Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Marginalisation of Roma: Root Causes and Possible Policy Actions

  • Pavel Ciaian (a1) and D’Artis Kancs (a1)
Abstract

The existing policy and academic debate on the social mobility of Roma have been focused almost entirely on entry barriers (the cost of entry into the mainstream society), whereas exit barriers (the cost of exit from the traditional Roma lifestyle) have been acknowledged and studied to a much lesser extent. In this study we advocate that from a policy perspective it is important to understand differences between the two types of social mobility barriers, as they have different causes and hence have to be addressed by different policy instruments. However, it is important that both types of social mobility barriers are addressed simultaneously, as they interact and reinforce each other mutually. Further, addressing social mobility barriers of Roma requires a change of both formal and informal institutions. Therefore, policy measures have to be implemented and sustained over a long period of time in order to have a sustainable impact on the social and economic integration of Roma.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Marginalisation of Roma: Root Causes and Possible Policy Actions
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Marginalisation of Roma: Root Causes and Possible Policy Actions
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Marginalisation of Roma: Root Causes and Possible Policy Actions
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
Hide All
1. Ciaian, P. and Kancs, D. (2016) Causes of the social and economic marginalisation: The role of social mobility barriers for Roma. JRC Technical Report No. 27794 (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union).
2. Fraser, A. (1995) The Gypsies (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell).
3. Leeson, P.T. (2013) Gypsy law. Public Choice, 155, pp. 273292.
4. Weyrauch, W.O. (Ed.) (2001) Gypsy Law: Romani Legal Traditions and Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press).
5. Sutherland, A. (2015) Cross-cultural medicine: A decade later. Patrin <http://www.oocities.org/~patrin/healthus.htm>
6. Gropper, R.C. (1975) Gypsies in the City: Culture Patterns and Survival (Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press).
7.The exceptions are children; they may eat food prepared by non-Roma given that they are less subject to the marimé rule.
8.Roma may simply eat with their hands rather than use cutlery that may not have been properly washed.
9. Honer, D. and Hoppie, P. (2004) The enigma of the Gypsy patient. RN, 67(8), pp. 3336.
10. Matras, Y. (2015) Roma culture: An introduction. Roma Culture, Project Education of Roma Children in Europe Project, Council of Europe.
11. Sway, M. (1984) Economic adaptability the case study of the Gypsies. Urban Life, 13(1), pp. 8398.
12. Beissinger, M.H. (2001) Occupation and ethnicity: Constructing identity among professional Romani (Gypsy) musicians in Romania. Slavic Review, 60(1), pp. 2449.
13. Casa-Nova, M.J. (2007) Gypsies, ethnicity and the labour market: An introduction. Romani Studies, 17(1), pp. 103123.
14. Kertesi, G. and Kézdi, G. (2013) Ethnic segregation between Hungarian schools: Long-run trends and geographic distribution. Hungarian Statistical Review, 16, pp. 1845.
15. UNDP (2005) Faces of Poverty, Faces of Hope (United Nations Development Programme).
16. European Commission (2012) The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States: Survey results at a glance. Results of the UNDP/World Bank/European Commission regional Roma 2011 survey. Report prepared by FRA and UNDP (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union).
17. Kertesi, G. and Kezdi, G. (2011) Roma employment in Hungary after the post-communist transition. Economics of Transition, 19(3), pp. 563610.
18. Drydakis, N. (2012) Roma women in Athenian firms: Do they face wage bias? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(12), pp. 20542074.
19. Ciaian, P. and Kancs, D. (2018) Social mobility barriers for Roma: Discrimination and informal institutions. European Review, 26(4), pp. 670685. doi: 10.1017/S1062798718000352.
20.Note that nowadays not all Roma communities are nomads. Many of them have adopted a sedentary lifestyle.
21. Lawless, P., Martin, R. and Hardy, S. (1997) Unemployment and Social Exclusion: Landscapes of Labour Marginality (London: Jessica Kingsley).
22. Sibley, D. (1998) The problematic nature of exclusion. Geoforum, 29, pp. 119121.
23.Two other reasons for the spatial self-isolation could be the outcome of economic deprivation and missing employment opportunities, and the self-exclusion embodied in Romaniya.
24. Creţan, R. and Turnock, D. (2009) The Gypsy minority in Romania: A study in marginality. Romanian. Journal of Geography, 53(1), pp. 3356.
25. Smith, D. and Greenfields, M. (2012) Housed Gypsies and travellers in the UK: Work, exclusion and adaptation. Race Class, 53(3), pp. 4864.
26. Arrow, K.J. (1998) What has economics to say about racial discrimination? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(2), pp. 91100.
27. Montgomery, J.D. (1991) Social networks and labour-market outcomes: Toward an economic analysis. American Economic Review, 81, pp. 14081418.
28. Kancs, D. and Kielyte, J. (2010) Education in the East, emigrating to the West? European Review, 18(2), pp. 133154.
29. Aoki, M. (2007) Endogenising institutions and institutional changes. Journal of Institutional Economics, 3(1), pp. 131.
30. Ciaian, P., Ivanov, A. and Kancs, D. (2018) Long-run economic, budgetary and fiscal effects of Roma integration policies. JRC Technical Report (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union).
31. Greif, A. and Laitin, D.D. (2004) A theory of endogenous institutional change. American Political Science Review, 98(4), pp. 633652.
32. Myerson, R. (2004) Justice, institutions, and multiple equilibria. Chicago Journal of International Law, 5, pp. 91107.
33. Kingston, C. and Caballero, G. (2009) Comparing theories of institutional change. Journal of Institutional Economics, 5(2), pp. 151180.
34. Ciaian, P., Pokrivčák, J. and Kancs, D. (2012) The rise and fall of enforcement institutions: An example of religion and secularism. European Review, 20(2), pp. 233251.
35. Di Giovanni, E. (2014) Contemporary anti-Gypsyism in European mass media. International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, 8(12), pp. 34913494.
36. Morris, R. (2000) Gypsies, travellers and the media: Press regulation and racism in the UK. Communications Law, 5(6), pp. 213219.
37. Stewart, M. (2012) The Gypsy Menace: Populism and the New Anti-Gypsy Politics (London: Hurst).
38. Vidra, V. and Fox, J. (2014) Mainstreaming of racist anti-Roma discourses in the media in Hungary. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 12(4), pp. 437455.
39. Fraser, A. (1990) A rum lot. In: M.T. Salo (Ed.), 100 years of Gypsy Studies (Cheverly: The Gypsy Lore Society).
40. Ficowski, J. (1951) Supplementary notes on the Mageripen code amongst Polish Gypsies. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 30, pp. 123132.
41. Acton, T.A. (1971) The functions of the avoidance of Moxadi Kovels. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 50, pp. 108136.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Review
  • ISSN: 1062-7987
  • EISSN: 1474-0575
  • URL: /core/journals/european-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed