2.Biffl, G. (2012) Turkey and Europe: The role of migration and trade in economic development. Migration Letters, 9(1), pp. 47–64.
4.Sirkeci, I. (2005) War in Iraq: Environment of insecurity and international migration. International Migration, 43/4: 197–214.
5.Sirkeci, I. (2000) Exploring the Kurdish population in the Turkish context. Genus, 52, pp. 149–175.
6.Sirkeci, I. (2009) Improving the Immigration and Asylum Statistics in Turkey – Türkiye’de Uluslararası Göçve Sıgınmastatistiklerinin Gelitirilmesi. November 2009, Turkish Statistical Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
7.Figures for 1990 and 2000 are based on Turkish Censuses, while 2011 is an estimation based on OECD data.
8.Estimation based on Turkish Statistics Institute’s address-based population registration system data.
10.Sirkeci, I. (2003) Migration, Ethnicity, and Conflict: Emigration of Turkish Kurds from Turkey to Germany. PhD Thesis, Sheffield: University of Sheffield.
11.Ravenstein, E. G. (1885) The laws of migration. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 48, pp. 167–235; E. G. Ravenstein (1889) The laws of migration. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52(2), pp. 241–305.
12.Lee, E. S. (1966) A theory of migration. Demography, 3(1), pp. 47–57. D. B. Grigg (1977) EG Ravenstein and the ‘laws of migration’. Journal of Historical Geography, 3(1), pp. 41–54.
13.Grigg, D. B. (1977) EG Ravenstein and the ‘laws of migration’. Journal of Historical Geography, 3/1: 41–54.
14.See Dorigo, G. and Tobler, W. (1983) Push-pull migration laws. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 73, pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1983.tb01392.x.
15.Massey, D. S., Hugo, G. and Taylor, J. E. (1993) Theories of international migration: a review and appraisal. Population and Development Review, 19(3), pp. 431–466.
16.Anthony, D. W. (1990) Migration in archaeology: the baby and the bathwater. American Anthropologist, 92(4), pp. 895–914.
17.Cohen, J. H. and Sirkeci, I. (2011) Cultures of Migration (Austin: University of Texas Press).
18.Levitt, P. and Schiller, N. G. (2004) Conceptualizing simultaneity: a transnational social field perspective on society 1. International Migration Review, 38(3), pp. 1002–1039.
19.Findlay, A. M. and Li, F. L. N. (1999) Methodological issues in researching migration. The Professional Geographer, 51(1), pp. 50–59.
20.The words ‘migrant’ and ‘immigrant’ gained negative connotations and even turned into swear words. See Salomonson, N. and Fellesson, M. (2014) Tricks and tactics used against troublesome travellers - Frontline staff’s experiences from Swedish buses and trains. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 10, pp. 53–59.
21.Alexander, B. K. (2014) Critical autoethnography as intersectional praxis. In: R. M. Boylorn and M. P. Orbe (eds), Critical Autoethnography: Intersecting Cultural Identities in Everyday Life (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press), pp. 110–122.
22.Used in Turner, F. J. (1906) The colonization of the west, 1820–1830. The American Historical Review, 11(2), pp. 303–327.
23.Conn, H. A. and Budington, R. A. (1927) Physiology and Human Life (Silver: Burdett), H.C. Northcott (1944) The geographic mobility of Canada’s elderly. Canadian Studies in Population, 12(2), pp. 183–202.
24.Recchi, E. (2006) From migrants to movers: citizenship and mobility in the European Union. In: M. P. Smith and A. Favell (eds), The Human Face of Global Mobility (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers), pp. 53–77.
25.Castles, S. (2010) Understanding global migration: a social transformation perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(10), pp. 1565–1586.
26.Hammar, T. (1995) Development and immobility: why have not many more emigrants left the south? Causes of International Migration (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities), pp. 173–186.
28.Dahrendorf, R. (1959) Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society (Stanford: Stanford University Press), p. 135.
29.For a series of cases and discussions on the environment of human insecurity, please see: I. Sirkeci (2009) Transnational Mobility and Conflict. Migration Letters, 6(1), pp. 3–14. Also: I. Sirkeci (2003) Migration, Ethnicity, Conflict. PhD dissertation, (Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield) and I. Sirkeci, J. H. Cohen and P. Yazgan (eds) (2016) Conflict, Insecurity, and Mobility (London: Transnational Press London).
30.Further details of the handbook, data and methodology can be found Jenkins, J. C., Taylor, C. L., Abbott, M., Maher, T. V. and Peterson, L. (2012) The World Handbook of Political Indicators IV (Columbus, OH: Mershon Center for International Security Studies, The Ohio State University), Available at: https://sociology.osu.edu/worldhandbook (accessed 1 October 2013).
31.The data set is computer-generated parsed information from Reuters newswires into categories of actors and events. Newswire data from Reuters are beneficial for cross-comparative research because this agency has ‘approximately 16,900 staff in 94 countries, including 2,400 editorial staff in 196 bureaus around the world’ (Reuters 2007).
32.‘The size and global representation of Reuters ensures that this agency is able to report on a large number of events in every part of the world on daily bases’, p. 58 in Maher, T. V. and Peterson, L. (2008) Time and country variation in contentious politics: multilevel modelling of dissent and repression. International Journal of Sociology, 38(3), pp. 52–81.
33.Official figures tend to indicate much lower volumes. The total number of immigrants arrived in the late Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey from 1912 until 1927 Census is estimated to be 844,984. See Behar, C. (2003) The Population of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey (Ankara: State Institute of Statistics Republic of Turkey), p. 62.
34.See Aktar, A. (2012) Tax me to the end of my life! In B. C. Fortna et al. (eds), State-Nationalisms in the Ottoman Empire, Greece and Turkey: Orthodox and Muslims, 1830–1945 (Oxon: Routledge), p. 198.
35.Zayas, A. D. (2007) The Istanbul Pogrom of 6–7 September 1955 in the light of international law. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 2(2), pp. 137–154.
36.Güven, D. (2011) Riots against the non-Muslims of Turkey: 6/7 September 1955 in the context of demographic engineering. European Journal of Turkish Studies. Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey, 12.
37.Alford, J. (ed.) (1984) Greece and Turkey: Adversity in Alliance (Aldershot, Hants: Gower).
38.Sirkeci, I., Cohen, J. H. and Yazgan, P. (2012) Turkish culture of migration: flows between Turkey and Germany, socio-economic development and conflict. Migration Letters, 9(1), pp. 33–46.
39.Hale, W. M. (1981) The Political and Economic Development of Modern Turkey (London: Croom Helm.
40.Arı, K. (1995) Büyükmübadele: Türkiye’yezorunlugöç, 1923–1925 (Vol. 17) (Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları).
41.Seker, B. D. and Sirkeci, I. (2014) The Turkish born women in London and their adaptation processes. Paper presented at the Turkish Migration Conference 2014, Regent’s Centre for Transnational Studies, Regent’s University London, UK, 30 May–1 June 2014.
43.Baser, B. (2012) Inherited Conflicts: Spaces of Contention between Turkish and Kurdish Second Generation Diasporas in Sweden and Germany (Doctoral dissertation, PhD Thesis, Florence, European University Institute).
44.Sirkeci, I. and Zeynelolu, S. (2014) Abwanderung aus Deutschland in die Türkei: Eine Trendwende im Migrationsgeschehen? In: S. Alscher and A. Krienbriek, (eds), Abwanderung von TürkeistämmigenWer verlässt Deutschland und warum? (Germany: BAMF), pp. 30–85.
45.Akkoyunlu, Ş. (2012) intervening opportunities and competing migrants in Turkish migration to Germany, 1969–2008. Migration Letters, 9(2), pp. 155–175.
47.It is important to note that those with dual citizenship are reported as Turkish citizen in Turkish censuses.