Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Complexity and Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychotherapy

  • Günter Schiepek (a1)

Human life changes with time. It seems therefore obvious that most of the phenomena that psychology and psychotherapy are concerned with are dynamic in nature. For human development processes, human change and learning processes, the dynamics and prognosis of mental disorders, problems manifesting in social systems such as couples, families, teams, or the question of how psychotherapy works, self-organization is ubiquitous. In the context of self-organization, complexity is a quality of changing patterns and patterns of change, produced by nonlinear coupled systems.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Complexity and Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychotherapy
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Complexity and Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychotherapy
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Complexity and Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychotherapy
      Available formats
Hide All
6. E. A. Gaffan , I. Tsaousis and S. M. Kemp-Wheeler (1995) Researcher allegiance and meta-analysis: the case of cognitive therapy for depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 63, 966980.

7. L. Luborsky , L. Diguer , D. A. Seligman , R. Rosenthal , E. D. Krause , S. Johnson , G. Halperin , M. Bishop , J. S. Berman and E. Schweizer (1999) The researcher’s own allegiances: A ‘wild card’ in the comparisons of treatment efficacy. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Practice, 6, 95106.

8. V. Shoham and M. J. Rohrbaugh (1999) Beyond allegiance to comparative outcome studies. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract., 6, 120123.

10. B. E. Wampold , G. W. Mondin , M. Moody , F. Stich , K. Benson and H. Ahn (1997) A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: empirically, ‘All must have prizes’. Psychol. Bull., 122, 203215.

11. E. Haas , R. Hill , M. J. Lambert and B. Morrell (2002) Do early responders to psychotherapy maintain treatment gains? J. Clin. Psychol., 58, 11571172.

12. A. M. Hayes and J. L. Strauss (1998) Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: an application to cognitive therapy for depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 66, 939947.

13. A. M. Hayes , G. C. Feldman , C. G. Beevers , J. P. Laurenceau , L. A. Cardaciotto and J. Lewis-Smith (2007) Discontinuities and cognitive changes in an exposure-based cognitive therapy for depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychology, 75, 409421.

14. A. M. Hayes , J. P. Laurenceau , G. C. Feldman , J. L. Strauss and L. A. Cardaciotto (2007) Change is not always linear: The study of nonlinear and discontinuous patterns of change in psychotherapy. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 27, 715723.

15. S. S. Ilardi and W. E. Craighead (1994) The role of non-specific factors in cognitive-behavior therapy for depression. Clin. Psychol. Res. Pract., 1, 138156.

16. G. T. Wilson (1998) Manual-based treatment and clinical practice. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract., 5, 363375.

17. N. S. Jacobson , K. S. Dobson , P. A. Truax , M. E. Addis , K. Koerner , J. K. Gollan , E. Gortner and S. E. Prince (1996) A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 64, 295304.

18. H. Ahn and B. E. Wampold (2001) Where oh where are the specific ingredients? A meta-analysis of component studies in counselling and psychotherapy. J. Counsel. Psychol., 48, 251257.

20. J. A. Hattie , C. F. Sharpley and H. F. Rogers (1984) Comparative effectiveness of professional and paraprofessional helpers. Psychol. Bull., 95, 534541.

22. R. J. Grissom (1996) The magical number .7 +−.2: Meta-meta-analysis of the probability of superior outcome in comparisons involving therapy, placebo, and control. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 64, 973982.

23. M. W. Lipsey and D. B. Wilson (1993) The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioural treatment: Confirmation from meta-analysis. Am. Psychologist, 48, 11811209.

24. W. R. Shadish , A. M. Navarro , G. E. Matt and G. Phillips (2000) The effects of psychological therapies under clinically representative conditions: A meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull., 126, 512529.

25. B. M. Ogles , T. Anderson and K. M. Lunnen (1999) The contribution of models and techniques to therapeutic efficacy: contradictions between professional trends and clinical research. In: M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan and S. E. Miller (eds), The Heart and Soul of Change: What Works in Therapy (Washington DC: APA), pp. 201225.

27. W. P. Henry , H. H. Strupp , S. F. Butler , T. E. Schacht and J. Binder (1993) Effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapist’s behavior. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 61, 434440.

28. L. M. Grencavage and J. C. Norcross (1990) Where are the commonalities among the therapeutic common factors? Professional Psychol. Res. Practice, 21, 372378.

29. J. Weinberger (1995) Common factors aren’t so common: the common factors dilemma. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract., 2, 4569.

34. V. Perlitz , B. Cotuk , M. Lambertz , R. Grebe , G. Schiepek , E. R. Petzold , H. Schmid-Schönbein and G. Flatten (2004) Coordination dynamics of circulatory and respiratory rhythms during psychomotor relaxation. Autonomic. Neurosci., 115, 8293.

40. G. V. Osipov , J. Kurths and C. Zhou (2007) Synchronization in Oscillatory Networks (Berlin: Springer).

41. W. Singer and C. M. Gray (1995) Visual feature integration and the temporal correlation hypothesis. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 18, 555586.

42. O. V. Popovych , C. Hauptmann and P. A. Tass (2006) Control of neural synchrony by nonlinear delayed feedback. Biol. Cybern., 95, 6985.

45. B. Rockstroh , H. Watzl , Z. J. Kowalik , R. Cohen , A. Sterr , M. Müller and T. Elbert (1997) Dynamical aspects of the EEG in different psychopathological states in an interview situation. A pilot study. Schizophrenia Res., 28, 7785.

46. Z. J. Kowalik , G. Schiepek , K. Kumpf , L. E. Roberts and T. Elbert (1997) Psychotherapy as a chaotic process II: The application of nonlinear analysis methods on quasi time series of the client-therapist-interaction: A nonstationary approach. Psychother. Res., 7, 197218.

47. G. Schiepek , Z. J. Kowalik , A. Schütz , M. Köhler , K. Richter , G. Strunk , W. Mühlnickel and T. Elbert (1997) Psychotherapy as a chaotic process I. Coding the client-therapist-interaction by means of sequential plan analysis and the search for chaos: A stationary approach. Psychother. Res., 7, 173194.

50. P. Bak , K. Chen and M. Creutz (1989) Self-organized criticality and the ‘Game of Life’. Nature, 342, 780782.

51. P. E. Rapp , M. E. Albano , I. D. Zimmerman and M. A. Jiménez-Montaño (1994) Phase-randomized surrogates can produce spurious identifications of non-random structure. Physical Letters A, 192, 2733.

53. J. E. Skinner , M. Molnar and C. Tomberg (1994) The point correlation dimension: Performance with nonstationary surrogate data and noise. Int. Physiol. Behav. Sci., 29, 217234.

54. M. T. Rosenstein , J. J. Collins and C. J. de Luca (1993) A practical method for calculating Largest Lyapunov Exponents from small data sets. Physica D, 65, 117134.

58. J. P. Eckmann , S. Oliffson Kamphorst and D. Ruelle (1987) Recurrence plots of dynamical systems. Europhysics Letters, 4, 973977.

60. M. J. Lambert , J. L. Whipple , D. A. Vermeersch , D. W. Smart , E. J. Hawkins , S. L. Nielsen and M. Goates (2002) Enhancing psychotherapy outcomes via providing feedback on client progress: a replication. Clin. Psychol. Psychother., 9, 91103.

64. L. Friedlander and M. Desrocher (2006) Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults and children. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 26, 3249.

65. T. Nakao , A. Nakagawa , T. Yoshiura , E. Nakatani , M. Nabeyama , C. Yoshizato , A. Kudoh , K. Tada , K. Yoshioka , M. Kawamoto , O. Togao and S. Kanba (2005) Brain activation of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder during neuropsychological and symptom provocation tasks before and after symptom improvement: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol. Psychiatry, 57, 901910.

66. G. Schiepek , I. Tominschek , S. Karch , C. Mulert and O. Pogarell (2007) Neurobiologische Korrelate der Zwangsstörungen – Aktuelle Befunde zur funktionellen Bildgebung. Psychother. Psych. Med., 57, 379394.

67. V. van Veen and C. C. Carter (2002) The anterior cingulate as a conflict monitor: fMRI and ERP studies. Physiol. Behav., 77, 477482.

68. V. van Veen and C. C. Carter (2002) The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. J. Cog. Neurosci., 14, 593602.

69. B. King-Casas , D. Tomlin , C. Anen , C. F. Camerer , S. R. Quartz and P. R. Montague (2005) Getting to know you: Reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science, 308, 7883.

70. A. G. Sanfey , J. K. Rilling , J. A. Aronson , L. E. Nystrom and J. D. Cohen (2003) The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. Science, 300, 17551758.

71. H. S. Mayberg , S. K. Brannan , R. K. Mahurin , P. A. Jerabek , J. S. Brickman , J. L. Tekell , J. A. Silva , S. McGinnis , T. G. Glass , C. C. Martin and P. T. Fox (1997) Cingulate function in depression: a potential predictor of treatment response. Neuroreport, 8, 10571061.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Review
  • ISSN: 1062-7987
  • EISSN: 1474-0575
  • URL: /core/journals/european-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 76 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 99 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.