We have discovered, in an inbred line (Loua) of Drosophila melanogaster from Zaïre, a third chromosome showing unusual P element repression. Repression of P element transposition by this chromosome, named Loua3, is dominant zygotic and has three unusual properties. Firstly, its repression of the gonadal dysgenesis caused by a strong P haplotype is strongly temperature-dependent, being most evident at higher rearing temperatures. Secondly, subdivision of Loua3 by recombination abolishes repression: the effect is apparently a function of the intact chromosome. Finally, Loua3 also diminishes somatic lethality when chromosomes carrying many ‘ammunition’ elements (Birmingham2) are exposed to the constitutive transposase source Δ2-3(99B). The chromosome has 17 P elements, none full-length, located in at least 12 dispersed positions.