This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 AH Jobe . The new BPD: an arrest of lung development. Pediatr Res 1999; 46: 641–43.
2 A Hamvas , F Sessions Cole , LM Nogee . Genetic disorders of surfactant proteins. Neonatology 2007; 91: 311–17.
4 D Sweet , G Bevilacqua , V Carnielli , G Greison , R Plavka , O Didrik Saugstad European consensus guidelines on the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinatal Med 2007; 35: 175–86.
5 D Roberts , S Dalziel . Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Sys Rev 2006; 3: CD004454.
6 O Baud , L Foix L'Helias , M Kaminski , F Audibert , PH Jarreau , F Papiernik Antenatal glucorticoid treatment and cystic periventricular leukomalacia in very premature infants. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1190–96.
7 BH Lee , BJ Stoll , SA McDonald , RD Higgins for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Adverse neonatal outcomes associated with antenatal dexamethasone versus antenatal betamethasone. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 1503–10.
8 P Stutchfield , R Whitaker , I Russell on behalf of the Antenatal Steroids for Term Elective Caesarian Section (ASTECS) Research Team. Antenatal betamethasone and incidence of neonatal respiratory distress after elective caesarean section. Pragmatic randomised trial. Br Med J 2005; 331: 662.
9 CA Crowther , RR Haslam , JE Hiller , LW Doyle , JS Robinson for the Australasian Collaborative Trial of Repeat Doses of Steroids (ACTORDS) Study Group. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome after repeat exposure to antenatal corticosteroids: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 367: 1913–919.
10 NP French , R Hagan , SF Evans , M Godrfrey , JP Newnham . Repeated antenatal corticosteroids: size at birth and subsequent development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 114–21
11 KE Willet , AH Jobe , M Ikegami , J Newnham , S Brennan , PD Sly . Antenatal endotoxin and glucorticoid effects on lung morphometry in preterm lambs. Pediatr Res 2000; 48: 782–88.
12 PH Burri . The postnatal growth of the rat lung. III. Morphology. Anat Rec 1975; 180: 77–98.
14 SG Kallapur , BW Kramer , TJ Moss , JP Newnham , AH Jobe , M Ikegami Maternal glucocorticoids increase endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in preterm lambs. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003; 284: L633–42.
16 DA Osborn , RW Hunt . Postnatal thyroid hormones for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 1: CD005946.
17 G Eisler , R Hjertberg , H Lagercrantz . Randomised controlled trial of effect of terbutaline before elective caesarian section on postnatal respirations and glucose homeostasis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999; 80: F88–92.
20 WA Engle and the Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Surfactant replacement therapy for respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm and term neonate. Pediatrics 2008; 121: 419–32.
24 A Corbet , R Buccciarelli , S Goldman , M Mammel , D Wold , W Long . Decreased mortality rate among small premature infants treated at birth with a single dose of synthetic surfactant; a multicenter controlled trial. American Exosurf Pediatric Study Group 1. J Pediatr 1991; 118: 277–84.
28 TA Merritt , M Hallman , C Berry , M Pohjavuori , DK Edwards 3rd, J Jaaskelainen Randomised, placebo-controlled trial of human surfactant given at birth versus rescue administration in very low birth weight infants with lung immaturity. J Pediatr 1991; 118: 581–94.
29 HL Halliday . Recent clinical trials of surfactant treatment for neonates. Biol Neonate 2006; 89: 323–29.
30 F Moya , S Sinha , J Gadzinowski , R D'Agostino , R Segal , C Guardia on behalf of the SELECT and STAR Study Investigators. One year follow up of very preterm infants who received lucinactant for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome: results from 2 multicenter randomised controlled trials. Pediatrics 2007; 119: e1361–e1370.
31 RH Pfister , RF Soll , T Wiswell . Protein containing surfactant versus animal derived surfactant extract for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD006069.
35 CJ Morley , PG Davis , LW Doyle , L Brion , JM Hascoet , JB Carlin . Nasal CPAP or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 700–708.
37 A, Dimitriou G, Prendergast M Greenough , AD Milner . Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (1): CD000456.
38 ZC Reyes , N Claure , MK Tauscher , C D'Ugard , S Vanbuskirk , E Bancalari . Randomised, controlled trial comparing synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 1409–417.
39 A Schulze , E Rieger-Fackeldey , T Gerhardt , N Claure , R Everett , E Bancalari . Randomised crossover comparison of proportional assist ventilation and patient triggered ventilation in extremely low birthweight infants with evolving chronic lung disease. Neonatology 2007; 92: 1–7.
40 S Herber-Jonat , E Rieger-Fackeldey , H Hummler , A Schulze . Adaptive mechanical backup ventilation for preterm infants on respiratory assist modes – a pilot study. Intens Care Med 2006; 32: 302–308.
41 N McCallion , PG Davis , CJ Morley . Volume targeted versus pressure limited ventilation in the neonate. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2: CD003666.
43 IU Cheema , AK Sinha , ST Kempley , JS Ahluwalia . Impact of volume guarantee ventilation on arterial carbon dioxide tension in newborn infants: a randomized controlled trial. Early Hum Dev 2007; 83: 183–89.
44 G Lista , F Castoldi , P Fontana , R Reali , A Reggiani , S Bianchi Lung inflammation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: effects of ventilation with different tidal volumes. Pediatr Pulmonol 2006; 41: 357–63.
45 DJ Henderson-Smart , T Bhuta , F Cools , M Offringa . Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants (Cochrane review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 1: CD000104.
46HIFO Study Group. Randomised study of lung frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 1993; 122: 609–19.
47 G Dimitriou , A Greenough , D Broomfield , M Morton . Rescue high frequency oscillation, hypocarbia and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Early Hum Dev 2002; 66: 133–41.
51 MD Schreiber , K Gin-Mestan , JD Marks , D Huo , G Lee , P Srisuparp . Inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2099–107.
52 JP Kinsella , GR Cutter , WF Walsh , DR Gerstmann , CL Bose , C Hart Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 354–64.
53 RA Ballard , WE Truog , A Cnaan , RJ Martin , PL Ballard , JD Merrill : NO CLD Study Group. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 343–53.
54 K Costeloe on behalf of the EPICure Study Group. EPICure: facts and figures: why preterm labour should be treated. BJOG 2006; 113: 10–12.
55 Y Kono , J Mishina , T Takamura , H Hara , I Sakuma , S Kusuda Impact of being small for gestational age on survival and long term outcome of extremely premature infants born at 23–27 weeks gestation. J Perinat Med 2007; 35: 447–54.
56 A Gonzalez , IR Sosenko , J Chandar , H Hummler , N Claure , E Bancalari . Influence of infection on patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease in premature infants weighing 1000 g or less. J Pediatr 1996; 128: 470–78.
57 AH Jobe , E Banaclari . NICHD/NHLSI/ORD Workshop Summary. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 1723–29.
58 AH Johnson , JL Peacock , A Greenough , N Marlow , ES Limb , L Marston for the United Kingdom Oscillation Study Group. High frequency oscillatory ventilaton for the prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurity. New Engl J Med 2002; 347: 633–42.
60 LJ Van Marter , O Ammann , EN Allred , A Leviton , M Pagano , M Moore Chorioamnionitis, mechanical ventilation and postnatal sepsis as modulators of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2002; 140: 171–76.
61 AN Husain , NH Siddiqui , JT Stocker . Pathology of arrested acinar development in postsurfactant bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Hum Pathol 1998; 29: 710–17.
62 A Greenough , J Alexander , S Burgess , PA Chetcuti , S Cox , W Lenney Home oxygen status on rehospitalisation and primary care requirements of chronic lung disease infants. Arch Dis Child 2002; 86: 40–43.
63 A Greenough , J Alexander , S Burgess , P Chetcuti , S, Lenny W Cox Health care utilisation of chronic lung disease infants related to hospitalisation for RSV infection. Arch Dis Child 2001; 85: 463–68.
64 EJ Vrijlandt , J Gerritsen , H Marike Boezen , EJ Duiverman and the Dutch POPS-19 Collaborative Study Group. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms in 19 year old adults born preterm. Respir Res 2005; 6: 117.
65 M Filippone , M Sartor , F Zachello , E Baraldi . Flow limitation in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and respiratory function at school age. Lancet 2003; 361: 753–54.
66 NS Wood , K Costeloe , AT Gibson , EM Hennessy , N Marlow , AR Wilkinson for the EPICure Study Group. The EPICure study: associations and antecedentst of neurological and developmental disability at 30 months of age following extremely preterm birth. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2005; 90: F134–F140.
67 N Marlow , D Wolke , MA Bracelwell , M Samara for the Epicure Study Group. Neurologic and developmenteal disability at six years of age after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 9–19.