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It is our opinion that the evidence from epidemiological observations, clinical trials and biological studies is strong enough to support the view of different origin and phenotypes of pre-eclampsia: placental, which usually occurs (but not exclusively) early in pregnancy and is associated with poor early placentation of different severity with subsequent restriction of foetal growth, at different stages of gestation; and maternogenic, which generally occurs late in pregnancy and it is not related to placental insufficiency and foetal growth restriction.

Corresponding author
Enrico Ferrazzi, Department of Woman, Mother and Neonate, Buzzi Children's Hospital, University Department of Biological and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Email:
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Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review
  • ISSN: 0965-5395
  • EISSN: 1469-5065
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