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Importance of phosphorus and potassium in soil-specific nutrient management for wet-season rice in Cambodia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 August 2019

Kea Kong
Affiliation:
General Directorate of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Forest and Fishery, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Nagoya University Asian Satellite Campus – Cambodia, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Sarith Hin
Affiliation:
Cambodian Agriculture Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Vang Seng
Affiliation:
Cambodian Agriculture Research and Development Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Abdelbagi M. Ismail
Affiliation:
International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, The Philippines
Georgina Vergara
Affiliation:
International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, The Philippines
Il-Ryong Choi
Affiliation:
Nagoya University Asian Satellite Campus – Cambodia, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Hiroshi Ehara*
Affiliation:
International Center for Research and Education in Agriculture, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
Yoichiro Kato*
Affiliation:
International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, The Philippines Institute for Sustainable Agro-Ecosystem Services, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract

Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2019

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