Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-23T13:15:32.726Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

ON-FARM ASSESSMENT OF CLONAL INTRODUCTION OF ROOT CROPS DIVERSITY IN VANUATU, MELANESIA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2010

P. CAMUS
Affiliation:
ISTOM, 32 Bd du Port, 95094, Cergy, France
V. LEBOT*
Affiliation:
CIRAD, PO Box 946, Port-Vila, Vanuatu
*
Corresponding author: vincent.lebot@cirad.fr

Summary

Ex-situ collections of vegetatively propagated root crops are difficult to maintain in developing countries. On-farm conservation could be a solution but is more complex for vegetatively propagated than for sexually propagated species. In Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago where yam, taro, sweet potato and cassava are staples, a study was undertaken to develop an on-farm conservation system based on the geographic distribution of allelic diversity. Two years after the introduction of new varieties, a survey was conducted with 449 farmers located on 10 different islands. In order to evaluate on-farm conservation efficiency, qualitative and quantitative investigations were conducted and data were analysed. The conclusion was that farmers do enrich their varietal portfolios with introduced exotic genotypes thus broadening the narrow genetic bases of some species. Nevertheless, no local varieties were lost. Significant geographic distribution of clones of new varieties throughout the archipelago also took place via spontaneous, informal distribution to farmers' relatives. These encouraging results point to the potential impact of the geographic distribution of allelic diversity on smallholders' varietal portfolios. On-farm conservation appears to be an appropriate strategy for the conservation of root crop germplasm diversity in Vanuatu. Potential applications for transfer of the methodology to other locations are discussed.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Bonnemaison, J. (1986). L'arbre et la pirogue. Les fondements d'une identité: territoire, histoire et société dans l'archipel de Vanuatu (Mélanésie). Paris: ORSTOM. (Travaux et documents, n°201, vol.1).Google Scholar
Caillon, S., Quero-Garcia, J., Lescure, J. P. and Lebot, V. (2006). Nature of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) genetic diversity prevalent in a Pacific Ocean island, Vanua Lava, Vanuatu. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 12731289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elias, M., Penet, L., Vindry, P., McKey, D., Panaud, O. and Robert, T. (2001). Unmanaged sexual reproduction and the dynamics of genetic diversity of a vegetatively propagated crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), in a traditional farming system. Molecular Ecology 10: 18951907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guarino, L., Taylor, M. and Osborn, T. (eds). (2004). Third Taro Symposium, 21–23 May 2003, Nadi, Fiji Islands: Proceedings of an International Scientific Meeting. Suva, Fiji, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.Google Scholar
Jackson, G. V. H. (1994). Taro and yam genetic resources in the Pacific and Asia. A report prepared for ACIAR and IPGRI. Canberra, Australia: Anutech Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
Jarvis, D. I., Brown, A. H. D., Cuong, P. H., Collado-Panduro, L., Latournerie-Moreno, L., Gyawali, S., Tanto, T., Sawadogo, M., Mar, I., Sadiki, M., Thi-Ngoc Hue, N., Arias-Reyes, L., Balma, D., Bajracharya, J., Castillo, F.Rijal, D., Beqadi, L., Rana, R., Saidi, S., Ouedraogo, J., Zangre, R., Rhrib, K., Chavez, J. L., Shoen, D.Sthapit, B., De Santis, P., Fadda, C. and Hodgkin, T.. (2008). A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105: 53265331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kreike, C. M., van Eck, H. J. and Lebot, V. (2004). Genetc diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 109: 761768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebot, V. (1992). Genetic vulnerability of Oceania's traditional crops. Experimental Agriculture, 28: 309323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebot, V., Ivancic, A. and Abraham, K. (2005). The geographical distribution of allelic diversity, a practical means of preserving and using minor root crop genetic resources. Experimental Agriculture, 41: 475489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malapa, R., Arnau, G., Noyer, J. L. and Lebot, V. (2005). Genetic diversity of the greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) and relatedness to D. nummularia Lam. and D. transversa Br. as revealed with AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52: 919929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxted, N., Hawkes, J. G., Ford-Lloyd, B. V. and Williams, J. T. (1997). A practical model for in situ genetic conservation complementary conservation strategies. In Plant Genetic Conservation: the in situ approach, 545592 (Eds Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B. V., Hawkes, J. G.). London: Chapman and Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mignouna, H. D. and Dansi, A. (2003). Yam (Dioscorea ssp.) domestication by the Nago and Fon ethnic groups in Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 519528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quero-García, J., Noyer, J. L., Perrier, X., Marchand, J. L. and Lebot, V. (2004). A germplasm stratification of taro (Colocasia esculenta) based on agro-morphological descriptors, validation by AFLP markers. Euphytica 137: 387395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rao, R. and Campilan, D. (eds). (2002). Exploring the Complementarities of In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation Strategies for Asian Sweet Potato Genetic Resources: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop of the Asian Network for Sweet Potato Genetic Resources (ANSWER), Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia on 2–4 October 2001, IPGRI–APO, Serdang, Malaysia.Google Scholar
Sardos, J., McKey, D., Duval, M. F., Malapa, R., Noyer, J. L. and Lebot, V. (2008). Evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop. Genome 51: 912921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, M., Hunter, D. G., Rao, V. R., Jackson, G. V. H., Sivan, P. and Guarino, L. (2005). Taro collecting and conservation in the Pacific Region. In The Global Diversity of Taro: Ethnobotany and Conservation, (Eds Rao, V. R., Matthews, P. J. and Eyzaguirre, P. B.). Rome, Italia and Osaka, Japan: IPGRI and Minpaku.Google Scholar
Welegtabit, S.R. (2001). Food security strategies for Vanuatu. CGPRT Centre, Regional coordination centre for research and development of coarse grains, pulses, roots and tuber crops in the humid tropics of Asia and the Pacific. Bogor, Indonesia: ESCAP. Working paper no. 58.Google Scholar
Yaku, A. and Widyastuti, C. A. (2002). In situ conservation of sweetpotato: An Irian Jaya Experience. In Exploring the Complementarities of In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation Strategies for Asian Sweet Potato Genetic Resources: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop of the Asian Network for Sweet Potato Genetic Resources (ANSWER), Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia on 2–4 October 2001, IPGRI–APO, Serdang, Malaysia.Google Scholar