Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Epigenetic mechanisms regulating normal and malignant haematopoiesis: new therapeutic targets for clinical medicine

  • Constanze Bonifer (a1) and David T. Bowen (a1)

It is now well established that epigenetic phenomena and aberrant gene regulation play a major role in carcinogenesis. These include aberrant gene silencing by imposing inactive histone marks on promoters, aberrant methylation of DNA at CpG islands, and the active repression of promoters by oncoproteins. In addition, many malignant cells also show aberrant gene activation due to constitutively active signalling. The next frontier in cancer research will be to examine how, at the molecular level, small mutations that alter the regulatory phenotype of a cell give rise after a number of cell divisions to the vast deregulation phenomena seen in malignant cells. This review outlines recent insights into how normal cell differentiation in the haematopoietic system is subverted in leukaemia and it introduces the molecular players involved in this process. It also summarises the results of recent clinical trials trying to reverse aberrant epigenetic regulation by employing agents influencing global epigenetic regulators.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Constanze Bonifer, Section of Experimental Haematology, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James's University Hospital, Beckett Street, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS97TF, UK. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 S.L. Berger (2009) An operational definition of epigenetics. Genes and Development 23, 781-783

2 M. Ptashne (2007) On the use of the word ‘epigenetic’. Current Biology 17, R233-236

3 R.D. Kornberg and Y. Lorch (1999) Twenty-five years of the nucleosome, fundamental particle of the eukaryote chromosome. Cell 98, 285-294

5 P.J. Robinson and D. Rhodes (2006) Structure of the ‘30 nm’ chromatin fibre: a key role for the linker histone. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 16, 336-343

6 T. Kouzarides (2007) Chromatin modifications and their function. Cell 128, 693-705

7 S. Henikoff (2008) Nucleosome destabilization in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Nature Reviews Genetics 9, 15-26

9 R. Metivier (2003) Estrogen receptor-alpha directs ordered, cyclical, and combinatorial recruitment of cofactors on a natural target promoter. Cell 115, 751-763

11 M. Lachner (2001) Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature 410, 116-120

12 A.J. Bannister (2001) Selective recognition of methylated lysine 9 on histone H3 by the HP1 chromo domain. Nature 410, 120-124

13 L. Wang (2004) Hierarchical recruitment of polycomb group silencing complexes. Molecular Cell 14, 637-646

14 R.J. Klose and A.P. Bird (2006) Genomic DNA methylation: the mark and its mediators. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 31, 89-97

15 A. Smallwood (2007) Functional cooperation between HP1 and DNMT1 mediates gene silencing. Genes and Development 21, 1169-1178

16 K.W. Makar (2003) Active recruitment of DNA methyltransferases regulates interleukin 4 in thymocytes and T cells. Nature Immunology 4, 1183-1190

17 I. Taniuchi (2002) Differential requirements for Runx proteins in CD4 repression and epigenetic silencing during T lymphocyte development. Cell 111, 621-633

18 I. Taniuchi (2002) Evidence for distinct CD4 silencer functions at different stages of thymocyte differentiation. Molecular Cell 10, 1083-1096

19 P.O. Esteve (2006) Direct interaction between DNMT1 and G9a coordinates DNA and histone methylation during replication. Genes and Development 20, 3089-3103

20 T. Katsumoto (2006) MOZ is essential for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Genes and Development 20, 1321-1330

21 C.D. Jude (2007) Unique and independent roles for MLL in adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Cell Stem Cell 1, 324-337

22 K.A. McMahon (2007) Mll has a critical role in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell 1, 338-345

23 M. Heuser (2009) Loss of MLL5 results in pleiotropic hematopoietic defects, reduced neutrophil immune function, and extreme sensitivity to DNA demethylation. Blood 113, 1432-1443

24 A.S. Hutchins (2002) Gene silencing quantitatively controls the function of a developmental trans-activator. Molecular Cell 10, 81-91

25 S.J. Bultman , T.C. Gebuhr and T. Magnuson (2005) A Brg1 mutation that uncouples ATPase activity from chromatin remodeling reveals an essential role for SWI/SNF-related complexes in beta-globin expression and erythroid development. Genes and Development 19, 2849-2861

26 C.T. Griffin , J. Brennan and T. Magnuson (2008) The chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1 plays an essential role in primitive erythropoiesis and vascular development. Development 135, 493-500

27 A.M. Broske (2009) DNA methylation protects hematopoietic stem cell multipotency from myeloerythroid restriction. Nature Genetics 41, 1207-1215

28 Y.B. Schwartz and V. Pirrotta (2007) Polycomb silencing mechanisms and the management of genomic programmes. Nature Reviews Genetics 8, 9-22

29 I.K. Park (2003) Bmi-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells. Nature 423, 302-305

30 J. Lessard and G. Sauvageau (2003) Bmi-1 determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukaemic stem cells. Nature 423, 255-260

31 M. Kyba , R.C. Perlingeiro and G.Q. Daley (2002) HoxB4 confers definitive lymphoid-myeloid engraftment potential on embryonic stem cell and yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors. Cell 109, 29-37

32 A. Iwama (2004) Enhanced self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells mediated by the polycomb gene product Bmi-1. Immunity 21, 843-851

33 H. Wang (2004) Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature 431, 873-878

34 R. Cao , Y. Tsukada and Y. Zhang (2005) Role of Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. Molecular Cell 20, 845-854

35 R. Cao (2002) Role of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation in Polycomb-group silencing. Science 298, 1039-1043

36 T. Mahmoudi (2003) GAGA facilitates binding of Pleiohomeotic to a chromatinized Polycomb response element. Nucleic Acids Research 31, 4147-4156

37 A. Breiling (2001) General transcription factors bind promoters repressed by Polycomb group proteins. Nature 412, 651-655

38 G.I. Dellino (2004) Polycomb silencing blocks transcription initiation. Molecular Cell 13, 887-893

39 J.K. Stock (2007) Ring1-mediated ubiquitination of H2A restrains poised RNA polymerase II at bivalent genes in mouse ES cells. Nature Cell Biology 9, 1428-1435

40 M. Hu (1997) Multilineage gene expression precedes commitment in the hemopoietic system. Genes and Development 11, 774-785

41 T. Enver and M. Greaves (1998) Loops, lineage, and leukemia. Cell 94, 9-12

42 T. Miyamoto (2002) Myeloid or lymphoid promiscuity as a critical step in hematopoietic lineage commitment. Developmental Cell 3, 137-147

43 M.J. Gorczynski (2007) Allosteric inhibition of the protein-protein interaction between the leukemia-associated proteins Runx1 and CBFbeta. Chemistry and Biology 14, 1186-1197

44 R. Mansson (2007) Molecular evidence for hierarchical transcriptional lineage priming in fetal and adult stem cells and multipotent progenitors. Immunity 26, 407-419

45 H. Tagoh (2004) Epigenetic silencing of the c-fms locus during B-lymphopoiesis occurs in discrete steps and is reversible. EMBO Journal 23, 4275-4285

46 H. Iwasaki (2006) The order of expression of transcription factors directs hierarchical specification of hematopoietic lineages. Genes and Development 20, 3010-3021

47 C. Lancrin (2009) The haemangioblast generates haematopoietic cells through a haemogenic endothelium stage. Nature 457, 892-895

48 L. Robb (1995) Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92, 7075-7079

49 R.A. Shivdasani , E.L. Mayer and S.H. Orkin (1995) Absence of blood formation in mice lacking the T-cell leukaemia oncoprotein tal-1/SCL. Nature 373, 432-434

50 A.J. Warren (1994) The oncogenic cysteine-rich LIM domain protein rbtn2 is essential for erythroid development. Cell 78, 45-57

51 Y. Yamada (1998) The T cell leukemia LIM protein Lmo2 is necessary for adult mouse hematopoiesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 3890-3895

52 H. Osada (1995) Association of erythroid transcription factors: complexes involving the LIM protein RBTN2 and the zinc-finger protein GATA1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92, 9585-9589

53 T. Okuda (1996) AML1, the target of multiple chromosomal translocations in human leukemia, is essential for normal fetal liver hematopoiesis. Cell 84, 321-330

54 M.J. Chen (2009) Runx1 is required for the endothelial to haematopoietic cell transition but not thereafter. Nature 457, 887-891

56 T.E. North (2004) Runx1 is expressed in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells and differentiating myeloid and lymphoid cells, but not in maturing erythroid cells. Stem Cells 22, 158-168

57 J.E. Pimanda (2007) Gata2, Fli1, and Scl form a recursively wired gene-regulatory circuit during early hematopoietic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 17692-17697

58 G. Swiers , R. Patient and M. Loose (2006) Genetic regulatory networks programming hematopoietic stem cells and erythroid lineage specification. Developmental Biology 294, 525-540

59 G. Lacaud (2002) Runx1 is essential for hematopoietic commitment at the hemangioblast stage of development in vitro. Blood 100, 458-466

60 G. Lacaud (2004) Haploinsufficiency of Runx1 results in the acceleration of mesodermal development and hemangioblast specification upon in vitro differentiation of ES cells. Blood 103, 886-889

61 M. Hoogenkamp (2009) Early chromatin unfolding by RUNX1: a molecular explanation for differential requirements during specification versus maintenance of the hematopoietic gene expression program. Blood 114, 299-309

62 H. Okada (1998) AML1(−/−) embryos do not express certain hematopoiesis-related gene transcripts including those of the PU.1 gene. Oncogene 17, 2287-2293

63 M. Ichikawa (2004) AML-1 is required for megakaryocytic maturation and lymphocytic differentiation, but not for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells in adult hematopoiesis. Nature Medicine 10, 299-304

64 J.D. Growney (2005) Loss of Runx1 perturbs adult hematopoiesis and is associated with a myeloproliferative phenotype. Blood 106, 494-504

65 P. Zhang (2004) Enhancement of hematopoietic stem cell repopulating capacity and self-renewal in the absence of the transcription factor C/EBP alpha. Immunity 21, 853-863

66 E.W. Scott (1994) Requirement of transcription factor PU.1 in the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages. Science 265, 1573-1577

69 L. Pevny (1991) Erythroid differentiation in chimaeric mice blocked by a targeted mutation in the gene for transcription factor GATA-1. Nature 349, 257-260

71 N. Rekhtman (2003) PU.1 and pRB interact and cooperate to repress GATA-1 and block erythroid differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23, 7460-7474

73 H. Krysinska (2007) A two-step, PU.1-dependent mechanism for developmentally regulated chromatin remodeling and transcription of the c-fms gene. Molecular and Cellular Biology 27, 878-887

74 H. Tagoh (2002) Transcription factor complex formation and chromatin fine structure alterations at the murine c-fms (CSF-1 receptor) locus during maturation of myeloid precursor cells. Genes and Development 16, 1721-1737

75 P. Laslo (2006) Multilineage transcriptional priming and determination of alternate hematopoietic cell fates. Cell 126, 755-766

76 H.K. Mikkola (2003) Haematopoietic stem cells retain long-term repopulating activity and multipotency in the absence of stem-cell leukaemia SCL/tal-1 gene. Nature 421, 547-551

77 M. Alcalay (2001) Common themes in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. Oncogene 20, 5680-5694

78 K. Shigesada , B. van de Sluis and P.P. Liu (2004) Mechanism of leukemogenesis by the inv(16) chimeric gene CBFB/PEBP2B-MHY11. Oncogene 23, 4297-4307

79 M.G. Guenther (2008) Aberrant chromatin at genes encoding stem cell regulators in human mixed-lineage leukemia. Genes and Development 22, 3403-3408

80 A. Daser and T.H. Rabbitts (2005) The versatile mixed lineage leukaemia gene MLL and its many associations in leukaemogenesis. Seminars in Cancer Biology 15, 175-188

81 P.S. Knoepfler (2006) Myc influences global chromatin structure. EMBO Journal 25, 2723-2734

82 J. Battey (1983) The human c-myc oncogene: structural consequences of translocation into the IgH locus in Burkitt lymphoma. Cell 34, 779-787

83 L. Madisen and M. Groudine (1994) Identification of a locus control region in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus that deregulates c-myc expression in plasmacytoma and Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Genes and Development 8, 2212-2226

84 S. Goyama and M. Kurokawa (2009) Pathogenetic significance of ecotropic viral integration site-1 in hematological malignancies. Cancer Science 100, 990-995

85 S. Goyama (2008) Evi-1 is a critical regulator for hematopoietic stem cells and transformed leukemic cells. Cell Stem Cell 3, 207-220

86 L. Harewood (2003) Amplification of AML1 on a duplicated chromosome 21 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study of 20 cases. Leukemia 17, 547-553

87 P. Perez-Vera (2008) Multiple copies of RUNX1: description of 14 new patients, follow-up, and a review of the literature. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 180, 129-134

88 H.H. Ng (2003) Targeted recruitment of Set1 histone methylase by elongating Pol II provides a localized mark and memory of recent transcriptional activity. Molecular Cell 11, 709-719

89 Y. Dou (2005) Physical association and coordinate function of the H3 K4 methyltransferase MLL1 and the H4 K16 acetyltransferase MOF. Cell 121, 873-885

90 R.K. Slany (2009) The molecular biology of mixed lineage leukemia. Haematologica 94, 984-993

91 E. Bitoun , P.L. Oliver and K.E. Davies (2007) The mixed-lineage leukemia fusion partner AF4 stimulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation and mediates coordinated chromatin remodeling. Human Molecular Genetics 16, 92-106

92 A.V. Krivtsov (2008) H3K79 methylation profiles define murine and human MLL-AF4 leukemias. Cancer Cell 14, 355-368

93 M. Osato (2004) Point mutations in the RUNX1/AML1 gene: another actor in RUNX leukemia. Oncogene 23, 4284-4296

94 T. Pabst (2001) Dominant-negative mutations of CEBPA, encoding CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha), in acute myeloid leukemia. Nature Genetics 27, 263-270

95 O. Bereshchenko (2009) Hematopoietic stem cell expansion precedes the generation of committed myeloid leukemia-initiating cells in C/EBPalpha mutant AML. Cancer Cell 16, 390-400

96 I. Schwering (2003) Loss of the B-lineage-specific gene expression program in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 101, 1505-1512

97 S. Mathas (2006) Intrinsic inhibition of transcription factor E2A by HLH proteins ABF-1 and Id2 mediates reprogramming of neoplastic B cells in Hodgkin lymphoma. Nature Immunology 7, 207-215

98 R. Kuppers (2009) The biology of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Nature Reviews Cancer 9, 15-27

99 M. Chekulaeva and W. Filipowicz (2009) Mechanisms of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in animal cells. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 21, 452-460

100 C.Z. Chen (2004) MicroRNAs modulate hematopoietic lineage differentiation. Science 303, 83-86

101 B. Zhou (2007) miR-150, a microRNA expressed in mature B and T cells, blocks early B cell development when expressed prematurely. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 7080-7085

102 C. Xiao and K. Rajewsky (2009) MicroRNA control in the immune system: basic principles. Cell 136, 26-36

103 F. Fazi (2005) A minicircuitry comprised of microRNA-223 and transcription factors NFI-A and C/EBPalpha regulates human granulopoiesis. Cell 123, 819-831

104 M. Fabbri , C.M. Croce and G.A. Calin (2009) MicroRNAs in the ontogeny of leukemias and lymphomas. Leukemia and Lymphoma 50, 160-170

105 S. Mi (2007) MicroRNA expression signatures accurately discriminate acute lymphoblastic leukemia from acute myeloid leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 19971-19976

106 G.A. Calin (2002) Frequent deletions and down-regulation of micro- RNA genes miR15 and miR16 at 13q14 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 15524-15529

107 G.A. Calin (2008) MiR-15a and miR-16–1 cluster functions in human leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 5166-5171

108 F. Fazi (2007) Epigenetic silencing of the myelopoiesis regulator microRNA-223 by the AML1/ETO oncoprotein. Cancer Cell 12, 457-466

109 E. Li , T.H. Bestor and R. Jaenisch (1992) Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality. Cell 69, 915-926

110 F. Gaudet (2003) Induction of tumors in mice by genomic hypomethylation. Science 300, 489-492

111 H.P. Easwaran (2004) Replication-independent chromatin loading of Dnmt1 during G2 and M phases. EMBO Reports 5, 1181-1186

112 J. Boultwood and J.S. Wainscoat (2007) Gene silencing by DNA methylation in haematological malignancies. British Journal of Haematology 138, 3-11

113 S.B. Baylin and J.E. Ohm (2006) Epigenetic gene silencing in cancer - a mechanism for early oncogenic pathway addiction? Nature Reviews Cancer 6, 107-116

115 O. Galm (2004) DNA methylation changes in multiple myeloma. Leukemia 18, 1687-1692

116 C.J. Hess (2008) Concurrent methylation of promoters from tumor associated genes predicts outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma 49, 1132-1141

117 R. Garzon (2009) MicroRNA-29b induces global DNA hypomethylation and tumor suppressor gene reexpression in acute myeloid leukemia by targeting directly DNMT3A and 3B and indirectly DNMT1. Blood 113, 6411-6418

118 L. Di Croce (2002) Methyltransferase recruitment and DNA hypermethylation of target promoters by an oncogenic transcription factor. Science 295, 1079-1082

119 R. Terranova (2006) Histone and DNA methylation defects at Hox genes in mice expressing a SET domain-truncated form of Mll. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 6629-6634

120 S. Glaser (2009) The histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase, Mll2, is only required briefly in development and spermatogenesis. Epigenetics & Chromatin 2, 5

121 E. Vire (2006) The Polycomb group protein EZH2 directly controls DNA methylation. Nature 439, 871-874

122 H.P. Mohammad (2009) Polycomb CBX7 promotes initiation of heritable repression of genes frequently silenced with cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation. Cancer Research 69, 6322-6330

123 Y. Schlesinger (2007) Polycomb-mediated methylation on Lys27 of histone H3 pre-marks genes for de novo methylation in cancer. Nature Genetics 39, 232-236

124 R. Straussman (2009) Developmental programming of CpG island methylation profiles in the human genome. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 16, 564-571

125 S.K. Ooi (2007) DNMT3 L connects unmethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 to de novo methylation of DNA. Nature 448, 714-717

126 D. Macleod (1994) Sp1 sites in the mouse aprt gene promoter are required to prevent methylation of the CpG island. Genes and Development 8, 2282-2292

127 I.G. Lin and C.L. Hsieh (2001) Chromosomal DNA demethylation specified by protein binding. EMBO Reports 2, 108-112

129 M. Higuchi (2002) Expression of a conditional AML1-ETO oncogene bypasses embryonic lethality and establishes a murine model of human t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell 1, 63-74

130 B.J. Druker (2008) Translation of the Philadelphia chromosome into therapy for CML. Blood 112, 4808-4817

131 R. Villa (2004) Epigenetic gene silencing in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Biochemical Pharmacology 68, 1247-1254

132 R. Villa (2007) Role of the polycomb repressive complex 2 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer Cell 11, 513-525

133 T.P. Hughes (2003) Frequency of major molecular responses to imatinib or interferon alfa plus cytarabine in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 349, 1423-1432

134 J. Dunne (2006) siRNA-mediated AML1/MTG8 depletion affects differentiation and proliferation-associated gene expression in t(8;21)-positive cell lines and primary AML blasts. Oncogene 25, 6067-6078

135 O. Heidenreich (2003) AML1/MTG8 oncogene suppression by small interfering RNAs supports myeloid differentiation of t(8;21)-positive leukemic cells. Blood 101, 3157-3163

136 C. Wichmann (2007) Targeting the oligomerization domain of ETO interferes with RUNX1/ETO oncogenic activity in t(8;21)-positive leukemic cells. Cancer Research 67, 2280-2289

137 S. Racanicchi (2005) Targeting fusion protein/corepressor contact restores differentiation response in leukemia cells. EMBO Journal 24, 1232-1242

138 L. Schermelleh (2005) Trapped in action: direct visualization of DNA methyltransferase activity in living cells. Nature Methods 2, 751-756

139 C. Mund (2005) Characterization of DNA demethylation effects induced by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer Research 65, 7086-7090

140 A.O. Soriano (2007) Safety and clinical activity of the combination of 5-azacytidine, valproic acid, and all-trans retinoic acid in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 110, 2302-2308

141 M. Daskalakis (2002) Demethylation of a hypermethylated P15/INK4B gene in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine) treatment. Blood 100, 2957-2964

142 T.E. Fandy (2009) Early epigenetic changes and DNA damage do not predict clinical response in an overlapping schedule of 5-azacytidine and entinostat in patients with myeloid malignancies. Blood 114, 2764-2773

144 C. Flotho (2009) The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors azacitidine, decitabine and zebularine exert differential effects on cancer gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia 23, 1019-1028

145 L.R. Silverman (2002) Randomized controlled trial of azacitidine in patients with the myelodysplastic syndrome: a study of the cancer and leukemia group B. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20, 2429-2440

147 R.A. Mesa (2009) 5-Azacitidine has limited therapeutic activity in myelofibrosis. Leukemia 23, 180-182

148 A. Quintas-Cardama (2008) A phase II study of 5-azacitidine for patients with primary and post-essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera myelofibrosis. Leukemia 22, 965-970

149 P. Fenaux (2009) Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a randomised, open-label, phase III study. Lancet Oncology 10, 223-232

150 H. Kantarjian (2006) Decitabine improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes: results of a phase III randomized study. Cancer 106, 1794-1803

152 M. Lubbert (2001) Cytogenetic responses in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome following low-dose treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. British Journal of Haematology 114, 349-357

153 A. Kuendgen (2004) Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes with valproic acid alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid. Blood 104, 1266-1269

154 S.D. Gore (2006) Combined DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibition in the treatment of myeloid neoplasms. Cancer Research 66, 6361-6369

155 P. Laslo (2008) Gene regulatory networks directing myeloid and lymphoid cell fates within the immune system. Seminars in Immunology 20, 228-235

P.A. Jones and S.B. Baylin (2007) The epigenomics of cancer. Cell 128, 683-692

H. Santos-Rosa and C. Caldas (2005) Chromatin modifier enzymes, the histone code and cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 41, 2381-2402

O.J. Rando and H.Y. Chang (2009) Genome-wide views of chromatin structure. Annual Review of Biochemistry 78, 245-271

T. Neff and S.A. Armstrong (2009) Chromatin maps, histone modifications and leukemia. Leukemia 23, 1243-1251

Z. Wang (2009) Genome-wide mapping of HATs and HDACs reveals distinct functions in active and inactive genes. Cell 138, 1019-1031

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1462-3994
  • URL: /core/journals/expert-reviews-in-molecular-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 22 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 96 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.