Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The current landscape of adipose-derived stem cells in clinical applications

  • Ming Hui Lim (a1), Wee Kiat Ong (a1) and Shigeki Sugii (a1) (a2)
Abstract

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are considered a great alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs can be retrieved in high numbers from lipoaspirate, a by-product of liposuction procedures. Given that ASCs represent an easily accessible and abundant source of multipotent cells, ASCs have garnered attention and curiosity from both scientific and clinical communities for their potential in clinical applications. Furthermore, their unique immunobiology and secretome are attractive therapeutic properties. A decade since the discovery of a stem cell reservoir residing within adipose tissue, ASC-based clinical trials have grown over the years around the world along with assessments made on their safety and efficacy. With the progress of ASCs into clinical applications, the aim towards producing clinical-grade ASCs becomes increasingly important. Several countries have recognised the growing industry of cell therapies and have developed regulatory frameworks to assure their safety. With more research efforts made to understand their effects in both scientific and clinical settings, ASCs hold great promise as a future therapeutic strategy in treating a wide variety of diseases. Therefore, this review seeks to highlight the clinical applicability of ASCs as well as their progress in clinical trials across various medical disciplines.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Shigeki Sugii, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 11 Biopolis Way #02-02, 138667, Singapore. E-mail: shigeki_sugii@sbic.a-star.edu.sg
References
Hide All
1Zuk, P.A. et al. (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Engineering 7, 211-228
2Gimble, J.M., Katz, A.J. and Bunnell, B.A. (2007) Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine. Circulation Research 100, 1249-1260
3Bourin, P. et al. (2013) Stromal cells from the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and culture expanded adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells: a joint statement of the International Federation for Adipose Therapeutics and Science (IFATS) and the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). Cytotherapy 15, 641-648
4Dominici, M. et al. (2006) Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy 8, 315-317
5Strem, B.M. and Hedrick, M.H. (2005) The growing importance of fat in regenerative medicine. Trends in Biotechnology 23, 64-66
6Schäffler, A. and Büchler, C. (2007) Concise review: adipose tissue-derived stromal cells – basic and clinical implications for novel cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 25, 818-827
7Lindroos, B., Suuronen, R. and Miettinen, S. (2011) The potential of adipose stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 7, 269-291
8Fraser, J. et al. (2008) Adipose-derived stem cells. In Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Prockop, D., Bunnell, B. and Phinney, D. eds, Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Science Center), Humana Press: New York, USA, pp. 59-67.
9Carvalho, P.P. et al. (2013) Xenofree enzymatic products for the isolation of human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells. Tissue Engineering C, Methods 19, 473-478
10Bianchi, F. et al. (2013) A new nonenzymatic method and device to obtain a fat tissue derivative highly enriched in pericyte-like elements by mild mechanical forces from human lipoaspirates. Cell Transplantation 22, 2063-2077
11Shah, F.S. et al. (2013) A non-enzymatic method for isolating human adipose tissue-derived stromal stem cells. Cytotherapy 15, 979-985
12Francis, M.P. et al. (2010) Isolating adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from lipoaspirate blood and saline fraction. Organogenesis 6, 11-14
13Yoshimura, K. et al. (2006) Characterization of freshly isolated and cultured cells derived from the fatty and fluid portions of liposuction aspirates. Journal of Cellular Physiology 208, 64-76
14Kim, I.H. et al. (2009) Evaluation of centrifugation technique and effect of epinephrine on fat cell viability in autologous fat injection. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 29, 35-39
15Kurita, M. et al. (2008) Influences of centrifugation on cells and tissues in liposuction aspirates: optimized centrifugation for lipotransfer and cell isolation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 121, 1033-1041
16Sterodimas, A. (2011) Adipose stem cell engineering: clinical applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In Adipose Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (Illouz, Y.-G. and Sterodimas, A. eds), pp. 165-179, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
17Lee, R.H. et al. (2004) Characterization and expression analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow and adipose tissue. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 14, 311-324
18Gstraunthaler, G. (2003) Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum: serum-free cell culture. Altex 20, 275-281
19Will, R.G. et al. (1996) A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK. The Lancet 347, 921-925
20Heiskanen, A. et al. (2007) N-glycolylneuraminic acid xenoantigen contamination of human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells is substantially reversible. Stem Cells 25, 197-202
21Kocaoemer, A. et al. (2007) Human AB serum and thrombin-activated platelet-rich plasma are suitable alternatives to fetal calf serum for the expansion of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. Stem Cells 25, 1270-1278
22Kakudo, N. et al. (2008) Proliferation-promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on human adipose–derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 122, 1352-1360
23Johansson, L. et al. (2003) Platelet lysate: a replacement for fetal bovine serum in animal cell culture? Cytotechnology 42, 67-74
24Mirabet, V. et al. (2008) Human platelet lysate enhances the proliferative activity of cultured human fibroblast-like cells from different tissues. Cell and Tissue Banking 9, 1-10
25Kim, S.J. et al. (2005) Human adipose stromal cells expanded in human serum promote engraftment of human peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells in NOD/SCID mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 329, 25-31
26Lindroos, B. et al. (2009) Serum-free, xeno-free culture media maintain the proliferation rate and multipotentiality of adipose stem cells in vitro. Cytotherapy 11, 958-972
27Rajala, K. et al. (2010) A defined and xeno-free culture method enabling the establishment of clinical-grade human embryonic, induced pluripotent and adipose stem cells. PLoS One 5, e10246
28Santos, F.d. et al. (2011) Toward a clinical-grade expansion of mesenchymal stem cells from human sources: a microcarrier-based culture system under xeno-free conditions. Tissue Engineering C, Methods 17, 1201-1210
29Lund, P. et al. (2009) Effect of growth media and serum replacements on the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. Cytotherapy 11, 189-197
30Martin, I., Smith, T. and Wendt, D. (2009) Bioreactor-based roadmap for the translation of tissue engineering strategies into clinical products. Trends in Biotechnology 27, 495-502
31Güven, S. et al. (2012) Validation of an automated procedure to isolate human adipose tissue-derived cells by using the Sepax® Technology. Tissue Engineering C, Methods 18, 575-582
32Lin, K. et al. (2008) Characterization of adipose tissue-derived cells isolated with the Celution™ system. Cytotherapy 10, 417-426
33Boriani, F., Warr, R. and Ascione, R. (2011) Industrial approaches to adipose stem cells engineering. In Adipose Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (Illouz, Y.-G. and Sterodimas, A. eds), p. 245-255, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
34Thirumala, S., Goebel, W.S. and Woods, E.J. (2009) Clinical grade adult stem cell banking. Organogenesis 5, 143-154
35Liseth, K. et al. (2005) The viability of cryopreserved PBPC depends on the DMSO concentration and the concentration of nucleated cells in the graft. Cytotherapy 7, 328-333
36Benekli, M. et al. (2000) Severe respiratory depression after dimethylsulphoxide-containing autologous stem cell infusion in a patient with AL amyloidosis. Bone Marrow Transplantation 25, 1299
37Windrum, P. and Morris, T. (2003) Severe neurotoxicity because of dimethyl sulphoxide following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation 31, 315–315
38Sharpless, N.E. and DePinho, R.A. (2007) How stem cells age and why this makes us grow old. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 8, 703-713
39Schipper, B.M. et al. (2008) Regional anatomic and age effects on cell function of human adipose-derived stem cells. Annals of Plastic Surgery 60, 538-544
40van Harmelen, V., Röhrig, K. and Hauner, H. (2004) Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte precursor cells from the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of obese subjects. Metabolism 53, 632-637
41van Harmelen, V. et al. (2003) Effect of BMI and age on adipose tissue cellularity and differentiation capacity in women. International Journal of Obesity 27, 889-895
42Jurgens, W.J. et al. (2008) Effect of tissue-harvesting site on yield of stem cells derived from adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Cell and Tissue Research 332, 415-426
43Aust, L. et al. (2004) Yield of human adipose-derived adult stem cells from liposuction aspirates. Cytotherapy 6, 7-14
44Pettersson, P. et al. (1985) Adipocyte precursor cells in obese and nonobese humans. Metabolism 34, 808-812
45Kim, H.K. et al. (2008) Alterations in the proangiogenic functions of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells isolated from diabetic rats. Stem Cells and Development 17, 669-680
46Hauner, H. and Entenmann, G. (1991) Regional variation of adipose differentiation in cultured stromal-vascular cells from the abdominal and femoral adipose tissue of obese women. International Journal of Obesity 15, 121
47Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. et al. (2006) Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure. Cytotherapy 8, 166-177
48Mason, C. et al. (2011) Cell therapy industry: billion dollar global business with unlimited potential. Regenerative Medicine 6, 265-272
49Kellathur, S.N. and Lou, H.-X. (2012) Cell and tissue therapy regulation: worldwide status and harmonization. Biologicals 40, 222-224
50Sensebe, L. et al. (2010) Mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application. Vox Sanguinis 98, 93-107
51Antunes, M. and Pottering, H. (2007) Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 13 November 2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. Journal of European Union L 324, 121-137
52Liras, A. (2010) Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects. Journal of Translational Medicine 8, 131
53Oh, I.-H. (2012) Regulatory issues in stem cell therapeutics in Korea: efficacy or efficiency? The Korean Journal of Hematology 47, 87-89
54Wohn, D.Y. (2012) Korea okays stem cell therapies despite limited peer-reviewed data. Nature Medicine 18, 329–329
55Ong, W.K. and Sugii, S. (2013) Adipose-derived stem cells: fatty potentials for therapy. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 45, 1083-1086
56Sridhar, P. et al. (2012) Adipose-derived regenerative cells for the treatment of patients with non-revascularisable ischaemic cardiomyopathy–the PRECISE Trial. Interventional Cardiology 7, 77-80
57Houtgraaf, J.H. et al. (2012) First experience in humans using adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells in the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 59, 539-540
58Qayyum, A.A. et al. (2012) Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for chronic myocardial ischemia (MyStromalCell Trial): study design. Regenerative Medicine 7, 421-428
59Lee, H. et al. (2012) Safety and effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cell implantation in patients with critical limb ischemia. Circulation Journal 76, 1750-1760
60Herreros, M. et al. (2012) Autologous expanded adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of complex cryptoglandular perianal fistulas: a phase III randomized clinical trial (FATT 1: fistula Advanced Therapy Trial 1) and long-term evaluation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 55, 762-772
61Garcia-Olmo, D. et al. (2009) Expanded adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of complex perianal fistula: a phase II clinical trial. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 52, 79-86
62Portilla, F. et al. (2013) Expanded allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (eASCs) for the treatment of complex perianal fistula in Crohn's disease: results from a multicenter phase I/IIa clinical trial. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 28, 313-323
63Ra, J.C. et al. (2011) Safety of intravenous infusion of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in animals and humans. Stem Cells and Development 20, 1297-1308
64Lendeckel, S. et al. (2004) Autologous stem cells (adipose) and fibrin glue used to treat widespread traumatic calvarial defects: case report. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 32, 370-373
65Thesleff, T. et al. (2011) Cranioplasty with adipose-derived stem cells and biomaterial: a novel method for cranial reconstruction. Neurosurgery 68, 1535
66Mesimäki, K. et al. (2009) Novel maxillary reconstruction with ectopic bone formation by GMP adipose stem cells. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 201-209
67Gimble, J.M., Guilak, F. and Bunnell, B.A. (2010) Clinical and preclinical translation of cell-based therapies using adipose tissue-derived cells. Stem Cell Research Therapy 1, 19
68Pak, J. (2012) Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce persistent bone-like tissue in osteonecrotic femoral heads. Pain Physician 15, 75-85
69Pak, J. (2011) Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series. Journal of Medical Case Reports 5, 1-8
70Rada, T., Reis, R.L. and Gomes, M.E. (2009) Adipose tissue-derived stem cells and their application in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering B, Reviews 15, 113-125
71Mann, D.L. (1999) Mechanisms and models in heart failure: a combinatorial approach. Circulation 100, 999-1008
72Valina, C. et al. (2007) Intracoronary administration of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodelling after acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 28, 2667–77
73Alt, E. et al. (2010) Effect of freshly isolated autologous tissue resident stromal cells on cardiac function and perfusion following acute myocardial infarction. International Journal of Cardiology 144, 26-35
74Ii, M. et al. (2010) Synergistic effect of adipose-derived stem cell therapy and bone marrow progenitor recruitment in ischemic heart. Laboratory Investigation 91, 539-552
75Schenke-Layland, K. et al. (2009) Adipose tissue-derived cells improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Journal of Surgical Research 153, 217-223
76Miyahara, Y. et al. (2006) Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction. Nature Medicine 12, 459-465
77Nian, M. et al. (2004) Inflammatory cytokines and postmyocardial infarction remodeling. Circulation Research 94, 1543-1553
78Nakagami, H. et al. (2005) Novel autologous cell therapy in ischemic limb disease through growth factor secretion by cultured adipose tissue–derived stromal cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25, 2542-2547
79Moon, M.H. et al. (2006) Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve postnatal neovascularization in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 17, 279-290
80Rehman, J. et al. (2004) Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells. Circulation 109, 1292-1298
81Traktuev, D.O. et al. (2009) Robust functional vascular network formation in vivo by cooperation of adipose progenitor and endothelial cells. Circulation Research 104, 1410-1420
82Planat-Benard, V. et al. (2004) Plasticity of human adipose lineage cells toward endothelial cells. Circulation 109, 656-663
83Miranville, A. et al. (2004) Improvement of postnatal neovascularization by human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Circulation 110, 349-355
84Traktuev, D.O. et al. (2008) A population of multipotent CD34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks. Circulation Research 102, 77-85
85Tabit, C.J. et al. (2012) Fat grafting versus adipose-derived stem cell therapy: distinguishing indications, techniques, and outcomes. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 36, 704-713
86Yoshimura, K. et al. (2008) Cell-assisted lipotransfer for cosmetic breast augmentation: supportive use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 32, 48-55
87Sterodimas, A. et al. (2010) Cell-assisted lipotransfer. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 30, 78-81
88Matsumoto, D. et al. (2006) Cell-assisted lipotransfer: supportive use of human adipose-derived cells for soft tissue augmentation with lipoinjection. Tissue Engineering 12, 3375-3382
89Sterodimas, A. et al. (2011) Autologous fat transplantation versus adipose-derived stem cell–enriched lipografts a study. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 31, 682-693
90Calabrese, C. et al. (2009) Breast reconstruction after nipple/areola-sparing mastectomy using cell-enhanced fat grafting. Ecancermedicalscience 3, 116
91Yoshimura, K. et al. (2008) Cell-assisted lipotransfer for facial lipoatrophy: efficacy of clinical use of adipose-derived stem cells. Dermatologic Surgery 34, 1178-1185
92Yoshimura, K. et al. (2010) Progenitor-enriched adipose tissue transplantation as rescue for breast implant complications. The Breast Journal 16, 169-175
93Kamakura, T. and Ito, K. (2011) Autologous cell-enriched fat grafting for breast augmentation. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 35, 1022-1030
94Pérez-Cano, R. et al. (2012) Prospective trial of adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting for partial mastectomy defects: the RESTORE-2 trial. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 38, 382-389
95KIM, M. et al. (2011) Clinical trial of autologous differentiated adipocytes from stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Dermatologic Surgery 37, 750-759
96Tiryaki, T., Findikli, N. and Tiryaki, D. (2011) Staged stem cell-enriched tissue (SET) injections for soft tissue augmentation in hostile recipient areas: a preliminary report. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 35, 965-971
97Koh, K.S. et al. (2012) Clinical application of human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells in progressive hemifacial atrophy (parry-romberg disease) with microfat grafting techniques using 3-dimensional computed tomography and 3-dimensional camera. Annals of Plastic Surgery 69, 331-337
98Altman, A.M. et al. (2009) IFATS collection: human adipose-derived stem cells seeded on a silk fibroin-chitosan scaffold enhance wound repair in a murine soft tissue injury model. Stem Cells 27, 250-258
99Kim, W.-S. et al. (2007) Wound healing effect of adipose-derived stem cells: a critical role of secretory factors on human dermal fibroblasts. Journal of Dermatological Science 48, 15-24
100Lin, Y.-C. et al. (2013) Evaluation of a multi-layer adipose-derived stem cell sheet in a full-thickness wound healing model. Acta Biomaterialia 9, 5243-5250
101Maharlooei, M.K. et al. (2011) Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC) promotes skin wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 93, 228-234
102Nie, C. et al. (2011) Locally administered adipose-derived stem cells accelerate wound healing through differentiation and vasculogenesis. Cell Transplantation 20, 205-216
103Jackson, W.M., Nesti, L.J. and Tuan, R.S. (2012) Concise review: clinical translation of wound healing therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 1, 44-50
104Kim, W.-S., Park, B.-S. and Sung, J.-H. (2009) The wound-healing and antioxidant effects of adipose-derived stem cells. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 9, 879-887
105Akita, S. et al. (2010) Noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells therapy for chronic radiation injury. Stem Cells International 2010(Article ID 532704), 8
106Akita, S. et al. (2012) Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 151, 656-660
107Sung, H.M. et al. (2012) Case reports of adipose-derived stem cell therapy for nasal skin necrosis after filler injection. Archives of Plastic Surgery 39, 51-54
108Cervelli, V. et al. (2010) Tissue regeneration in loss of substance on the lower limbs through use of platelet-rich plasma, stem cells from adipose tissue, and hyaluronic acid. Advances in Skin & Wound Care 23, 262
109Rigotti, G. et al. (2007) Clinical treatment of radiotherapy tissue damage by lipoaspirate transplant: a healing process mediated by adipose-derived adult stem cells. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 119, 1409-1422
110Lin, C.-S., Lin, G. and Lue, T.F. (2012) Allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells in immunocompetent recipients without immunosuppressants. Stem Cells and Development 21, 2770-2778
111Griffin, M.D., Ritter, T. and Mahon, B.P. (2010) Immunological aspects of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell therapies. Human Gene Therapy 21, 1641-1655
112Fang, B. and Song, Y. (2006) Treatment of severe therapy-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease with human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplantation 38, 389-390
113Fang, B. et al. (2007) Favorable response to human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation Proceedings 39, 3358-3362
114Fang, B. et al. (2007) Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells as salvage therapy for treatment of severe refractory acute graft-vs.-host disease in two children. Pediatric Transplantation 11, 814-817
115Fang, B. et al. (2007) Using human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as salvage therapy for hepatic graft-versus-host disease resembling acute hepatitis. Transplantation Proceedings 39, 1710-1713
116Fang, B. et al. (2007) Treatment of resistant pure red cell aplasia after major abo-incompatible bone marrow transplantation with human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. American Journal of Hematology 82, 772-773
117Fang, B. et al. (2009) Resolution of refractory chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation: a case report. Transplantation Proceedings 41, 1827-1830
118Le Blanc, K. et al. (2003) Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit and stimulate mixed lymphocyte cultures and mitogenic responses independently of the major histocompatibility complex. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 57, 11-20
119Garcia-Olmo, D., Garcia-Arranz, M. and Herreros, D. (2008) Expanded adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of complex perianal fistula including Crohn's disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 8, 1417-1423
120Garcia-Olmo, D. et al. (2009) Treatment of enterocutaneous fistula in Crohn's disease with adipose-derived stem cells: a comparison of protocols with and without cell expansion. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 24, 27-30
121McIntosh, K. et al. (2006) The immunogenicity of human adipose-derived cells: temporal changes in vitro. Stem Cells 24, 1246-1253
122Vanikar, A. et al. (2010) Cotransplantation of adipose tissue-derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells: a novel therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Stem Cells International 2010(Article ID 582382), 5
123García-Olmo, D. et al. (2003) Autologous stem cell transplantation for treatment of rectovaginal fistula in perianal Crohn's disease: a new cell-based therapy. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 18, 451-454
124García-Olmo, D. et al. (2005) A phase I clinical trial of the treatment of Crohn's fistula by adipose mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 48, 1416-1423
125Guadalajara, H. et al. (2012) Long-term follow-up of patients undergoing adipose-derived adult stem cell administration to treat complex perianal fistulas. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 27, 595-600
126de la Portilla, F. et al. (2012) Expanded allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (eASCs) for the treatment of complex perianal fistula in Crohn's disease: results from a multicenter phase I/IIa clinical trial. International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 28, 313–323, 1-11
127Casiraghi, F. et al. (2013) Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy and risk of malignancies. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 9, 65-79
128Klopp, A.H. et al. (2011) Concise review: dissecting a discrepancy in the literature: do mesenchymal stem cells support or suppress tumor growth? Stem Cells 29, 11-19
129Prockop, D.J. et al. (2010) Defining the risks of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy. Cytotherapy 12, 576-578
130Rubio, D. et al. (2005) Spontaneous human adult stem cell transformation. Cancer Research 65, 3035-3039
131Garcia, S. et al. (2010) Pitfalls in spontaneous in vitro transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental Cell Research 316, 1648
132Vaquero, J. and Zurita, M. (2013) Cell transplantation in paraplegic patients: the importance of properly assessing the spinal cord morphology. Clinical Transplantation 27, 968-971
133Martin-Rendon, E. et al. (2008) Autologous bone marrow stem cells to treat acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. European Heart Journal 29, 1807-1818
134Riordan, N.H. et al. (2009) Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis. Journal of Translational Medicine 7, 1-9
135Ichim, T.E. et al. (2010) Autologous stromal vascular fraction cells: a tool for facilitating tolerance in rheumatic disease. Cellular Immunology 264, 7-17
136Ra, J.C. et al. (2011) Stem cell treatment for patients with autoimmune disease by systemic infusion of culture-expanded autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Journal of Translational Medicine 9, 181
137Galie, M. et al. (2007) Mesenchymal stem cells share molecular signature with mesenchymal tumor cells and favor early tumor growth in syngeneic mice. Oncogene 27, 2542-2551
138Lucia, K. et al. (2010) Tumor cell behaviour modulation by mesenchymal stromal cells. Molecular Cancer 9, 129
139Muehlberg, F.L. et al. (2009) Tissue-resident stem cells promote breast cancer growth and metastasis. Carcinogenesis 30, 589-597
140Prantl, L. et al. (2010) Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote prostate tumor growth. The Prostate 70, 1709-1715
141Yu, J.M. et al. (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissues favor tumor cell growth in vivo. Stem Cells and Development 17, 463-474
142Zimmerlin, L. et al. (2010) Regenerative therapy and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies of the interaction between adipose-derived stem cells and breast cancer cells from clinical isolates. Tissue Engineering A 17, 93-106
143Lin, G. et al. (2010) Effects of transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on prostate tumor. The Prostate 70, 1066-1073
144Cousin, B. et al. (2009) Adult stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue provoke pancreatic cancer cell death both in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One 4, e6278
145Zhu, Y. et al. (2009) Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit cancer cell proliferation by secreting DKK-1. Leukemia 23, 925-933
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1462-3994
  • URL: /core/journals/expert-reviews-in-molecular-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed