Beazley, C. (1906) The Dawn of Modern Geography, Vol. III, A History of Exploration and Geographical Science from the Middle of the Thirteenth to the Early Years of the Fifteenth Century (c. A.D. 1260–1420) (Oxford: Clarendon Press), p. 117.
Islam, S.M. (1996) The Ethics of Travel: from Marco Polo to Kafka (Manchester: Manchester University Press), p. 165.
Polo, Marco (1993) The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition: Including the Unabridged Third Edition (1903) of Henry Yule’s Annotated Translation, as Revised by Henri Cordier, Together with Cordier’s Later Volume of Notes and Addenda (1920). Translated by H. Yule and H. Cordier, 2 vols (New York: Dover Publications), vol. 2, p. 500.
Larner, J. (1999) Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World (New Haven: Yale University Press), p. 105.
See Rabban Sawma’s work in W. Budge (trans.) (1928) The Monks of Kublai Khan Emperor of China (London: Religious Tract Society).
Polo, Marco (1320s) De Consuetudinibus trans. Pipino (Serville: Institución Colombina. Biblioteca Colombina. 10-3-2).
Song, L. (1976) Yuan shi (the History of the Yuan) (15 fascicules 210 vols Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company), fascs. 1, vol. 4, pp. 57–79.
Lei, R.Z., Yu, C.H. and He, J.Y. (1989) Ningxia Baisikou shuangta faxiande dachao tongbao he zhongtongyuanbao jiaochao (Dachao tongbao and Zhongtongyuanbao jiaochao discovered in the double pagodas at Baisikou of Ningxia). China Coins Magazine, 4, pp. 28–31.
Vogel, H.U. (2013) Marco Polo Was in China (London: Brill), pp. 102–226.
11.The word ‘ingot’ refers to the value of the paper money in ingot-shaped tablets, which were the ‘shape of a gold ingot’. See Z.Y. Wu, Q.Y. Huang and Y.Q. Liu (Eds) (2007) Ciyuan (the Origins of Phraseology) (Beijing: The Commercial Press), p. 3193.
Jackson, P. (2005) The Mongols and the West (Harlow: Pearson Longman), p. 8.
Abulafia, D. (2011) The Great Sea (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 357–358.
Zhang, Q.Z., Qizhi, Zhang, Chengkang, Guo, Tianyou, Wang and Chongde, Cheng (Eds) (2001) History of China (Beijing: Higher Education Press), p. 64.
Zheng, S.X. (1991) Zheng Sixiao ji (A Collection of Zheng Sixiao) annotated by Chen Fukang (Shanghai: Shanghai Press for Classics), p. 186.
Zhao, Y. (1997) Er’shi’er shi zhaji (Commentaries on 22 Histories) 18th century, 2 vols (Taibei: The World Book Company, first edition 1962), vol. 2, pp. 429–431.
Kong, Q. (1987) Zhizheng zhiji (Records of the Zhizheng Period) annotated by Zhuang Min and Gu Xin (Shanghai: Shanghai Press for Classics), p. 111.
Ye, Z.Q. (1959) Caomuzi, printed in Collection of Yuan and Ming Source (Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company), pp. 49, 55, 81–82.
Allsen, T.T. (1997) Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 5.
Morgan, D. (2007) The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing), p. 112.
Xiao, Q.Q. (2007) Favoring Northland while Discriminating against the Middle Kingdom (Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company), pp. 466–469.