6): 25-36.
Beckford, Joly and Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2005. Muslims in Prison: Challenge and Change in Britain and France (London, Basingstoke).
Berntzen, Lars Erik and Sandberg, Sveinung, 2014. „The Collective Nature of Lone Wolf Terrorism: Anders Behring Breivik and the Anti-Islamic Social Movement”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26 (5): 759-779.
Bjorgo, Tore, ed., 2005. Root causes of terrorism: Myths, reality and ways forward (London/New York, Routledge).
Bjorgo, Tore and Horgan, John eds., 2009. Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (New York, Routledge).
Bokhari, Laila, Hegghammer, Thomas, Lia, Brynjar, Nesser, Peter and Toennessen, Truls H., 2006. “Paths to Global Jihad: Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terror Networks”, Proceedings from a FFI Seminar, Oslo, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). (08.06.2009).
Borum, Randy, 2011a. “Rethinking Radicalization”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4): 1-6.
Borum, Randy, 2011b. “Radicalization into Violent Extremism I: A Review of Social Science Theories”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4): 7-36.
Borum, Randy, 2011c. “Radicalization into Violent Extremism II: A Review of Conceptual Models and Empirical Research”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4): 37-62.
Borum, Randy, 2014. “Psychological Vulnerabilities and Propensities for Involvement in Violent Extremism”, Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 32 (3): 286-305.
Borum, Randy, Fein, Robert and Vossekuil, Bryan, 2012. A Dimensional Approach to Analyzing Lone Offender Terrorism”, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17: 389-396.
Bosi, Lorenzo and Della Porta, Donatella, 2012. “Micro-mobilization into Armed Groups: Ideological, Instrumental and Solidaristic Paths”, Qualitative Sociology, 35: 361-383.
Bosi, Lorenzo, Demetriou, Chares and Malthaner, Stefan, eds., 2014. Dynamics of Political Violence: A Process-Oriented Perspective on Radicalization and the Escalation of Political Conflict (Farnham/London: Ashgate).
Bouhana, Noemie and Wikström, Per-Olof, 2011. “Al Qai’da-Influenced Radicalisation: A Rapid Evidence Assessment Guided by Situational Action Theory”, RDS Occasional Paper 97. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate (
Brandon, James, 2009. Unlocking Al-Qaeda. Islamist Extremism in British Prisons (London, Quilliam).
Codaccioni, Vanessa, 2013. “Expériences répressives et (dé)radicalization militante”, Cultures & Conflits, 89: 29-52.
Conway, Maura, 2012. “From al-Zarqawi to al-Awlaki: The emergence and development of an online radical milieu”, CTX: Combating Terrorism Exchange, 2 (4): 12-22.
Coolsaet, Rik, 2015. “What Drives Europeans to Syria and to IS? Insights from the Belgian Case”, Egmont Paper 75 (Egmont-Royal Institute for International Relations).
Crenshaw, Martha, 1981. “The Causes of Terrorism”, Comparative Politics, 13 (4): 379-398.
Crenshaw, Martha, 1995. “Thoughts on Relating Terrorism to Historical Contexts”, in Crenshaw, M., ed., Terrorism in context (University Park, The Pennsylvania State University Press: 3-24).
Crone, Manni, 2016. “Radicalization Revisited: Violence, Politics and the Skills of the Body”, International Affairs, 92 (3): 587-604.
Crone, Manni and Harrow, Martin, 2011. “Homegrown Terrorism in the West”, Terrorism and Political Violence 23: 521-536.
Cross, Remy and Snow, David A., 2011. “Radicalization within the Context of Social Movements: Processes and Types”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4): 115-129.
Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja, 2010. “Violent Radicalization in Europe: What We Know and What We Do Not Know”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (9): 797-814.
De Roy van Zuijdewijn, Jeanine and Bakker, Edwin, 2016. “Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations”, Perspectives on Terrorism, 10 (2): 42-49.
Della Porta, Donatella, 1992. “Introduction: On Individual Motivations in Underground Political Organizations”, in Della Porta, D., ed., Social Movements and Violence: Participation in Underground Organizations (Greenwich/London: Jai Press Inc, 3-28).
Della Porta, Donatella, 1995. Social movements, political violence, and the state: A comparative analysis of Italy and Germany (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Della Porta, Donatella, 2008. “Research on social movements and political violence”, Qualitative Sociology, 31: 221-230.
Della Porta, Donatella, 2013. Clandestine Political Violence (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Della Porta, Donatella, 2014. “On Violence and Repression: A Relational Approach”, Government and Opposition, 49 (2): 159-187.
Della Porta, Donatella and LaFree, Garry, 2012. “Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization”, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6 (1): 4-10.
Della Porta, Donatella and Tarrow, Sidney, 1986. “‛Unwanted Children’: Political Violence and the Cycle of Protest in Italy, 1966-1973”, European Journal of Political Research, 14: 607-632.
Diani, Mario, 2013. “Networks and social movements”, in Snow, D. A., Della Porta, Donatella, Klandermans, B. and McAdam, D., eds., The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Movements (Oxford, Blackwell Publishers).
Dorronsoro, Gilles and Grojean, Olivier, 2004. « Engagement militant et phénomènes de radicalisation chez les Kurdes de Turquie », European Journal of Turkish Studies (
Egerton, Frazer, 2011. Jihad in the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
European Commission Expert Group on Violent Radicalization, 2008. Radicalisation Processes: Leading to Acts of Terrorism, A Concise Report submitted to the European Commission on 15 May 2008. (
Fillieule, Olivier, 2005. Le Désengagement militant (Paris, Belin).
Fillieule, Olivier, 2010. “Some Elements of an Interactionist Approach to Political Disengagement”, Social Movement Studies, 9 (1): 1-15.
Fillieule, Olivier, 2015. “Disengagement from Radical Organizations: A process and Multi-Level Model of Analysis”, in Klandermans, B. and van Stralen, C., eds., Movements in times of transition (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press).
Gambetta, Diego and Hertog, Steffen, 2009. “Why are there so many Engineers among Islamic Radicals”, European Journal of Sociology, 50 (2): 201-230.
Gambetta, Diego and Hertog, Steffen, 2016. Engineers of Jihad: The Curious Connection between Violent Extremism and Education (Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press).
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed, 2014. “Lone Wolf Islamic Terrorism: Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad (Carlos Bledsoe) Case Study”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26 (1): 110-128.
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed and Grossman, Laura, 2009. “Homegrown Terrorists in the U.S. and U.K.–An Empirical Examination of the Radicalization Process” (Washington, Foundation of Defense for Democracies, Centre for Terrorism Research)
Gill, Paul, Horgan, John and Deckert, Paige, 2014. “Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists”, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 59 (2): 425-435.
Goodwin, Jeff, 1997. No Other Way Out (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
GTAZ, 2015. Analyse der Radikalisierungshintergründe und verläufe der Personen, die aus islamistischer Motivation aus Deutschland in Richtung Syrien oder Irak ausgereist sind. Fortschreibung 2015. Analysis of a dataset compiled by the German Federal Criminal Police (BKA), the Federal Internal Intelligence Agency (BfV) and the Hessian Information and Expertise-Center on Extremism (HEK). Unpublished report.
Gunning, Jeroen, 2007. Hamas in Politics: Democracy, Religion, Violence (London, Columbia University Press).
Gunning, Jeroen, 2009. “Social Movement Theory and the Study of Terrorism”, in Jackson, R., Smyth, M. B. and Gunning, J., eds., Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda (London, Routledge: 156-177).
Hafez, Mohammed M., 2004. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World (Boulder/ London, Lynne Rienner Publishers).
Hannah, Greg, Clutterbuck, Lindsay and Rubin, Jennifer, 2008. Radicalization or Rehabilitation: Understanding the Challenge of Extremist and Radicalized Prisoners (Washington, rand Corporation).
Hegghammer, Thomas, 2006. “Terrorist Recruitment and Radicalization in Saudi Arabia”, Middle East Policy, 13 (4): 39-60.
Hegghammer, Thomas, 2010. Jihadism in Saudi Arabia (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Hegghammer, Thomas, 2013. “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explaining Variation in Western Jihadists’ Choice between Domestic and Foreign Fighting”, American Political Science Review, 107 (1): 1-15.
Hoffman, Bruce, 2008. “The Myth of Grass-Roots Terrorism. Why Osama bin Laden Still Matters”, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008: 133-138.
Hogg, Michael A., 2012. “Self-Uncertainty, Social Identity and the Solace of Extremism”, in Hogg, M. A. and Blaylock, D. L., eds., Extremism and the Psychology of Uncertainty (London, Blackwell Publishing).
Horgan, John, 2005. The Psychology of Terrorism (London/New York, Routledge).
Horgan, John, 2008a. “From Profiles to Pathways: The Road to Recruitment”, ANNALS, AAPSS, 618 (July 2008).
Horgan, John, 2008b. “Deradicalization or Disengagement. A Process in Need of Clarity and a Counterterrorism Initiative in Need of Evaluation”, Perspective on Terrorism, 2 (4): 3-8.
Horgan, John, 2009. Walking away from terrorism (London/New York, Routledge).
ICSR, 2013. ICSR Insight: Up to 11,000 foreign fighters in Syria; steep rise among Western Europeans. 17/12/2013. The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, London.
Jordan, Javier, Manas, Fernando M. and Horsburgh, Nicola, 2008. “Strengths and Weaknesses of Grassroot Jihadist Networks: The Madrid Bombings”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 31 (1): 17-39.
Kaplan, Jeffrey, 1997. “Leaderless Resistance”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 9 (3): 80-95.
Kepel, Gilles, 2004. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (Cambridge, Belknap Press).
Kepel, Gilles, 2015. Terreur dans l’Hexagone. Genèse du djihad français (Paris, Gallimard).
Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2004. L’Islam dans les prisons (Paris, Balland).
Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2005. Suicide Bombers: Allah’s New Martyrs (London, Pluto Press).
Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2009. Inside Jihadism: Understanding Jihadi Movements Worldwide (Boulder/London, Paradigm Publishers).
Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2013. “Radicalization in Prison: The French Case”, Politics, Religion & Ideology, 14 (2): 284-306.
Khosrokhavar, Farhad, 2015. Radicalisation (Paris, Éditions de la MSH).
Kirby, Aidan, 2007. “The London Bombers as ‘Self-Starters’: A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30: 415-428.
Kneip, Katharina, 2016. “Female Jihad—Women in ISIS”, politikon , 29: 88-108.
Kudnani, Arun, 2012. “Radicalization: The Journey of a Concept”, Race & Class, 54 (2): 3-25.
Larzillière, Pénélope, 2003. « Tchétchénie: le djihad reterritorialisé », Critique internationale, 20: 151-164.
Lindekilde, Lasse, Bertelsen, Preben and Stohl, Michael, 2016. “Who Goes, Why, and With What Effects: The Problem of Foreign Fighters from Europe”, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 27 (5): 858-877.
Lindekilde, Lasse, Malthaner, Stefan and O’connor, Francis, forthcoming. “Embedded and Peripheral: Relational Patterns of Lone Actor Radicalization”.
Malthaner, Stefan, 2011. Mobilizing the Faithful: The Relationship between Militant Islamist Groups and their Constituencies (Frankfurt/New York, Campus).
Malthaner, Stefan, 2014. “Contextualizing Radicalization: The Emergence of the ‘Sauerland-Group’ from Radical Networks and the Salafist Movement”, Studies In Conflict and Terrorism, 37 (8): 638-653.
Malthaner, Stefan and Lindekilde, Lasse, 2016. “Analyzing Pathways of Lone-Actor Radicalization: A Relational Approach”, in Stohl, M., Burchill, R. and Englund, S., eds., Constructions of Terrorism (Berkeley, University of California Press).
Malthaner, Stefan and Waldmann, Peter, eds., 2012. Radikale Milieus: Das soziale Umfeld terroristischer Gruppen (Frankfurt/New York, Campus).
Malthaner, Stefan and Waldmann, Peter, 2014. “The Radical Milieu: Conceptualizing the Supportive Social Environment of Terrorist Groups”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 37 (12): 979-998.
McAdam, Doug, 1986. “Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer”, American Journal of Sociology, 92 (1): 64-90.
McAdam, Doug and Paulsen, Ronnelle, 1993. “Specifying the Relationship between Social Ties and Activism”, American Journal of Sociology, 99: 640-667.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney and Tilly, Charles, 2001. Dynamics of Contention (New York, Cambridge University Press).
McAuley, Clark and Moskalenko, Sophia, 2008. “Mechanisms of Political Radicalization: Pathways toward Terrorism”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 20: 415-433.
McAuley, Clark and Moskalenko, Sophia, 2009. Friction. How Radicalization Happens to Them and Us (Oxford, Oxford University Press).
McAuley, Clark and Moskalenko, Sophia, 2014. “Toward a Profile of Lone Wolf Terrorists: What Moves an Individual from Radical Opinion to Radical Action”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26 (1): 69-85.
Moghaddam, Fathali M., 2005. “The Staircase to Terrorism: A Psychological Exploration”, American Psychologist, 60 (2): 161-169.
Moskalenko, Sophia and McAuley, Clark, 2009. “Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (2): 239-260.
Navest, Aysha, De Koning, Martijn and Moors, Annelies, 2016. “Chattinga Marriage with Female Migrants to Syria”, Anthropology Today, 32 (2): 22-25.
Neidhardt, Friedhelm, 1981. „Über Zufall, Eigendynamik und Institutionalisierbarkeit absurder Prozesse: Notizen am Beispiel einer terroristischen Gruppe”, in Von Alemann, H. and Thurn, H. P., eds., Soziologie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Festschrift für René König zum 75. Geburtstag (Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag: 243-257).
Neidhardt, Friedhelm, 1982. „Soziale Bedingungen terroristischen Handelns. Das Beispiel der ‘Baader-Meinhof-Gruppe (RAF)’in von Baeyer-Katte, W., Claessens, D., Feger, H., and Neidhardt, F., Analysen zum Terrorismus 3: Gruppenprozesse (Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag: 318-393).
Nesser, Peter, 2006. “Jihad in Europe: Recruitment for terrorist cells in Europe”, Working paper, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (
Nesser, Peter, 2012. “Research Note: Single Actor Terrorism: Scope, Characteristics and Explanations”, Perspectives on Terrorism, 6 (6): 61-73.
Neumann, Peter, 2008. “Introduction”, in Perspectives on Radicalization and Political Violence, Papers from the First International Conference on Radicalization and Political Violence, London, 17–18 January 2008, The International Center for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence (
Neumann, Peter, 2009. Joining al-Qaeda: Jihadist recruitment in Europe (New York, Routledge).
Neumann, Peter, 2010. Prisons and Terrorism. Radicalization and De-radicalisation in 15 Countries. ICSR-report, London.
Neumann, Peter, 2013. “The trouble with radicalization”, International Affairs, 89 (4): 873-893.
Neumann, Peter and Rogers, Brooke, 2008. Recruitment and Mobilisation for the Islamist Militant Movement in Europe, icsr report (
Pantucci, Raffaello, 2011. “A Typology of Lone Wolves: Preliminary Analysis of Lone Islamist Terrorists”, Report for the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.
Passerini, Luisa, 1992. “Lacerations in the Memory: Women in the Italian Underground Organizations”, in Della Porta, D., ed., Social Movements and Violence: Participation in Underground Organizations (Greenwich/London, Jai Press Inc: 161-212).
Passy, Florence, 2003. “Social networks matter. But how?”, in Diani, M. and McAdam, D., eds., Social Movements and Networks. Relational Approaches to Collective Action (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 21-48).
Peresin, Anita and Cervone, Alberto, 2015. “The Western Muhajirat of isis”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 38 (7): 495-509.
Pitcavage, Mark, 2015. “Cerberus Unleashed: The Three Faces of the Lone Wolf Terrorist”, American Behavioral Scientist, 59 (13): 1655-1680.
Polletta, Francesca, 1999. “‛Free Spaces’ in Collective Action”, Theory and Society, 28: 1-38.
Precht, Thomas, 2007. “Home Grown Terrorism and Islamist Radicalization in Europe: From Conversion to Terrorism”, Research Report Funded by the Danish Ministry of Justice (
Rabasa, Angel and Benard, Cheryl, 2015. Eurojihad: Patterns of Islamist Radicalization and Terrorism in Europe (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Ranstorp, Magnus, ed., 2010. Understanding violent radicalization: Terrorist and jihadist movements in Europe (New York, Routledge).
Roy, Olivier, 2004. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (New York, Columbia University Press).
Sageman, Marc, 2004. Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press).
Sageman, Marc, 2008. Leaderless Jihad (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press).
Schkade, Richard, Sunstein, Cass R. and Hastie, Reid, 2010. “When Deliberation produces Extremism”, Critical Review, 22 (2-3): 227-252.
Schmid, Alex P., 2013. “Radicalization, De-Radicalization, Counter-Radicalization: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review” ICCT Research Paper (
Schuurman, Bart, Eijkman, Quirine and Bakker, Edwin, 2014. “The Hofstadgroup Revisited: Questioning its Status as a ‘Quintessential’ Homegrown Jihadist Network”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 27 (5): 906-925.
Sedgwick, Mark, 2010. “The Concept of Radicalization as a Source of Confusion”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (4): 479-494.
Silber, Mitchell D. and Bhatt, Arvin, 2007. “Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat”, Police Department City of New York. (08.06.2009).
Silke, Andrew, 2008. “Holy warriors: Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation”, European Journal of Criminology, 5 (1): 99-123.
Slootman, Marieke and Tillie, Jean, 2006. Processes of Radicalisation: Why some Amsterdam Muslims Become Radicals (Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Amsterdam University)
Snow, David, 2013. “Framing and Social Movements” in Snow, D., Della Porta, D., Klandermans, B. and McAdam, D., eds., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements.
Snow, David A. and Byrd, Scott C., 2007. “Ideology, Framing Processes, and Islamic Terrorist Movements”, Mobilization: An International Quarterly Review, 12 (1): 119-136.
Snow, David A., Rochford, Burke, Worden, Seven K. and Benford, Robert D., 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation”, American Sociological Review, 51: 464-481.
Snow, David A., Zurcher, Louis A. and Ekland-Olson, Sheldon, 1980. “Social Networks and Social Movements: A Microstructural Approach to Differential Recruitment”, American Sociological Review, 45 (5): 787-801.
Sommier, Isabelle, 2012. « Engagement radical, désengagement et déradicalisation : continuum et lignes de fracture », Lien Social et Politiques, 68: 15-35.
Spaaij, Ramon, 2010. “The Enigma of Lone Wolf Terrorism: An Assessment”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33 (9): 854-870.
Spaaij, Ramon, 2012. Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism (London/New York, Springer).
Taarnby, Michael, 2005. “Recruitment of Islamist Terrorists in Europe Trends and Perspectives”, Research Report founded by the Danish Ministry of Justice (Centre of Cultural Research, Aarhus, Denmark) (08.06.2009).
Taylor, Max and John, Horgan, 2006. “A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Psychological Process in the Development of the Terrorist”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18 (4): 585-601.
Tilly, Charles, 2003. The Politics of Collective Violence (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Tilly, Charles, 2004. “Terror, terrorism, terrorists”, Sociological Theory, 22 (1): 5-13.
Trujillo, Humberto M., Jordán, Javier, Gutiérrez, Jose Antonio and González-Cabrera, Joaquín, 2009. “Radicalization in Prisons? Field Research in 25 Spanish Prisons”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (4), 558-579.
Van Buuren, Jelle and De Graaf, Beatrice, 2014. “Hatred of the System: Menacing Loners and Autonomous Cells in the Netherlands”, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26 (1): 156-184.
Van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien and Klandermans, Bert, 2010. “The Social Psychology of Protest”, Sociopedia.isa (e-journal), 1-13.
Van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien and Klandermans, Bert, 2011. “Radicalization” in Azzi, A.E., Chryssochoou, X., Klandermans, B. and Simon, B. eds., Identity and participation in culturally diverse societies: a multidisciplinary perspective (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell).
Viterna, Jocelyn, 2006. “Pulled, Pushed, and Persuaded: Explaining Women’s Mobilization into the Salvadoran Guerrilla Army”, American Journal of Sociology, 112 (1): 1-45.
Viterna, Jocelyn, 2013. Women in War: The Micro Processes of Mobilization in El Salvador (Oxford, Oxford University Press).
Waldmann, Peter, 1992. “Ethnic and Sociorevolutionary Terrorism: A Comparison of Structures, International Social Movement Research, 4: 237-257.
Waldmann, Peter, 1998. Terrorismus: Provokation der Macht (München, Gerling Akademie Verlag).
Waldmann, Peter, 2009. Homegrown Terrorism—Radikalisierung in der Diaspora (Hamburg, Murmann Verlag).
Weggemans, Daan, Bakker, Edwin and Grol, Peter, 2014. “Who Are They and Why Do They Go? The Radicalization and Preparatory Process of Dutch Jihadist Foreign Fighters”, Perspectives on Terrorism, 8 (4): 100–110.
Weimann, Gabriel, 2012. “Lone Wolves in Cyberspace”, Journal of Terrorism Research, 3 (2): 75-90.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan, 2005. Radical Islam rising: Muslim extremism in the West (Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield).
Wiktorowicz, Quintan, ed., 2004. Islamic activism: A social movement theory approach (Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press).
Wojciezak, Magdalena, 2010. “‘Don’t Talk to me’: Effects of Ideologically Homogeneous online Groups and Politically dissimilar offline Ties on Extremism”, New Media & Society, 12 (4): 637-655.
Wood, Elizabeth, 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Zwerman, Gilda, Steinhoff, Patricia G., and Della Porta, Donatella, 2000. “Disappearing Social Movements: Clandestinity in the Cycle of New Left Protest in the U.S., Japan, Germany, and Italy”, Mobilization: An International Journal, 5 (1): 85-104.
Zwerman, Gilda and Steinhoff, Patricia G., 2005. „When Activists Ask for Trouble: State-Dissident Interactions and the New Left Cycle of Resistance in the United States and Japan”, in Davenport, C., Johnston, H. and Mueller, C., eds., Repression and Mobilization (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press: 85-107).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie
  • ISSN: 0003-9756
  • EISSN: 1474-0583
  • URL: /core/journals/european-journal-of-sociology-archives-europeennes-de-sociologie
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 41
Total number of PDF views: 406 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1254 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 4th December 2017 - 23rd June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.