Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A Method for the Selection of Deletion Mutations in the L-Proline Catabolism Gene Cluster of Aspergillus nidulans

  • Herbert N. Arst (a1) (a2), Susan A. Jones (a1) and Christopher R. Bailey (a1)
Summary

Interest in the selection of mutations affecting L-proline catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans is heightened by the involvement of one of the very few examples of a cluster of functionally related genes in an eukaryote and by an increasing awareness of the biological phenomena in which proline and proline catabolism participate. The sasA-60 (semialdehyde sensitive) mutation in A. nidulans results in toxicity of catabolic precursors of L-glutamic γ-semialdehyde (or its internal Schiff base L-Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate) and succinic semialdehyde, apparently without affecting the catabolic pathways concerned. As sasA-60 is unlinked to the prn gene cluster, specifying the gene products necessary for L-proline catabolism and as L-proline, a precursor of L-glutamic γ-semialdehyde, is highly toxic to sasA-60 strains, this forms the basis of a powerful positive selection technique for obtaining a number of types of prn mutations. Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prnB gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. These deletion mutations have been partially characterized both genetically and biochemically. In particular their use has greatly facilitated fine-structure mapping of the prn cluster and aided studies of the regulation of prn gene expression.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Method for the Selection of Deletion Mutations in the L-Proline Catabolism Gene Cluster of Aspergillus nidulans
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Method for the Selection of Deletion Mutations in the L-Proline Catabolism Gene Cluster of Aspergillus nidulans
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Method for the Selection of Deletion Mutations in the L-Proline Catabolism Gene Cluster of Aspergillus nidulans
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Address correspondence to this author (at Newcastle address).
References
Hide All
Alderson, T. & Clark, A. M. (1966). Interlocus specificity for chemical mutagens in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature 210, 593595.
Alderson, T. & Hartley, M. J. (1969). Specificity for spontaneous and induced forward mutation at several gene loci in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutation Research 8, 255264.
Arst, H. N. Jr. (1976). Integrator gene in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature 262, 231234.
Arst, H. N. Jr. (1977 a). Some genetical aspects of ornithine metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics 151, 105110.
Arst, H. N. Jr. (1977 b). The basis for an apparent auxotrophy for reduced sulphur metabolites in sF mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. Genetical Research 30, 207210.
Arst, H. N. Jr,. (1981). Aspects of the control of gene expression in fungi. In Genetics as a Tool in Microbiology. Society for General Microbiology Symposium 31 (ed. Glover, S. W. and Hopwood, D. A.), pp. 131160. Cambridge University Press.
Arst, H. N. Jr. & Bailey, C. R. (1977). The regulation of carbon metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. In Genetics and Physiology of Aspergillus (ed. Smith, J. E. and Pateman, J. A.), pp. 131146. London: Academic Press.
Arst, H. N. Jr., Bailey, C. R. & Penfold, H. A. (1980 a). A possible rôle for acid phosphatase in γ-amino-n-butrate uptake in Aspergillus nidulans. Archives of Microbiology 125, 153158.
Arst, H. N. Jr. & Cove, D. J. (1969). Methylammonium resistance in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of Bacteriology 98, 12841293.
Arst, H. N. Jr. & Cove, D. J. (1973). Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics 126, 111141.
Arst, H. N. Jr. & Macdonald, D. W. (1975). A gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans with an internally located cis-acting regulatory region. Nature 254, 2631.
Arst, H. N. Jr. & Macdonald, D. W. (1978). Reduced expression of a distal gene of the prn gene cluster in deletion mutants of Aspergillus nidulans: genetic evidence for a dicistronic messenger in an eukaryote. Molecular and General Genetics 163, 1722.
Arst, H. N. Jr., Macdonald, D. W. & Jones, S. A. (1980 b). Regulation of proline transport in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 116, 285294.
Arst, H. N. Jr., Parbtani, A. A. M. & Cove, D. J. (1975). A mutant of Aspergillus nidulans defective in NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. Molecular and General Genetics 138, 165171.
Arst, H. N. Jr., Penfold, H. A. & Bailey, C. R. (1978). Lactam utilization in Aspergillus nidulans: evidence for a fourth gene under the control of the integrator gene intA. Molecular and General Genetics 166, 321327.
Axelsen, N. H., Kroll, J. & Weeke, B. (ed.) (1973). A Manual of Quantitative Immunoelectro-phoresis: Methods and Applications. Olso: Universitetsförlaget
Bailey, C. & Arst, H. N. Jr. (1975). Carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. European Journal of Biochemistry 51, 573577.
Bailey, C. R., Arst, H. N. Jr. & Penfold, H. A. (1980). A third gene affecting GABA transaminase levels in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetical Research 36, 167180.
Bailey, C. R., Penfold, H. A. & Arst, H. N. Jr. (1979). Cis-dominant regulatory mutations affecting the expression of GABA permease in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics 169, 7983.
Balboni, E. (1978). A proline shuttle in insect flight muscle. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 85, 10901096.
Bartnik, E. & Weglenski, P. (1974). Regulation of arginine catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature 250, 590592.
Blake, R. L. (1972). Animal model for hyperprolinaemia: deficiency of mouse proline oxidase. Biochemical Journal 129, 987989.
Brandriss, M. C. & Magasanik, B. (1980). Proline: an essential intermediate in arginine degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology 143, 14031410.
Clarke, H. G. M. & Freeman, T. (1966). A quantitative immuno-electrophoresis method (Laurell electrophoresis). In Protides of the Biological Fluids. Proceedings of the 14th Colloquium (ed. Peeters, H.), pp. 503509. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Clutterbuck, A. J. (1974). Aspergillus nidulans. In Handbook of Genetics, vol. 1 (ed. King, R. C.), pp. 447510. New York: Plenum Press.
Cove, D. J. (1966). The induction and repression of nitrate reductase in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 113, 5156.
Cove, D. J. (1976 a). Chlorate toxicity in Aspergillus nidulans. Studies of mutants altered in nitrate assimilation. Molecular and General Genetics 146, 147159.
Cove, D. J. (1976 b). Chlorate toxicity in Aspergillus nidulans: the selection and characterization of chlorate resistant mutants. Heredity 36, 191203.
Csonka, L. N. (1980). The role of L-proline in response to osmotic stress in Salmonella typhimurium: selection of mutants with increased osmotolerance as strains which over-produce L-proline. In Genetic Engineering of Osmoregulation. Impact on Plant Productivity for Food, Chemicals and Energy (ed. Rains, D. W., Vallentine, R. C. and Hollaender, A.), pp. 3552. New York: Plenum Press.
Dhavises, G. & Anagnostopoulos, G. D. (1979). Influence of amino acids and water activity on the growth of Escherichia coli B/r/1. Microbios Letters 7, 105115.
Grenson, M. & Hennaut, C. (1971). Mutation affecting activity of several distinct amino acid transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology 105, 477482.
Hankinson, O. (1974). Mutants of the pentose phosphate pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of Bacteriology 117, 11211130.
Harboe, N. & Ingild, A. (1973). Immunisation, isolation of immunoglobulins, estimation of antibody titre. In A Manual of Quantitative Immunoelectrophoresis: Methods and Applications (ed. Axelsen, N. H., Kroll, J. and Weeke, B.), pp. 161164. Oslo: Universitetsförlaget.
Ho, K. H. & Miller, J. J. (1978). Free proline content and sensitivity to dessication and heat during yeast sporulation and spore germination. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 24, 312320.
Hynes, M. J. (1979). Fine-structure mapping of the acetamidase structural gene and its controlling region in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics 91, 381392.
Jones, S. A. (1980). L-proline catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Ph.D. thesis. University of Cambridge.
Jones, S. A., Arst, H. N. Jr. & Macdonald, D. W. (1981). Gene roles in the prn cluster of Aspergillus nidulans. Current Genetics 3, 4956.
Kinghorn, J. R. & Pateman, J. A. (1975). Mutations which affect amino acid transport in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 86, 174184.
Layne, E. (1957). Spectrophorometric and turbidimetric methods for measuring proteins. In Methods in Enzymology, vol. III (ed. Colowick, S. P. and Kaplan, N. O.), pp. 447454. New York: Academic Press.
Lewis, N. J. (1975). Immunological and biochemical studies on the genetic determination of xanthine dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase in Aspergillus nidulans. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.
Mccully, K. S. & Forbes, E. (1965). The use of p-fluorophenylalanine with ‘master strains’ of Aspergillus nidulans for assigning genes to linkage groups. Genetical Research 6, 352359.
Macdonald, D. W., Arst, H. N. Jr. & Cove, D. J. (1974). The theonine dehydratase structural gene in Aspergillus nidulans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 362, 6065.
Mackintosh, M. E. & Pritchard, R. H. (1963). The production and replica plating of microcolonies of Aspergillus nidulans. Genetical Research 4, 320322.
Mcnamer, A. D. & Stewart, C. R. (1974). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent proline dehydrogenase in Chlorella. Plant Physiology 53, 440444.
Measures, J. C. (1975). Role of amino acids in osmoregulation of non-halophilic bacteria. Nature 257, 398400.
Meuris, P. (1969). Studies of mutants inhibited by their own metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. II. Genetic and enzymatic analysis of three classes of mutants. Genetics 63, 569580.
Meuris, P., Lacroute, F. & Slonimski, P. P. (1967). Étude systematique de mutants inhibés par leurs propres metabolites chez la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Obtention et caracterisation des differentes classes de mutants. Genetics 56, 149161.
Moore, P. D. (1975). Proline implicated in halophyte osmotic adjustment. Nature 253, 399400.
Ong, T.-M. & De Serres, F. J. (1975). Mutation induction by difunctional alkylating agents in Neurospora crossa. Genetics 80, 475482.
Page, M. M. (1971). Genetic and biochemical studies on the catabolism of amines and alcohols in Asperigillus nidulans. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.
Page, M. M. & Cove, D. J. (1972). Alcohol and amine catabolism in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Biochemical Journal 127, 17P.
Payton, M., Mccullough, W. & Roberts, C. F. (1976). Agar as a carbon source and its effect on the utilization of other carbon sources by acetate non-utilizing (acu) mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 94, 228233.
Pearson, D. J., Imbuga, M. O. & Hoek, J. B. (1979). Enzyme activities in flight and leg muscle of the dung beetle in relation to proline metabolism. Insect Biochemistry 9, 461466.
Penninckx, M., Jaspers, C. & Wiame, J.-M. (1980). Glutathione metabolism in relation to the amino-acid permeation systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Occurrence of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase: its regulation and the effects of permeation mutations on the enzyme cellular level. European Journal of Biochemistry 104, 119123.
Phano, J. M., Downing, S. J. & Yeh, G. C. (1980). Linkage of the HMP pathway to ATP generation by the proline cycle. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 93, 462470.
Phang, J. M., Yeh, G. C. & Hagedorn, C. H. (1981). The intercellular proline cycle. Life Sciences 28, 5358.
Piotrowska, M., Sawicki, M. & Weglenski, P. (1969). Mutants of the arginine-proline pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 55, 301305.
Pontecorvo, G., Roper, J. A., Hemmons, L. M., Macdonald, K. D. & Bufton, A. W. J. (1953). The genetics of Aspergillus nidulans. Advances in Genetics 5, 141238.
Rains, D. W., Vallentine, R. C. & Hollaender, A. (ed.) (1980). Genetic Engineering of Osmoregulation. Impact on Plant Productivity for Food, Chemicals and Energy. New York: Plenum Press.
Rand, K. N. & Arst, H. N. Jr. (1977). A mutation in Aspergillus nidulans which affects the regulation of nitrite reductase and is tightly linked to its structural gene. Molecular and General Genetics 155, 6775.
Ratzkin, B. & Roth, J. (1978). Cluster of genes controlling proline degradation in Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology 133, 744754.
Roon, R. J., Levy, J. S. & Larimore, F. (1977). Negative interactions between amino acid and methylamine/ammonia transport systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Biological Chemistry 252, 35993604.
Roon, R. J., Meyer, G. M. & Larimore, F. S. (1977). Evidence for a common component in kinetically distinct transport systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and General Genetics 158, 185191.
Rosenberg, L. E. & Scriver, C. R. (1974). Disorders of amino acid metabolism. In Duncan's Diseases of Metabolism. Genetics and Metabolism, 7th ed. (ed. Bondy, P. K. and Rosenberg, L. E.), pp. 465654. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Schwartz, D. O. & Beckwith, J. R. (1969). Mutagens which cause deletions in E. coli. Genetics 61, 371376.
Sealy-Lewis, H. M., Scazzocchio, C. & Lee, S. (1978). A mutation defective in the xanthine alternative pathway of Aspergillus nidulans. Its use to investigate the specificity of uaY mediated induction. Molecular and General Genetics 164, 303308.
Stewart, G. R. & Larher, F. (1980). Accumulation of amino acids and related compounds in relation to environmental stress. In The Biochemistry of Plants. Vol. 5. Amino Acids and Derivatives (ed. Miflin, B. J.), pp. 609635. New York: Academic Press.
Tomsett, A. B. & Cove, D. J. (1979). Deletion mapping of the niiA niaD gene region of Aspergillus nidulans. Genetical Research 34, 1932.
Valle, D. L., Phang, J. M. & Goodman, S. I. (1974). Type 2 hyperprolinemia: absence of Δ1-pyrroline-S-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity. Science 185, 10531054.
Weglenski, P. (1966). Genetical analysis of proline mutants and their suppressors in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetical Research 8, 311321.
Williams, I. & Frank, L. (1975). Improved chemical synthesis and enzymatic assay of Dgr;1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. Analytical Biochemistry 64, 8597.
Withers, L. A. & King, P. J. (1979). Proline: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of cultured cells of Zea mays L. Plant Physiology 64, 675678.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Genetics Research
  • ISSN: 0016-6723
  • EISSN: 1469-5073
  • URL: /core/journals/genetics-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed