Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Farming Systems Research: Clarification of Terms and Concepts

  • Deborah Merrill Sands (a1)
Summary

Farming Systems Research (FSR) has emerged as a major theme in international agricultural research in the past decade. However, despite widespread use of the term, its meaning and the types of research objectives, approaches, activities and methods to which it applies remain ambiguous. The lack of precision in concepts and terms will discredit FSR and jeopardize donor support. This paper seeks to clarify and define the major types of research approaches and activities encompassed by the general term FSR. Six types of research are distinguished and a new, more precise terminology is proposed.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Byerlee, D. & Collinson, M. (1980). Planning Technologies Appropriate to Farmers: Concepts and Procedures. El Batan, Mexico: CIMMYT.
Byerlee, D., Harrington, L. & Winkelmann, D. (1982). Farming Systems Research: issues in research strategy and technology design. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 64:897904.
CGIAR (1981). Second Review of the CGIAR. Review Report, 11, 1981. Washington, DC: CGIAR Secretariat.
CIMMYT (1974). Plan Puebla: Seven Years of Experience, 1967–1973. El Batan, Mexico: CIMMYT.
CIMMYT & ISNAR (1984). Issues in Organization and Management of Research with a Farming Systems Perspective aimed at Technology Generation (Ed. Chang, M. Joseph). The Hague, Netherlands: CIMMYT and ISNAR.
Collinson, M. P. (1982). Farming Systems Research in East Africa: The Experience of CIMMYT and Some National Agricultural Research Services, 1976–1981. Michigan State University International Development Paper, 7. East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
Collinson, M. P. (1983). Farm Management in Peasant Agriculture, 2nd edition. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Cornick, T. (1983). The Social Organization of Production in Quimas, Ecuador: A Case Study of Small-Farmer Production in the Highland Andes. PhD thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Dillon, J. L. & Anderson, J. R. (1984). Concept and practice in Farming Systems Research. In Proceedings of ACIAR Consultation in Agricultural Research in E. Africa (Ed. Martin, J. V.). Canberra: ACIAR.
Dillon, J. L., Plucknett, D. L. & Vallaeys, G. J. (1978). Farming Systems Research in the International Agricultural Research Centers. Rome, Italy: Technical Advisory Committee to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
Elliot, H. (1977). Farming Systems Research in Francophone Africa: Methods and Results. Ford Foundation: Farming Systems Seminar, Tunis, Tunisia, February 1–3, 1977.
Ewell, P. & Merrill Sands, D. (1986). The Milpa and its alternatives. In Farming Systems (Eds Turner, B. L. & Brush, S.). New York: Guilford Press. (In press.)
Fresco, L. (1984). Comparing Anglophone and Francophone Approaches to Farming Systems Research and Extension. Paper prepared for the 4th Annual Conference on Farming Systems Research at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 10 1984.
Gilbert, E. H., Norman, D. W. & Winch, F. E. (1980). Farming Systems Research: A Critical Appraisal. Michigan State University Rural Development Paper, 6. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: Michigan State University.
Hart, R. D. (1982a). The ecological systems conceptual framework for agricultural research and development. In Readings in Farming Systems Research and Development, 4459 (Eds Shaner, W., Philipp, P. & Schmehl, W.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press..
Hart, R. D. (1982b). One farming system in Honduras: a case study in Farming Systems Research. In Readings in Farming Systems Research and Development, 5973 (Eds Shaner, W., Philipp, P. & Schmehl, W.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Harwood, R. (1979). Small-Farm Development: Understanding and Improving Farming Systems in the Humid Tropics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Hildebrand, P. (1977). Socio-economic Considerations in Multiple Cropping Systems. Invited Paper prepared for the Round Table Discussion on Agricultural Production Systems. XVI Annual Reunion of the Board of Directors, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA), San Domingo, Dominican Republic.
Hildebrand, P. (1981). Motivating small-farmers to accept change. In Readings in Farming Systems Research and Development, 100109 (Eds Shaner, W., Philipp, P. & Schmehl, W.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Horton, D. (1984). Social Scientists in Agricultural Research: Lessons from the Mantaro Valley Project, Peru. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.
Huke, R. E. (1982a). Agroclimatic and Dry-Season Maps of South, Southeast, and East Asia. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
Huke, R. E. (1982b). Rice Area by Type of Culture: South, Southeast, and East Asia. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
Lang, M. & Cantrell, R. (1984). Accenting the farmers' role: Purdue Farming Systems Unit In Coming Full Circle: Farmers' Participation in the Development of Technology, 6370 (Eds Matlon, P., Cantrell, R., King, D. & M., Benoit-Cattin). Ottawa, Ontario: IDRC.
Matlon, P. (1984). Technology evaluation: five case studies from West Africa. In Coming Full Circle: Farmers' Participation in the Development of Technology, 95118 (Eds Matlon, P., Cantrell, R., King, D. & M., Benoit-Cattin). Ottawa, Ontario: IDRC.
Matlon, P., Cantrell, R., King, D. & Benoit-Cattin, M. (Eds) (1984). Coming Full Circle: Farmers' Participation in the Development of Technology. Ottawa, Ontario: IDRC.
Mayer, H. (1979). Land Use in the Andes: Ecology and Agriculture in the Mantaro Valley of Peru with Special Reference to Potatoes. Lima, Peru: Center for International Potato Research, Social Science Unit.
McDowell, R. & Hildebrand, P. (1980). Integrated Crop and Animal Production: Making the Most of Resources Available to Small Farms in Developing Countries. Working Papers - The Rockefeller Foundation. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation.
Norman, D. W. (1974). Rationalizing mixed cropping under indige'us conditions; the example of Northern Nigeria. Journal of Development Studies 11:321.
Norman, D. W. (1980). The Farming Systems Research Approach: Relevancy for the Small-Farmer. Michigan State University Development Paper, 8. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: Michigan State University.
Norman, D. W. (1982). Farming Systems Approach to Research. Paper prepared for the Farming Systems in the Field, Farming Systems Research Symposium,Kansas State University,Manhattan, Kansas,November 21–22, 1982.
Norman, D. W., Simmons, E. B. & Mays, H. M. (1982). Farming Systems in the Nigerian Savannah: Research Strategies for Development. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Perrin, R. & Winkelmann, D. (1976). Impediments to technical progress on small versus large farms. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 58:888894.
Perrin, R. K., Winkelmann, D. L., Moscardi, E. R. & Anderson, J. R. (1976). From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual. Information Training Bulletin, 21. El Batan, Mexico: CIMMYT.
Rhoades, R. & Booth, R. (1982). Farmer-Back-To-Farmer: A Model for Generating Acceptable Technology. International Potato Research Center, Social Sciences Department Working Paper, 1982–1. Lima, Peru: International Potato Research Center.
Shaner, W. W., Philipps, P. F. & Schmehl, W. R. (1982). Farming Systems Research and Development: A Guidline for Developing Countries. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Simmonds, N. W. (1985). The State of the Art of Farming Systems Research. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
Simmonds, N. W. (1986). A Short Review of Farming Systems Research in the Tropics. Experimental Agriculture 22:113.
Stoop, W. (1984). Interdisciplinary and Intercommodity Aspects in the Organization of a Farming Systems Research Perspective. Paper presented at the INSORMIL Workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, September 1721, 1984.
Walker, T. S. (1982). The Perceptions of Farmers and the Participation in the Taddanpalle Watershed Project in 1982–1983. ICRISAT Economics Program Progress Report, 44. Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT.
Whyte, W. F. (1977). Toward a new strategy for research and development in agriculture: helping small farmers in developing countries. Desarrollo Rural en los Americas 9:5162.
Whyte, W. F. (1981). Participatory Approaches to Agricultural Research and Development: A State of the Art Paper. Cornell University, Center for International Studies, Rural Development Committee, Special Series on Agricultural Research and Extension, 1. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
Winkelmann, D. (1984). Recent views in Farming Systems Research. In Issues in Organization and Management of Research with a Farming Systems Perspective aimed at Technology Generation (Ed. Chang, M. Joseph). The Hague, Netherlands: CIMMYT and ISNAR.
Zandstra, H. G. (1979). Cropping systems research for Asian rice fanners. Agricultural Systems 4:135155.
Zandstra, H. G. (1982). An Overview of Farming Systems Research. Keynote Address for Farming Systems in the Field, Farming Systems Research Symposium,Kansas State University,Manhattan, Kansas,November 21–21, 1982.
Zandstra, H. G., Price, E. C., Litsinger, J. A. & Morris, R. A. (1981). A Methodology for On-Farm Cropping Systems Research. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Experimental Agriculture
  • ISSN: 0014-4797
  • EISSN: 1469-4441
  • URL: /core/journals/experimental-agriculture
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed