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The EC/EU between the Art of Forgetting and the Palimpsest of Empire

  • Patrick Pasture (a1)

Abstract

The history of European integration is usually presented as both a peace project and an economic endeavour. What is largely ignored is that it also had a colonial dimension. This article first recalls this largely forgotten history, asking why and how it could be erased from memory. It then explores ways in which the EU and its predecessors constituted a new postcolonial identity and how colonial legacies somehow reappear in policies and representations.

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References

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1. Asad, T. (2003) Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity (Stanford: Stanford University Press), p 170.
2. Cf. P. Pasture (2015) Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 8081.
3. Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson wrote numerous path-breaking articles which finally culminate in their (long awaited) magnum opus P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), For some important precursors see below, esp. notes 12–14. See also P. Pasture (2015) Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan); and K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), (2015) Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus).
4. For example N. Davies (1996) Europe: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. 1068. P. Lagrou (2009) Europe and the world: imperial legacies. In: M. Telò (Ed.), The EU and Global Governance (London: Routledge), pp. 306–326. For a broader discussion of such arguments see P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 262–265; and L. Kottos (2016) Europe between Imperial Decline and Quest for Integration: Pro-European Groups and the French, Belgian and British Empires (1947-1957) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang).
5. A discussion on the relationship between European integration and empire, with a special emphasis on the role of public opinion, can be found in L. Kottos (2015) Linking Europe and Empire: making strategic choices on the eve of the Treaty of Rome. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 311–328.
6. Shipway, M. (2007) Decolonization and its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires (Malden: Blackwell), p. 51.
7. There is still no comprehensive history of the Commonwealth. F. Heinlein (2013) British Government Policy and Decolonisation, 1945–63: Scrutinising the Official Mind (London: Frank Cass), contains the best assessment of its origins.
8. Cooper, F. (2014) Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa 1945–1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press)
9. Trunk, A. (2007) Europa, ein Ausweg. Politische Eliten und europäische Identität in den 1950er Jahren (München: Oldenbourg), p. 157.
10. de Bruin, R. (2001) Dutch politics in the 1950s and the myth of inevitable Europeanization. In: J. Róka, (Ed.), Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations (Budapest: Budapest College of Communications and Business), pp. 382390.
11. Extensively in P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury)
12. Heinlein, F. (2002) British Government Policy and Decolonisation, 1945-1963: Scrutinising the Official Mind (London: Frank Cass), Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 25–30.
13. On Belgian politics and attitudes towards Congo in the 1950s see especially. C. Young (1965) Politics in Congo: Decolonization and Independence (Princeton: Princeton University Press), G. Vanthemsche (2012) Belgium and the Congo, 1885-1980 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). On Belgian policies towards the Association see E. Deschamps (2009) L’Afrique belge et le projet de Communauté politique européenne (1952–1954). In: É. Remacle and P. Winand (Eds), America, Europe, Africa (1945-1973) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 307–323; V. Dujardin (2005) Le monde politique belge face au traité d’association des PTOM au Marché commun. In: M.-T. Bitsch and G. Bossuat (Eds), L’Europe unie et l’Afrique: De l’idée d’Eurafrique à la Convention de Lomé 1 (Brussels: Bruylandt), pp. 301–318; K. Vandenweyer (2012) Europese integratie en dekolonisatie: België, Congo en de associatie van de overzeese gebieden met de gemeenschappelijke markt (1955–1957) (Unpublished MA thesis History, KU Leuven).
14. The literature on Eurafrica has become quite substantial: M.-T. Bitsch and G. Bossuat (Eds), (2005) L’Europe unie et l’Afrique: De l’idée d’Eurafrique à la Convention de Lomé 1 (Brussels: Bruylandt), P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury); L. Kottos (2016) Europe between Imperial Decline and Quest for Integration: Pro-European Groups and the French, Belgian and British Empires (1947-1957) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang); M. Liniger-Goumaz (1972) L’Eurafrique: Utopie ou Realité? (Yaounde: Editions CLE); Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence); T. Moser (2000) Europäische Integration, Dekolonisation, Eurafrika: eine historische Analyse über Entstehungsbedingungen der Eurafrikanischen Gemeinschaft von der Weltwirtschaftskrise bis zum Jaunde-Vertrag, 1929–1963 (Baden-Baden: Nomos) constitute the key references. See also Ref. 42.
15. The Strasbourg plan: proposals for improving the economic relations between member states of the Council of Europe and the overseas countries with which they have constitutional links, Council of Europe, 1952. For a discussion see P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 113117; Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 95–118; D. Avit (2005) La question de l’Eurafrique dans la construction de l’Europe de 1950 à 1957. Matériaux pour l’histoire de notre temps, 77, pp. 17–23; L. Kottos (2012) A ‘European Commonwealth’: Britain, the European League for Economic Co-operation, and European Debates on Empire, 1947–1957. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 20(4), pp. 497–515.
16. Montarsolo, Y. (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 3840 (and ff); G. Bossuat (1992) France, l’aide américaine et la construction européenne, 1944-1954 (Paris: Comité pour l’Histoire Économique et Financière de la France), vol. I, pp. 548–611.
17. Hansen, P. and Jonsson, S. (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 119128.
18. Tängerstad, E. (2000) The Third World’ as an element in the collective construction of a post-colonial European identity. In: B. Stråth (Ed.), Europe and the Other and Europe as the Other (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang 2000), pp. 157193.
19. On American views on development see especially D. Ekbladh (2011) The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order (Princeton: Princeton University Press); C. Lancaster Foreign Aid: Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Policies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); N. Cullather (2000) Development? It’s history. Research Note, Diplomatic History, 24(4), pp. 641–653. Although especially French and Belgians were anxious about American opposition to European colonialism, the US hardly opposed the African colonial politics of its main European allies in the 1950s in practice. See A. Adamthwaite (2005) Britain, France, the United States and Euro-Africa, 1945-1949, and I.W. Wall (2005) Les États-Unis et la décolonisation de l’Afrique. Le mythe de l’Eurafrique. In: M.-T. Bitsch and G. Bossuat (Eds), L’Europe unie et l’Afrique: De l’idée d’Eurafrique à la Convention de Lomé 1 (Brussels: Bruylandt), pp. 119–132, 133–147; G. Garavini (2012) After Empires: European Integration, Decolonization and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 17–19; N. Karagiannis (2004) Avoiding Responsibility: The Politics and Discourse of European Development Policy (London: Pluto Press), esp. pp. 23–45. That is not taking in account the Suez Crisis though, which showed the limits of American restraint towards European colonizers.
20. Draft of a Federal Pact, The Hague Conference 1948. Quoted in A. Hick (1991) The ‘European Movement’. In: W. Lipgens and W. Loth (Eds), Documents on the History of European Integration, vol. IV, Transnational Organisations of Political Parties and Pressure Groups in the Struggle for European Union 1945-1950 (Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter), p. 316.
21. Council of Europe, 1952, quoted in P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury). 103104.
22. Cooper, F. (1996) Decolonization and African Society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); M. Rempe (2011) Decolonization by Europeanization? The early EEC and the transformation of French-African relations. Freie Universität Berlin, KFG Working Paper Series 27 (http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/kfgeu/kfgwp/wpseries/WorkingPaperKFG_27.pdf).
23. Quoted from a cabinet meeting 21 February 1957 by U. Vahsen (2010) Eurafrikanische Entwicklungskooperation. Die Assozierungspolitik der EWG gegenüber dem subsaharischen Afrika in den 1960er Jahren (Stuttgart: Steiner), p. 99.
24. Van Laak, D. (2010) Detours around Africa: the connection between developing colonies and integrating Europe. In: A. Badenoch and A. Fickers (Eds), Materializing Europe. Transnational Infrastructures and the Project of Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 2743.
25. On this passage see P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 123124; Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 85–91.
26. Girault, R. (1989) La France entre l’Europe et l’Afrique. In: E. Serra (Ed.), La relance européenne et les traités de Rome (Brussels: Bruylant), pp. 351378; See also extensively G. Migani (2008) La France et l’Afrique sub-saharienne, 1957-1963. Histoire d’une decolonization entre idéaux eurafricains et politique de puissance (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang).
27. Leikam, F. (2011) Empire, Entwicklung und Europa: Die Europapolitik Großbritanniens und die Entwicklungsländer im Commonwealth, 1945-75 (Augsburg: Wißner), F. Heinlein (2002) British Government Policy and Decolonisation, 1945-1963: Scrutinising the Official Mind (London: Frank Cass), pp. 137–143; F. Leikam (2015) A matter of preference: Commonwealth Africa, Britain and the EEC Association System, 1957–75. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 293–310.
28. See P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), L. Kottos (2012) A ‘European Commonwealth’: Britain, the European League for Economic Co-operation, and European Debates on Empire, 1947–1957. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 20(4), pp. 497–515; L. Kottos (2015) Linking Europe and Empire: making strategic choices on the eve of the Treaty of Rome. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 311–328; L. Kottos (2016) Europe between Imperial Decline and Quest for Integration: Pro-European Groups and the French, Belgian and British Empires (1947-1957) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang); F. Leikam (2011) Empire, Entwicklung und Europa: Die Europapolitik Großbritanniens und die Entwicklungsländer im Commonwealth, 1945-75 (Augsburg: Wißner); F. Leikam (2015) A matter of preference: Commonwealth Africa, Britain and the EEC Association System, 1957–75. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 293–310; A. May (Ed.), (2001) Britain, The Commonwealth and Europe: The Commonwealth and Britain’s Applications to Join the European Communities (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan); F. Heinlein (2013) British Government Policy and Decolonisation, 1945–63: Scrutinising the Official Mind (London: Frank Cass).
29. Cooper, F. (2014) Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa 1945-1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press), p. 268. A detailed assessment of the negotiations can be found in P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), 147–238; G. Migani (2008) La France et l’Afrique sub-saharienne, 1957-1963. Histoire d’une decolonization entre idéaux eurafricains et politique de puissance (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang). See also L. Sicking (2004) A colonial echo: France and the colonial dimension of the European Community. French Colonial History, 5, pp. 207–228.
30. Especially A. Zischka (1951) Afrika. Europas Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Nr. 1 (Gerhard Stalling: Oldenburg), (French translation 1952). Notwithstanding his Nazi past, Zischka’s ideas on Eurafrica were quite influential and representative for the time. See Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 98–102; U. Vahsen (2010) Eurafrikanische Entwicklungskooperation. Die Assozierungspolitik der EWG gegenüber dem subsaharischen Afrika in den 1960er Jahren (Stuttgart: Steiner), pp. 122–138 (and ff); D. Van Laak (2004) Imperiale Infrastruktur. Deutsche Planungen für eine Erschließung Afrikas 1880 bis 1960 (Paderborn: F. Schöningh), pp. 335–353; and D. Van Laak (2010) Detours around Africa: the connection between developing colonies and integrating Europe. In: A. Badenoch and A. Fickers (Eds), Materializing Europe. Transnational Infrastructures and the Project of Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 27–43.
31. Mollet, G. (1958) Bilan et perspectives socialistes (Paris: Plon), pp. 35, 4546, 56 See the discussion in T.C. Imlay (2013) International socialism and decolonization during the 1950s: competing rights and the postcolonial order. The American Historical Review, 118, pp 1105–1132, p. 1120. See also the penetrating critique of Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence), pp. 65–69 on this ‘colonial federalism’; A.-I. Richard (2014) The limits of solidarity. Europeanism, anti-colonialism and socialism at the Congress of the Peoples of Europe, Asia and Africa at Puteaux, 1948. European Review of History, 21(4), pp. 519–537; and P. Van Kemseke (2006) Towards an Era of Development: The Globalization of Socialism and Christian Democracy 1945-1965 (Leuven: Leuven University Press).
32. A similar thought in the memoires of Baron Robert Rothschild, head of the cabinet of PM P.H. Spaak and as such one of the architects of the Rome treaties: R. Rothschild (1997) Un phénix nommé Europe: mémoires 1945-1995 (Brussels, Racine), p. 180.
33. On these dilemmas see particularly F. Cooper (2014) Africa in the World: Capitalism, Empire, Nation-State (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), F. Cooper (2014) Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa 1945-1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press); A.-I. Richard (2014) The limits of solidarity. Europeanism, anti-colonialism and socialism at the Congress of the Peoples of Europe, Asia and Africa at Puteaux, 1948. European Review of History, 21(4), p. 529.
34. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN-FR/TXT/?uri=URISERV:xy0023&from=EN. It gave way to the historiographical myth that Eurafrica could be interpreted as a step in the process of decolonization. See Note 3.
35.For example, Le Chancelier Adenauer: l’association des territoires d’outre-mer n’a rien de commun avec le colonialisme, Le Monde, 24 February 1957, p. 3. P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 247–252 discuss this and other reactions.
36. Cooper, F. (2010) Writing the history of development. In: C.R. Unger, S. Malinowski and A. Eckert (Eds), Modernizing Missions: Approaches to ‘Developing’ the Non-Western World after 1945. Special issue of Journal of Modern European History, 8(1), pp. 5–23, p. 12.
37.Brussels, Historical Archives of the Council of the EU, Négociations des traités instituant le CEE et la CEEA (1955-1957), CM3. Conférence des ministres des Affaires étrangères et signature des traités de la CEE et de la CEEA, Rome, 25 March 1957, CM3/ NEGO/098, online http://www.cvce.eu/obj/rede_van_joseph_luns_rome_25_maart_1957-nl-897c0a02-4e66-445f-82ad-5939f78008f0.html. The French version of the original Dutch text translates as zijn grootste taak in de wereldbeschaving as sa grande mission civilisatrice mondiale. It should be noted though that the Netherlands had fiercely opposed the association, partly because of its colonial dimension, partly because it did not agree with a preferential treatment of former Belgian and French colonies. See A.G. Harryvan and J. van der Horst (2005) A Bumpy road to Lomé. The Netherlands, Association and the Yaounde Treaties 1956-1969. In: M.-T. Bitsch and G. Bossuat (Eds), L’Europe unie et l’Afrique: De l’idée d’Eurafrique à la Convention de Lomé 1 (Brussels: Bruylandt), pp. 319–343.
38. Dimier, V. (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 1315. The issue of the representation was a major factor in the demise of the EPC. See E. Deschamps (1999) Un rendez-vous historique manqué? La ‘Petite Europe’, l’Afrique et le projet de Communauté Politique Européenne (1952–1954). European Review of History, 6(2), pp. 251–263.
39. Wolfgang Schmale has observed that civilizing missions and imperialism/colonialism were sometimes dissociated: the power of ideas could do without the power of guns. W. Schmale (2011) Before self-reflexivity: imperialism and colonialism in the early discourse of European integration. In: M. Spiering and M. Wintle (Eds), European Identity and the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 186–201, p. 192.
40. Dimier, V. (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 1415; M. Lister (1988) The European Union and Developing World (Aldershot: Avebury), p. 14. A fruitful discussion of the term neo-colonialism is in G. Martin (2002) Africa in World Politics: A Pan-African Perspective (Trenton NJ/ Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press), pp. 1–22.
41. Compare with F. Fanon (1963) The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Weidenfeld), p. 218. ‘The intellectual who is Arab and French or Nigerian and English, when he comes up against the need to take on two nationalities, chooses, if he wants to remain true to himself, the negation of one of these determinations’.
42. Although most works on Eurafrica include the major statements of the main African leaders, the African attitudes towards Eurafrica have hardly been analysed. For first attempts see F. Cooper (2014) Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa 1945-1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press), pp. 214278, who puts the discussion in a broader and changing African context. See also D. Avit (2005) La question de l’Eurafrique dans la construction de l’Europe de 1950 à 1957. Matériaux pour l’histoire de notre temps, 77, pp. 17–23; P. Dramé and S. Saul (2004) Le projet d’Eurafrique en France (1946-1960): quête de puissance ou atavisme colonial? Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 4, pp. 95–114; J. Fremigacci (2005) Les parlementaires africains face à la construction européenne, 1953-1957. Matériaux pour l’histoire de notre temps, 77, pp. 5–16; S. Huber (2009) Dialogue avec le Tiers Monde: l’Europe communautaire à la recherche d’une identité postcoloniale, Relations internationales, 140(4), pp. 19–36 and the pioneering work of Anne-Isabelle Richard (2016) The Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe as a platform for African Interests. Paper presented at the KFG workshop From Empires to Empire? Berlin, 7–8 April 2016. Y. Montarsolo (2010) L’Eurafrique, contrepoint de l’idée d’Europe – Le cas français de la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale aux négociations des Traités de Rome (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence) focuses especially on Senghor.
43. Kaiser, Cf. W., Krankenhagen, S. and Poehls, K. (2014) Exhibiting Europe in Museums. Transnational Networks, Collections, Narratives, and Representations (Oxford: Berghahn)
44. Shipway, M. (2007) Decolonization and its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires (Malden: Blackwell), p. 51.
45. Patel, K.K. (2013) Provincialising European Union: co-operation and integration in Europe in a historical perspective. Contemporary European History, 22, pp. 649673.
46. Feindt, G., Krawatzek, F., Mehler, D., Pestel, F. and Trimçev, R. (2014) Entangled memory. toward a third wave in memory studies. History and Theory, 53, pp. 2444. The issue of the forgetting of European colonial and imperial pasts is discussed in E. Buettner (2016) Europe after Empire: Decolonization, Society and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 417–490 (Eurafrica briefly p. 500).
47. Cf. P. Pichler (2018) European Union cultural history: introducing the theory of ‘paradoxical coherence’ to start mapping a field of research. Journal for European Integration History, 40(1): (https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2017.1404050).
48. C. Leggewie with A. Lang (2011) Der Kampf um die europäische Erinnerung. Ein Schlachtfeld wird besichtigt (München: C.H. Beck), See also J. Jansen (2010) Politics of remembrance, colonialism and the Algerian War of Independence in France. In: M. Pakier and B. Stråth (Eds), A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance (New York; Oxford: Berghahn), pp. 275–293. Compare, inter alia, A. Assmann (2012) Auf dem Weg zu einer europäischen Gedächtniskultur? (Vienna: Picus); C. Bottici and B. Challand (2013) Imagining Europe: Myth, Memory, and Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); C. Joerges and P. Blokker with C. Engert (Eds), (2005) Confronting Memories. Special issue German Law Journal, 6(2), pp. 244–561; J.T. Checkel and P.J. Katzenstein (Eds), (2009) European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); R.K. Herrmann, T. Risse and M.B. Brewer (Eds), (2004) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield); S. Macdonald (2013) Memorylands: Heritage and Identity in Europe Today (London: Routledge); M. Sassatelli (2009) Becoming Europeans: Cultural Identity and Cultural Policies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan); C. Shore (2000) Building Europe: The Cultural Politics of European Integration (London: Routledge). Also B. Sèbe (2015) Towards cosmopolitan perspectives on empires and their echoes? The case for a European framework. In: K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), (2015) Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 123–140 stops short of including the EC/EU.
49. See especially M. Sassatelli (2009) Becoming Europeans: Cultural Identity and Cultural Policies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 3941; G. Quenzel (2005) Konstruktionen von Europa: Die europäische Identität und die Kulturpolitik der Europäischen Union (Bielefeld: transcript Verlag). On the cultural policies of the CoE see J. Kruse (1993) Europäische Kulturpolitik am Beispiel des Europarats (Berlin: Lit); B. Wassenberg (2012) Histoire du Conseil de l’Europe (1949-2009) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang).
50. Wæver, O. (1998) Insecurity, security and asecurity in the West European non-war community. In: E. Adler and M. Barnett (Eds), Security Communities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 69118, p. 90.
51. Bottici, C. (2010) European identity and the politics of remembrance. In: K. Tilmans, F. van Vree and J. Winter (Eds), Performing the Past. Memory, History and Identity in Modern Europe (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press), pp. 335361. A. Trunk (2007) Europa, ein Ausweg. Politische Eliten und europäische Identität in den 1950er Jahren (München: Oldenbourg, 2007), p. 164 quotes the then Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs P.-H. Spaak (later President of the CoE and of NATO) referring to the ‘three dates’ that seemed to determine the ‘history of Europe and the world’ (!) 1870, 1914 and 1939. See also T. Judt (1992) The past is another country: myth and memory in postwar Europe. Daedalus, 121(4), 83–118. In his magnum opus, T. Judt (2005) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (New York: Penguin), Judt did pay some attention to the impact of colonization and decolonization. Others still do not, e.g. D. Stone (2014) Goodbye to All That? The Story of Europe Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
52. See also G. Garavini (2007) The colonies strike back: the impact of the third world on Western Europe, 1968–1975. Contemporary European History, 16(3), pp. 299319.
53. Calligaro, O. (2015) Legitimation through remembrance? The changing regimes of historicity of European integration. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 23(3), pp. 330343. F. Larat (2005) Presenting the past: political narratives on European history and the justification of EU integration. German Law Journal, 6(2), pp. 273–290. On ‘presentism’ as a historical time mode see F. Hartog (2015) Regimes of Historicity: Presentism and the Experience of Time (New York: Columbia University Press); A. Assmann (2013) Transformations of the modern time regime. In: C. Lorenz and B. Bevernage (Eds), Breaking up Time: Negotiating the Borders between Present, Past and Future (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht), pp. 39–56.
54. On the importance of trauma see J. Winter (2010) Introduction: the performance of the past: memory, history, identity. In: K. Tilmans, F. van Vree and J. Winter (Eds), Performing the Past. Memory, History and Identity in Modern Europe (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press), pp. 11–23; C. Bottici and B. Challand (2013) Imagining Europe: Myth, Memory, and Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 51ff. Note that colonial memories are not mentioned in these works.
55. This idea is further developed in G. Quenzel (2005) Konstruktionen von Europa: Die europäische Identität und die Kulturpolitik der Europäischen Union (Bielefeld: transcript Verlag), On the importance of forgetting see A. Assmann (2012) Auf dem Weg zu einer europäischen Gedächtniskultur? (Vienna: Picus); A. Assmann and U. Frevert (1999) Geschichtsvergessenheit – Geschichtsvergessenheit. Vom Umgang mit deutschen Vergangenheiten nach 1945 (Stuttgart: DVA); C. Meier (2010) Das Gebot zu vergessen und die Unabweisbarkeit des Erinnerns: Vom öffentlichen Umgang mit schlimmer Vergangenheit (München: Siedler).
56. Cf. E. Buettner (2016) Europe after Empire: Decolonization, Society and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 474490; B. Porter (2015) Epilogue: after-images of empire. In: K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 393–406.
57. Jansen, J. (2010) Politics of remembrance, colonialism and the Algerian War of Independence in France. In: M. Pakier and B. Stråth (Eds), A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance (New York; Oxford: Berghahn), pp. 275293.
58. C. Leggewie with A. Lang (2011) Der Kampf um die europäische Erinnerung. Ein Schlachtfeld wird besichtigt (München: C.H. Beck), On British memories with relation to Europe see A. Deighton (2002) The past in the present: British imperial memories and the European question. In: J.-W. Mueller (Ed.), Memory and Power in Postwar Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 100–120.
59.The reference to the Eurafrican ambition of the Schuman Declaration quoted earlier (Ref. 29) was omitted from public versions of the declaration by the EU (recently rectified though), as well as by the Institut Robert Schuman pour l’Europe, the European Movement and even Leiden University’s Schuman Plan Collection. See E. Deschamps (2011) Robert Schuman, un apôtre oublié de l’Eurafrique? In: S. Schirman (Ed.), Quelles architectures pour quelle Europe: Des projets d’une Europe unie à l’Union européenne (1945–1992) (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), p. 75; P. Hansen and S. Jonsson (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), note 141.
60. Hölscher, L. (1989) Geschichte und Vergessen. Historische Zeitschrift, 249(1), pp. 117; F. Whitling (2010) Damnatio Memoriae and the power of remembrance. Reflections on memory and history. In: M. Pakier and B. Stråth (Eds), A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance (New York; Oxford: Berghahn), pp. 87–97.
61. Cf. T. Bentley (2015) Empires of Remorse: Narrative, Postcolonialism and Apologies for Colonial Atrocity (London: Routledge), See also J. Jansen (2010) Politics of remembrance, colonialism and the Algerian War of Independence in France. In: M. Pakier and B. Stråth (Eds), A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance (New York; Oxford: Berghahn) and, for a general assessment, B. Bevernage (2012) History, Memory, and State-Sponsored Violence: Time and Justice (New York: Routledge).
62. Shepard, T. (2008) The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), p. 6. See K. Nicolaïdes (2015) Southern barbarians? A post-colonial critique of EUniversalism. In: K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 283–303.
63. Jansen, J. (2010) Politics of remembrance, colonialism and the Algerian War of Independence in France. In: M. Pakier and B. Stråth (Eds), A European Memory? Contested Histories and Politics of Remembrance (New York; Oxford: Berghahn), pp. 275293.
64. Which is even the case for G. Garavini (2012) After Empires: European Integration, Decolonization and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 4648.
65. Frank Gerits (2016) made a similar argument at the workshop From Empires to Empire? in his contribution: The EEC as a Pan-White Project: European Integration through South African and Ghanaian Eyes (1950–1966). Paper presented at the KFG workshop, From Empires to Empire? Berlin, 7–8 April 2016.
66. See especially U. Vahsen (2010) Eurafrikanische Entwicklungskooperation. Die Assozierungspolitik der EWG gegenüber dem subsaharischen Afrika in den 1960er Jahren (Stuttgart: Steiner), G. Garavini (2012) After Empires: European Integration, Decolonization and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
67. On the evolving British and Commonwealth attitudes see F. Leikam (2015) A matter of preference: Commonwealth Africa, Britain and the EEC Association System, 1957–75. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 293–310. A more critical assessment in F. Gerits (2016) From Empires to Empire? Contribution to: The EEC as a Pan-White Project: European Integration through South African and Ghanaian Eyes (1950–1966). Paper presented at the KFG workshop, From Empires to Empire? Berlin, 7–8 April 2016.
68. Dimier, V. (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 2242.
69. Hansen, P. and Jonsson, S. (2014) Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism (London: Bloomsbury), pp. 252259.
70. Some political scientists do compare the EU to an empire though, in terms of its relationship with its ‘nations’, contrasted with the nation-state. For example, U. Beck and E. Grande (2007) Cosmopolitan Europe (Cambridge: Polity), J. Zielonka (2006) Europe as Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press). I find the historical representation of empire in these works problematic though. S. Malešvić (2017) The foundations of statehood: empires and nation-states in the longue durée. Thesis Eleven, 139(1), pp. 1–17 offers a recent state of the art of the discussion about empire and nation-states. See also P. Pasture (2015) Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 80–81.
71. Schulz-Forberg, H. and Stråth, B. (2010) The Political History of European Integration. The Hypocrisy of Democracy-through-Market (London: Routledge), On the legitimacy problem see C. Bottici and B. Challand (2013) Imagining Europe: Myth, Memory, and Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 15–39.
73. Pasture, P. (2015) Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), gives several examples from different times.
74. Allen, D. (1996) Conclusions: the European rescue of national foreign policy. In: C. Hill (Ed.), The Actors in European Foreign Policy (London: Routledge), pp. 288304. On the ‘modernization’ of European foreign policy see S. Keuckeleire and T. Delreux (2014) The Foreign Policy of the European Union (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 116–134.
75. Moyn, S. (2012) The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), p. 1.
76. For recent overviews of the discussion see K. Cmiel (2011) The recent history of human rights. In: A. Iriye, P. and W.I. Hitchcock (Eds), The Human Rights Revolution: An International History (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 27–51; S.-L. Hoffmann (2011) Genealogies of human rights. In: S.-L. Hoffmann (Ed.), Human Rights in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 1–28; S.-L. Hoffmann (2016) Human rights and history. Past and Present, 232, pp. 279–310; D.O. Pendas (2012) Toward a new politics? On the recent historiography of human rights. Contemporary European History, 21(1), pp. 95–111; P. Slotte and M. Halme-Tuomisaari (Eds), (2015) Revisiting the Origins of Human Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). I develop my argument more extensively in P. Pasture (2018) The invention of European human rights. History: The Journal of the Historical Association (in press).
77. Summaries of the discussion in J. Eckel (2014) Human rights and decolonization: new perspectives and open questions. Humanity Journal, 10 June 2014 (http://humanityjournal.org/issue-1/human-rights-and-decolonization-new-perspectives-and-open-questions/); S.L.B. Jensen (2016) The Making of International Human Rights: The 1960s, Decolonization, and the Reconstruction of Global Values (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); F. Klose (2016) Human rights for and against Empire – legal and public discourses in the age of decolonisation. Journal of the History of International Law, 18, pp. 317–338.
78. See A.W.B. Simpson (2004) Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
79. For example M.R. Madsen (2014) International human rights and the transformation of European society: from ‘Free Europe’ to the Europe of human rights. In: M.R. Madsen and C. Thornhill (Eds), Law and the Formation of Modern Europe: Perspectives from the Historical Sociology of Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 245–274, p. 140; H. Porsdam (2011) Human rights and European identity since World War II: Vergangenheitsbewältigung through Law. In: M. Spiering and M. Wintle (Eds), European Identity and the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 21–36.
80. de Búrca, G. (2011) The road not taken: the EU as a global human rights actor. American Journal of International Law, 105, pp. 649693.
81. Joas, H. (2013) The Sacredness of the Person: A New Genealogy of Human Rights (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press), S. Moyn (2015) Christian Human Rights (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press); S. Moyn (2012) The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
82. Duranti, M. (2017) The Conservative Human Rights Revolution: European Identity, Transnational Politics, and the Origins of the European Convention (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
83. Weitz, E.D. (2008) From the Vienna to the Paris system: international politics and the entangled histories of human rights, forced deportations, and civilizing missions. The American Historical Review, 113(5), pp. 13131343 and E.D. Weitz (2015) Self-determination: how a German enlightenment idea became the slogan of national liberation and a human right. The American Historical Review, 120(2), pp. 462–496. See also J. Fisch (2015) The Right of Self-Determination of Peoples: The Domestication of an Illusion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). The Convention also lacked social rights as formulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) proclaimed by the United Nations on 10 December 1948.
84.It should be noted that the sovereignty argument was not only invoked by colonial empires: also non-colonial states did not sign, such as Italy (1973) and Switzerland (1974).
85. Klose, F. (2011) ‘Source of embarrassment’ – human rights, state of emergency, and the wars of decolonization. In: S.-L. Hoffmann (Ed.), Human Rights in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 237257; F. Klose (2014) Europe as a colonial project: a critique of its anti-liberalism. In: D. Gosewinckel (Ed.), Anti-liberal Europe: A Neglected Story of Europeanization (Oxford: Berghahn), pp. 50–71.
86. Richard, A.-I. (2016) The Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe as a platform for African Interests. Paper presented at the KFG workshop From Empires to Empire? Berlin, 7–8 April 2016.
87. For example G. de Búrca (2011) The road not taken: the EU as a global human rights actor. American Journal of International Law, 105, pp. 649693.
88. Obviously the policy of the ECJ provoked a lot of reaction. See as main references G. de Búrca (2011) The road not taken: the EU as a global human rights actor. American Journal of International Law, 105, pp. 668. ff.; M.R. Madsen (2013) Human rights and European integration: from institutional divide to convergent practice. In: N. Kauppi (Ed.), A Political Sociology of Transnational Europe (Colchester: ECPR), pp. 147–165; J.H.H. Weiler (1986) Eurocracy and distrust. Some questions concerning the role of the European Court of Justice in the protection of fundamental rights in the legal order of the communities. Washington Law Review, 61, pp. 1103–1142.
89. Madsen, M.R. (2016) The challenging authority of the European Court of Human Rights: from Cold War legal diplomacy to the Brighton Declaration and backlash. Law and Contemporary Problems, 79(1), pp. 141178. pp. 152, 143.
90. Ferrari, L. (2015) The European Community as a promoter of human rights in Africa and Latin America, 1970-80. Journal of European Integration History, 21(2), pp. 217230, p. 222; L. Ferrari (2016) Sometimes Speaking with a Single Voice: The European Community as an International Actor, 1969–1979 (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang).
91. Buchanan, T. (2010) Human rights, the memory of war and the making of a ‘European’ identity, 1945-1975. In: M. Conway and K.K. Patel (Eds), Europeanization in the Twentieth Century: Historical Approaches (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 157171; R. Davy (2009) Helsinki myths: setting the record straight on the Final Act of the CSCE, 1975. Cold War History, 9(1), pp. 1–22; S.-L. Hoffmann (2011) Genealogies of human rights. In: S.-L. Hoffmann (Ed.), Human Rights in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 1–28; S.-L. Hoffmann (2016) Human rights and history. Past and Present, 232, pp. 279–310; M. Mazower (2012) Governing the World: The History of an Idea (New York, Allen Lane), p. 320 ff; D. Möckli (2009) European Foreign Policy during the Cold War. Heath, Brandt, Pompidou and the Dream of Political Unity (New York: I.B. Tauris), ch. 3; S. Moyn (2012) The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), pp. 172 (and ff.); N. Piers Ludlow (2007) European integration and the Cold War: Ostpolitik–Westpolitik, 1965-1973 (London: Routledge); A. Romano (2014) Untying Cold War knots: the EEC and Eastern Europe in the long 1970s. Cold War History, 14(2), pp. 153–173; A. Romano (2009) From Détente in Europe to European Détente. How the West Shaped the Helsinki CSCE (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang); S.B. Syder (2011) Principles overwhelming tanks: human rights and the end of the Cold War. In: A. Iriye, P. and W.I. Hitchcock (Eds), The Human Rights Revolution: An International History (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 265–283.
92. Holland, M. and Doidge, M. (2012) Development Policy of the European Union (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), p. 50.
93. Garavini, G. (2012) After Empires: European Integration, Decolonization and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), p. 46. See also F. Cooper (2010) Writing the history of development. In: C.R. Unger, S. Malinowski and A. Eckert (Eds), Modernizing Missions: Approaches to ‘Developing’ the Non-Western World after 1945. Special issue of Journal of Modern European History, 8(1), pp. 5–23, p. 12.
94. Intervention in the European Parliamentary Assembly, 16 September 1963, quoted in S. Huber (2009) Dialogue avec le Tiers Monde: l’Europe communautaire à la recherche d’une identité postcoloniale. Relations internationales, 140(4), pp. 1936, p. 25.
95. Gerits, F. (2016) From Empires to Empire? Contribution to: The EEC as a Pan-White Project: European Integration through South African and Ghanaian Eyes (1950–1966). Paper presented at the KFG workshop, From Empires to Empire? Berlin, 7–8 April 2016.
96. Leikam, F. (2015) A matter of preference: Commonwealth Africa, Britain and the EEC Association System, 1957–75. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), p. 301.
97. See especially E. Jones and C. Weinhardt (2015) Echoes of colonialism in trade negotiations between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries. In: K. Nicolaïdes, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 226–250; U. Vahsen (2010) Eurafrikanische Entwicklungskooperation. Die Assozierungspolitik der EWG gegenüber dem subsaharischen Afrika in den 1960er Jahren (Stuttgart: Steiner), pp. 184–198; F. Leikam (2015) A matter of preference: Commonwealth Africa, Britain and the EEC Association System, 1957–75. In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 293–310.
98. Dimier, V. (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 2242, on the tensions pp. 59–79. See also G. Migani (2008) La France et l’Afrique sub-saharienne, 1957-1963. Histoire d’une decolonization entre idéaux eurafricains et politique de puissance (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 193–207 (and ff. until p. 247) and M. Rempe (2011) Decolonization by Europeanization? The early EEC and the transformation of French-African relations. Freie Universität Berlin, KFG Working Paper Series 27 (http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/kfgeu/kfgwp/wpseries/WorkingPaperKFG_27.pdf).
99. On this subject see also N. Karagiannis (2004) Avoiding Responsibility: The Politics and Discourse of European Development Policy (London: Pluto Press), esp. pp. 2345.
100. Jones, E. and Weinhardt, C. (2015) Echoes of colonialism in trade negotiations between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries. In: K. Nicolaïdes, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 226250; M. Listner (1988) The European Community and the Developing World (Aldershot: Avebury), p. 215.
101. Drieghe, L. and Orbie, J. (2009) Revolution in times of Eurosclerosis: the case of the first Lomé Convention. L’Europe en Formation, 3, pp. 353354, 167–181; V. Dimier (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 80–115. See also M. Holland and M. Doidge (2012) Development Policy of the European Union (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 53 ff.
102. Migani, G. (2008) La France et l’Afrique sub-saharienne, 1957-1963. Histoire d’une decolonization entre idéaux eurafricains et politique de puissance (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), p. 259. V. Dimier (2014) The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 99 ff.
103. See L.A. Nichter (2015) Richard Nixon and Europe: The Reshaping of the Postwar Atlantic World (New York: Cambridge University Press), for an assessment of American foreign policy on the reshaping of Europe, as well as A. Varsori and G. Migani (Eds), (2011) Europe in the International Arena in the 1970s: Entering a Different World (Brussels: PIE-Peter Lang), especially L. Tosi, Europe, the United Nations and dialogue with the Third World, pp. 161–191.
104. Schmale, W. (2011) Before self-reflexivity: imperialism and colonialism in the early discourse of European integration. In: M. Spiering and M. Wintle (Eds), European Identity and the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 186201.
105.Declaration on European Identity (Copenhagen, 14 December 1973) Bulletin of the European Communities, 12, pp. 118–122. Cf. W. Schmale (2008) Geschichte und Zukunft der Europäischen Identität (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer), pp. 121–126; A.E. Gfelle (2012), Building a European Identity. France, the United States, and the Oil Shock, 1973-74 (Oxford: Berghahn); P. Chassaigne (2011) Identité et conscience européenne: l’émergence d’un débat inachevé. Le Sommet de Copenhague, 14–15 décembre 1973. In: A. Varsori and G. Migani (Eds), Europe in the International Arena in the 1970s: Entering a Different World (Brussels: PIE-Peter Lang), pp. 243–251. On the colonial/imperial background of the concept of civilization see B. Bowden (2009) The Empire of Civilization: The Evolution of an Imperial Idea (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
106. Vandamme, J. (1987) The Tindemans Report (1975-76). In: R. Pryce (Ed.), The Dynamics of European Union (London: Routledge), p. 152.
107.Bedenkingen over de Europese Unie (KADOC, Leuven, Archives Leo Tindemans (henceforth ALT), 595).
108.Conseil des communes d’Europe, Section Italienne du CCE, ‘Le Combat pour l’union européenne. Résolution politique générale’ (ALT 602).
109.Notulen buitengewone vergadering, 8 juli 1975; Nederlandse kabinetsraad, September 1975 (ALT 597). On Dutch policy see R. De Bruin (2014) Elastisch Europa. De integratie van Europa en de Nederlandse politiek, 1947-1968 (Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek), pp. 207 ff.; A.G. Harryvan and J. van der Horst (2005) A Bumpy road to Lomé. The Netherlands, Association and the Yaounde Treaties 1956-1969. In: M.-T. Bitsch and G. Bossuat (Eds), L’Europe unie et l’Afrique: De l’idée d’Eurafrique à la Convention de Lomé 1 (Brussels: Bruylandt), pp. 319–343. On the changing meaning of the term ‘Third World’ with regard to Europe see the penetrating assessment of E. Tängerstad (2000) ‘The Third World’ as an element in the collective construction of a post-colonial European identity. In: B. Stråth (Ed.), Europe and the Other and Europe as the Other (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang, 2000), pp. 157–193.
110.Discours, ALT, 598.
111.Les solutions alternatives pour les pays européens, 4 March 1975 (ALT 614).
112.Speech François-Xavier Ortoli, European Parliament, Strasbourg, 18 February 1975 and De Cerexhe, Pourquoi l’Europe?, 17 July 1975 (ALT 614).
113. Williams, A. (2004) EU Human Rights: A Study in Irony (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 2534 (and ff.).
114. See especially B. Stråth (2002) A European identity: to the historical limits of a concept. European Journal of Social Theory, 5(4), pp. 387401.
115.Official Journal of the European Communities No 169, 29 June 1987, preamble.
116. Madsen, M.R. (2016) The challenging authority of the European Court of Human Rights: from Cold War legal diplomacy to the Brighton Declaration and backlash. Law and Contemporary Problems, 79(1), pp. 141178 and E.F. Defeis (2012) Human rights, the European Union, and the Treaty of Route: from Maastricht to Lisbon. Fordham International Law Journal, 35, pp. 1207–1230 provide useful overviews of the legal development. For a broader, historical-critical perspective see P. Winand (2015) The European rescue of the empire or the EU as ferment of change in International relations? In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 377–397.
117. Smith, K.E. (2005) Beyond the civilian power EU debate. Politique européenne, 3(17), pp. 6382, par. 39 (www.cairn.info/revue-politique-europeenne-2005-3-page-63.htm).
118. See especially M. Holland and M. Doidge (2012) Development Policy of the European Union (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 7082.
119. Jones, E. and Weinhardt, C. (2015) Echoes of colonialism in trade negotiations between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries. In: K. Nicolaïdes, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus)
120. Kagan, R. (2003) Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order (New York: Random House), p. 61.
121. Duchêne, F. (1973) The European Community and the uncertainties of interdependence. In: M. Kohnstamm and W. Hager (Eds), A Nation Writ Large? Foreign-Policy Problems before the European Community (London: Macmillan), pp. 121, p. 19. On the concept of civilian power see J. Orbie (2006) Civilian power Europe: review of the original and current debates. Cooperation and Conflict, 41(1), pp. 123–128; B. Hettne and F. Söderbaum (2005) Civilian power or soft imperialism? The EU as a global actor and the role of interregionalism. European Foreign Affairs Review, 10(4), pp. 535–552.
122. Sjursen, H. (2006) What Kind of Power?. In: H. Sjursen (Ed.), What Kind of Power? European Foreign Policy in Perspective, special issue of Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), pp. 169181; S. Scheipers and D. Sicurelli (2008) Empowering Africa: normative power in EU-Africa relations. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(4), pp. 607–623, 609. A somewhat similar assessment to mine is in K. Nicolaïdes (2015) Southern barbarians? A post-colonial critique of EUniversalism. In: K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus).
123. Manners, I. (2002) Normative power Europe: a contradiction in terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), pp. 235258. I. Manners (2011) The European Union’s normative power: critical perspectives and perspectives on the critical. In: R.G. Whitman (Ed.), Normative Power Europe: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives (Basingstoke: Palgrave), pp. 226–277. Manners acknowledges the ‘civilizationalist’ character of the concept. See also N.F. Onar and K. Nicolaïdis (2013) The decentring agenda: Europe as a post-colonial power. Cooperation and Conflict, 48(2), pp. 283–303, 284.
124. Manners, I. (2002) Normative power Europe: a contradiction in terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), p. 242.
125. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-I8M1T-GgRU. See P. Winand (2015) The European rescue of the empire or the EU as ferment of change in International relations? In: P. Winand, A. Benvenuti and M. Guderzo (Eds), The External Relations of the European Union (Brussels: PIE Peter Lang), pp. 380–381.
126. J. Habermas quoted and criticized in N. Maldonado-Torres (2008) Secularism and religion in the modern/colonial world system: from secular postcoloniality to postsecular transmodernity. In: M. Moraña, E. Dussel and C. Jáuregui (Eds), Coloniality at Large: Latin America and the Postcolonial Debate (Durham: Duke University Press), pp. 372–373; B. Hettne and F. Söderbaum (2005) Civilian power or soft imperialism? The EU as a global actor and the role of interregionalism. European Foreign Affairs Review, 10(4), pp. 535–552; and M.J. Heffernan (1989) The Meaning of Europe. Geography and Geopolitics (London: Arnold), p. 242.
127. Rosecrance, R. (1998) The European Union: a new type of international actor. In: J. Zielonka (Ed.), Paradoxes of European Foreign Policy (The Hague: Kluwer), pp. 1523, p. 22.
128. Hettne, B. and Söderbaum, F. (2005) Civilian power or soft imperialism? The EU as a global actor and the role of interregionalism. European Foreign Affairs Review, 10(4), p. 539. H. Haukkala (2008) The European Union as a regional normative hegemon: the case of European neighbourhood policy. Europe-Asia Studies, 60(9), pp. 1601–1622. See also K. Nicolaïdis (2015) Southern barbarians? A post-colonial critique of EUniversalism. In: K. Nicolaïdis, B. Sèbe and G. Maas (Eds), Echoes of Empire: Memory, Identity and Colonial Legacies (New York: I.B. Taurus), pp. 283–303.
129. Diez, T. (2005) Constructing the self and changing others: reconsidering ‘normative power Europe. Millennium, Journal of International Studies, 33, pp. 613636.
130.José-Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, speech at the opening of the exhibition ‘Europe meets the World’, The National Museum of Denmark), 12 January 2012 (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-12-7_en.htm). Thanks to Koen Vandenweyer for directing my attention to this speech.
131. Cf. G.K. Bhambra (2010) Postcolonial Europe: or, understanding Europe in times of the postcolonial. In: C. Rumford (Ed.), The Sage Handbook of European Studies (London: Sage), pp. 69–85; P. Pasture (2015) Formations of European modernity. cosmopolitanism, Eurocentrism and the uses of history. International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity, 3(1), pp. 73–90.
132. Porsdam, H. (2011) Human rights and European identity since World War II: Vergangenheitsbewältigung through Law. In: M. Spiering and M. Wintle (Eds), European Identity and the Second World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 2136.
133. Forchtner, B. and Kølvraa, C. (2012) Narrating a ‘new Europe’: from ‘bitter past’ to self-righteousness? Discourse & Society, 23(4), pp. 377400. See also U. Beck and E. Grande (2005) Cosmopolitan Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 258–260.
134. Romano Prodi cited in P. Hansen (2004) In the name of Europe. Race & Class, 45(3), pp. 4961, 58.
135. Quoted in S.-L. Hoffmann (2016) Human rights and history. Past and Present, 232, p. 306.
136. For some reflections and observations see G. Garavini (2012) After Empires: European Integration, Decolonization and the Challenge from the Global South 1957-1986 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 1719.
137. Appiah, K.A. (2016) unpublished lecture: Challenges of Identity, KU Leuven, 23 November 2016.
138. Ghervas, S. (2014) Antidotes to empire: from the Congress System to the European Union. In: J.W. Boyer and B. Molden (Eds), EUtROPEs: The Paradox of European Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), pp. 4981, compares the EU to a ‘club of great powers’ reminiscent of the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna (1815). Ghervas does not take in to account the imperial-colonial dimensions though.

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