Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An introduction to the Rhynie chert

  • Russell J Garwood (a1) (a2), Heather Oliver (a3) and Alan R T Spencer (a2) (a4)

Abstract

The terrestrialization of life has profoundly affected the biosphere, geosphere and atmosphere, and the Geological Magazine has published key works charting the development of our understanding of this process. Integral to this understanding – and featuring in one of the Geological Magazine publications – is the Devonian Rhynie chert Konservat-Lagerstätte located in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Here we provide a review of the work on this important early terrestrial deposit to date. We begin by highlighting contributions of note in the Geological Magazine improving understanding of terrestrialization and Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems. We then introduce the Rhynie chert. The review highlights its geological setting: the Caledonian context of the Rhynie Basin and its nature at the time of deposition of the cherts which host its famous fossils. There follows an introduction to the development of the half-graben in which the cherts and host sediments were deposited, the palaeoenvironment this represented and the taphonomy of the fossils themselves. We subsequently provide an overview of the mineralization and geochemistry of the deposit, and then the fossils found within the Rhynie chert. These include: six plant genera, which continue to provide significant insights into the evolution of life on land; a range of different fungi, with recent work starting to probe plant–fungus interactions; lichens, amoebae and a range of unicellular eukaryotes and prokaryotes (algae and cyanobacteria); and finally a range of both aquatic and terrestrial arthropods. Through continued study coupled with methodological advances, Rhynie fossils will continue to provide unique insights into early life on land.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Russell J Garwood, Email: russell.garwood@manchester.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Abbott, GD, Fletcher, IW, Tardio, S and Hack, E (2018) Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160499. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0499.
Anderson, L, Crighton, B and Hass, H (2003) A new univalve crustacean from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert hot-spring complex. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 355–69.
Anderson, LI, Dunlop, JA, Eagar, RMC, Horrocks, CA and Wilson, HM (1999) Soft-bodied fossils from the roof shales of the Wigan Four Foot coal seam, Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK. Geological Magazine 135, 321–9.
Anderson, LI and Trewin, NH (2003) An Early Devonian arthropod fauna from the Windyfield Cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Palaeontology 46, 467509.
Arber, EAN (1907) II. – A note on fossil plants from the Carboniferous limestone of Chepstow. Geological Magazine 4, 45.
Arber, EAN (1912) I. – A note on some fossil plants from the Kent Coal-field. Geological Magazine 9, 97–9.
Arber, EAN (1913) V. – On the discovery of fossil plants in the Old Hill Marls of the South Staffordshire Coal-field. Geological Magazine 10, 215–16.
Baldwin, W (1911) VI.–Fossil myriopods from the Middle Coal-Measures of Sparth Bottoms, Rochdale, Lancashire. Geological Magazine 8, 7480.
Barghoorn, ES and Darrah, WC (1938) Horneophyton, a necessary change of name for Horneabrade. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 6, 142–4.
Baron, M, Hillier, S, Rice, CM, Czapnik, K and Parnell, J (2003) Fluids and hydrothermal alteration assemblages in a Devonian gold-bearing hot-spring system, Rhynie, Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 94, 309–24.
Berry, CM, Morel, E, Mojica, J and Villarroel, C (2000) Devonian plants from Colombia, with discussion of their geological and palaeogeographical context. Geological Magazine 137, 257–68.
Bolton, H (1905) I – Notes on the geological horizon and palæontology of the ‘Soapstone Bed’, in the Lower Coal-Measures, near Colne, Lancashire. Geological Magazine 2, 433–7.
Boyce, CK, Cody, GD, Feser, M, Jacobsen, C, Knoll, AH and Wirick, S (2002) Organic chemical differentiation within fossil plant cell walls detected with X-ray spectromicroscopy. Geology 30, 1039–42.
Boyce, CK, Hazen, RM and Knoll, AH (2001) Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, 5970–4.
Brade, SB-G (1928) An important specimen of Euphoberia ferox from the Middle Coal Measures of Crawcrook. Geological Magazine 65, 400–6.
Brongniart, C (1885) I. – The fossil insects of the primary rocks: a rapid survey of the entomological fauna of the Palæozoic Period 1. Geological Magazine 2, 481–91.
Busrewil, MT, Pankhurst, RJ and Wadsworth, WJ (1973) The igneous rocks of the Boganclogh area, N.E. Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 9, 165–76.
Channing, A (2018) A review of active hot-spring analogues of Rhynie: environments, habitats and ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160490. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0490.
Channing, A and Edwards, D (2009a) Silicification of higher plants in geothermally influenced wetlands: Yellowstone as a Lower Devonian Rhynie analog. PALAIOS 24, 505–21.
Channing, A and Edwards, D (2009b) Yellowstone hot spring environments and the palaeo-ecophysiology of Rhynie chert plants: towards a synthesis. Plant Ecology & Diversity 2, 111–43.
Cingolani, CA, Berry, CM, Morel, E and Tomezzoli, R (2002) Middle Devonian lycopsids from high southern palaeolatitudes of Gondwana (Argentina). Geological Magazine 139, 641–9.
Claridge, MF and Lyon, AG (1961) Lung-books in the Devonian Palaeocharinidae (Arachnida). Nature 191, 1190–1.
Clarke, PD and Wadsworth, WJ (1970) The Insch layered intrusion. Scottish Journal of Geology 6, 725.
Cleal, CJ (1986) Fossil plants of the Severn Coalfield and their biostratigraphical significance. Geological Magazine 123, 553–68.
Cocks, LRM, Fortey, RA and Rushton, AWA (2010) Correlation for the Lower Palaeozoic. Geological Magazine 147, 171–80.
Croft, WN and George, EA (1959) Blue-green algae from the Middle Devonian of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology 3, 341–53.
Davies, NS and Gibling, MR (2010) Cambrian to Devonian evolution of alluvial systems: the sedimentological impact of the earliest land plants. Earth-Science Reviews 98, 171200.
Deline, B, Greenwood, JM, Clark, JW, Puttick, MN, Peterson, KJ and Donoghue, PCJ (2018) Evolution of metazoan morphological disparity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115, E8909–18.
Dewey, JF and Shackleton, RM (1984) A model for the evolution of the Grampian tract in the early Caledonides and Appalachians. Nature 312, 115–21.
Dotzler, N, Taylor, TN and Krings, M (2007) A prasinophycean alga of the genus Cymatiosphaera in the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 147, 106–11.
Draut, AE, Clift, PD, Amato, JM, Blusztajn, J and Schouten, H (2009) Arc–continent collision and the formation of continental crust: a new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society 166, 485500.
Droop, GTR and Charnley, NR (1985) Comparative geobarometry of pelitic hornfelses associated with the Newer Gabbros: a preliminary study. Journal of the Geological Society 142, 5362.
Dubinin, VB (1962) Class Acaromorpha: mites or gnathosomic chelicerate arthropods. In Fundamentals of Palaeontology (ed. Rodendorf, B.), pp. 447–73. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Dunlop, JA (1998) A redescription of the trigonotarbid arachnid Pseudokreischeria pococki (Gill, 1924). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11, 4953.
Dunlop, JA, Anderson, LI, Kerp, H and Hass, H (2003) Preserved organs of Devonian harvestmen. Nature 425, 916.
Dunlop, JA, Anderson, LI, Kerp, H and Hass, H (2004) A harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Early Devonian Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 341–54.
Dunlop, J and Garwood, R (2014) Tomographic reconstruction of the exceptionally preserved trigonotarbid arachnid Eophrynus prestvicii . Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59, 443–54.
Dunlop, JA and Garwood, RJ (2018) Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160493. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0493.
Dunlop, JA and Horrocks, CA (1997) Phalangiotarbid arachnids from the Coal Measures of Lancashire, UK. Geological Magazine 134, 369–81.
Dunlop, JA, Scholtz, G. and Selden, PA (2013) Water-to-land transitions. In Arthropod Biology and Evolution (eds Minelli, A, Boxshall, G and Fusco, G), pp. 417–39. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.
Edwards, DS (1980) Evidence for the sporophytic status of the lower Devonian plant Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii Kidston and Lang. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 29, 177–88.
Edwards, DS (1986) Aglaophyton major, a non-vascular land-plant from the Devonian Rhynie Chert. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 93, 173204.
Edwards, D, Kenrick, P and Dolan, L (2018) History and contemporary significance of the Rhynie cherts – our earliest preserved terrestrial ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160489. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0489.
Edwards, DS and Lyon, AG (1983) Algae from the Rhynie Chert. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 86, 3755.
Edwards, D and Rogerson, ECW (1979) New records of fertile Rhyniophytina from the late Silurian of Wales. Geological Magazine 116, 93–8.
Eggert, DA (1974) The Sporangium of Horneophyton lignieri (Rhyniophytina). American Journal of Botany 61, 405–13.
El-Saadawy, WE-S and Lacey, WS (1979) Observations on Nothia aphylla Lyon ex Høeg. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 27, 119–47.
Engel, MS and Grimaldi, DA (2004) New light shed on the oldest insect. Nature 427, 627–30.
Ewers, GR (1991) Oxygen isotopes and the recognition of siliceous sinters in epithermal ore deposits. Economic Geology 86, 173–8.
Fayers, SR, Dunlop, JA and Trewin, NH (2005) A new Early Devonian trigonotarbid arachnid from the Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2, 269–84.
Fayers, S and Trewin, N (2003) A new crustacean from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 93, 355–82.
Fayers, SR and Trewin, NH (2004) A review of the palaeoenvironments and biota of the Windyfield chert. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 325–39.
Garwood, RJ and Dunlop, JA (2010) Fossils explained 58 – Trigonotarbids. Geology Today 26, 34–7.
Garwood, RJ, Dunlop, JA, Knecht, BJ and Hegna, TA (2017) The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17, 105. doi: 10.1186/s12862-017-0931-1.
Garwood, RJ and Dunlop, JA (2014) The walking dead: Blender as a tool for paleontologists with a case study on extinct arachnids. Journal of Paleontology 88, 735–46.
Garwood, RJ, Dunlop, JA and Sutton, MD (2009) High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids. Biology Letters 5, 841–4.
Garwood, RJ and Edgecombe, GD (2011) Early terrestrial animals, evolution, and uncertainty. Evolution: Education and Outreach 4, 489501.
Garwood, RJ, Sharma, PP, Dunlop, JA and Giribet, G (2014) A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Current Biology 24, 1017–23.
Garwood, RJ and Sutton, MD (2012) The enigmatic arthropod Camptophyllia . Palaeontologia Electronica 15, 12 pp. doi: 10.1111/1475-4983.00174.
The Geological Magazine (1921) Obituary Henry Woodward. Geological Magazine 58, 481–4.
Gill, EL (1911) II.–A Carboniferous arachnid from Lancashire. Geological Magazine 8, 395–8.
Gill, EL (1924) Fossil arthropods from the Tyne Coalfield. Geological Magazine 61, 455–71.
Gray, J, Boucot, AJ, Grahn, Y and Himes, G (1992) A new record of early Silurian land plant spores from the Paraná Basin, Paraguay (Malvinokaffric Realm). Geological Magazine 129, 741–52.
Greenslade, PJ and Whalley, P (1986) The systematic position of Rhyniella praecursor Hirst and Maulik (Collembola), the earliest known hexapod. In Second International Symposium on Apterygota, Siena, Italy (ed. Dallai, R), pp. 319–23.
Grimaldi, D and Engel, MS (2005) Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.
Habgood, K, Hass, H and Kerp, H (2003) Evidence for an early terrestrial food web: coprolites from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 371–89.
Hass, H, Taylor, TN and Remy, W (1994) Fungi from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert: mycoparasitism. American Journal of Botany 81, 2937.
Haug, C (2018) Feeding strategies in arthropods from the Rhynie and Windyfield cherts: ecological diversification in an early non-marine biota. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160492. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0492.
Haug, C and Haug, JT (2017) The presumed oldest flying insect: more likely a myriapod? PeerJ 5, e3402. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3402.
Hetherington, AJ and Dolan, L (2018a) Bilaterally symmetric axes with rhizoids composed the rooting structure of the common ancestor of vascular plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20170042. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0042.
Hetherington, AJ and Dolan, L (2018b) Stepwise and independent origins of roots among land plants. Nature 561, 235–8.
Hirst, S (1923) On some arachnid remains from the Old Red Sandstone. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12, 455–74.
Hirst, S and Maulik, S (1926) On some arthropod remains from the Rhynie chert (Old Red Sandstone). Geological Magazine 63, 6971.
Jackson, JW, Brade-Birke, HK and Brade-Birke, SG (1919) III. – Notes on Myriopoda. XIX. A revision of some fossil material from Sparth Bottoms, Lancs. Geological Magazine 6, 406–11.
Jarzembowski, EA and Schneider, JW (2007) The stratigraphical potential of blattodean insects from the late Carboniferous of southern Britain. Geological Magazine 144, 449–56.
Johnson, EW, Briggs, DEG, Suthren, RJ, Wright, JL and Tunnicliff, SP (1994) Non-marine arthropod traces from the subaerial Ordovician Borrowdale volcanic group, English Lake District. Geological Magazine 131, 395406.
Jones, FM, Dunlop, JA, Friedman, M and Garwood, RJ (2014) Trigonotarbus johnsoni Pocock, 1911, revealed by X-ray computed tomography, with a cladistic analysis of the extinct trigonotarbid arachnids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172, 4970.
Jones, T and Woodward, H (1899) II. – Contributions to Fossil Crustacea. Geological Magazine 6, 388–95.
Kamenz, C, Dunlop, JA, Scholtz, G, Kerp, H and Hass, H (2008) Microanatomy of Early Devonian book lungs. Biology Letters 4, 212–15.
Karatygin, IV, Snigirevskaya, NS and Demchenko, KN (2006) Species of the genus Glomites kring as plant mycobionts in Early Devonian ecosystems. Paleontological Journal 40, 572–9.
Karatygin, IV, Snigirevskaya, NS and Vikulin, S (2009) The most ancient terrestrial lichen Winfrenatia reticulata: a new find and new interpretation. Palaeontological Journal 43, 107–14.
Kelman, R, Feist, M, Trewin, NH and Hass, H (2003) Charophyte algae from the Rhynie chert. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 445–55.
Kenrick, P (2018) Changing expressions: a hypothesis for the origin of the vascular plant life cycle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20170149. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0149.
Kenrick, P and Strullu-Derrien, C (2014) The origin and early evolution of roots. Plant Physiology 166, 570–80.
Kenrick, P, Wellman, CH, Schneider, H and Edgecombe, GD (2012) A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367, 519–36.
Kerp, H (2018) Organs and tissues of Rhynie chert plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160495. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0495.
Kerp, H, Hass, H and Mosbrugger, V (2001) New data on Nothia aphylla Lyon 1964 ex El-Saadawy et Lacey 1979, a poorly known plant from the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert. In Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives (eds. Gensel, PG & Edwards, D), pp. 5282. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
Kerp, H, Trewin, NH and Hass, H (2003) New gametophytes from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 411–28.
Kevan, PG, Chaloner, WG and Saville, DBO (1975) Interrelationships of early terrestrial arthropods and plants. Palaeontology 18, 391417.
Kidston, R and Lang, WH (1917) XXIV. – On Old Red Sandstone Plants showing structure, from the Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part I. Rhynia Gwynne-Vaughani, Kidston and Lang. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 87, 427–50.
Kidston, R and Lang, WH (1920a) XXIV. – On Old Red Sandstone Plants showing structure, from the Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part II. Additional notes on Rhynia Gwynne-Vaughani, Kidston and Lang; with descriptions of Rhynia major, n.sp., and Hornea Lignieri, n.g., n.sp. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 52, 603–27.
Kidston, R and Lang, WH (1920b) XXVI. – On Old Red Sandstone plants showing structure, from the Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part III. Asteroxylon Mackiei, Kidston and Lang. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 52, 643–80.
Kidston, R and Lang, W (1921a) XXXIII. – On Old Red Sandstone plants showing structure, from the Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part V. The Thallophyta occurring in the peat-bed; the succession of the plants throughout a vertical section of the bed, and the conditions of accumulation and preservation of the deposit. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 52, 855902.
Kidston, R and Lang, WH (1921b) XXXII.–On Old Red Sandstone plants showing structure, from the Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part IV. Restorations of the vascular cryptogams, and discussion of their bearing on the general morphology of the Pteridophyta and the origin of the organisation of land-plants. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 52, 831–54.
Kindle, EM (1913) I.–Note on a process of fossilization in the Palæozoic Lycopods. Geological Magazine 10, 336–40.
Kinny, PD, Strachan, RA, Friend, CRL, Kocks, H, Rogers, G and Paterson, BA (2003) U–Pb geochronology of deformed metagranites in central Sutherland, Scotland: evidence for widespread late Silurian metamorphism and ductile deformation of the Moine Supergroup during the Caledonian orogeny. Journal of the Geological Society 160, 259–69.
Kofuji, R, Yagita, Y, Murata, T and Hasebe, M (2018) Antheridial development in the moss Physcomitrella patens: implications for understanding stem cells in mosses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160494. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0494.
Krings, M and Harper, CJ (2019) A microfossil resembling Merismopedia (Cyanobacteria) from the 410-million-yr-old Rhynie and Windyfield cherts – Rhyniococcus uniformis revisited. Nova Hedwigia 108, 1735.
Krings, M, Harper, CJ and Taylor, EL (2018) Fungi and fungal interactions in the Rhynie chert: a review of the evidence, with the description of Perexiflasca tayloriana gen. et sp. nov.†. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160500. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0500.
Krings, M, Kerp, H, Hass, H, Taylor, TN and Dotzler, N (2007a) A filamentous cyanobacterium showing structured colonial growth from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 146, 265–76.
Krings, M and Sergeev, VN (2019) A coccoid, colony-forming cyanobacterium from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert that resembles Eucapsis (Synechococcales) and Entophysalis (Chroococcales). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 268, 6571. doi: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.06.002.
Krings, M, Taylor, TN, Hass, H, Kerp, H, Dotzler, N and Hermsen, EJ (2007b) An alternative mode of early land plant colonization by putative endomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Signaling & Behavior 2, 125–6.
Krings, M, Taylor, TN, Hass, H, Kerp, H, Dotzler, N and Hermsen, EJ (2007c) Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses. The New Phytologist 174, 648–57.
Kustatscher, E, Dotzler, N, Taylor, TN and Krings, M (2014a) Microalgae from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert: a new Cymatiosphaera. Zitteliana 54, 165–9.
Kustatscher, E, Dotzler, N, Taylor, TN and Krings, M (2014b) Microfossils with suggested affinities to the Pyramimonadales (Pyramimonadophyceae, Chlorophyta) from the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert. Acta Palaeobotanica 54, 163–71.
Labandeira, CC (2005) Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 253–62.
Lambert, RSJ and McKerrow, WS (1976) The Grampian Orogeny. Scottish Journal of Geology 12, 271–92.
Levitan, MA, Dontsova, EI, Lisitsyn, AP and Bogdanov, YA (1975) The origin of chert in the sediments of the Pacific Ocean from data of oxygen isotopic analysis and a study of the distribution of chert. Geochemistry International 12, 95104.
Lozano-Fernandez, J, Carton, R, Tanner, AR, Puttick, MN, Blaxter, M, Vinther, J, Olesen, J, Giribet, G, Edgecombe, GD and Pisani, D (2016) A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371, 20150133. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0133.
Lyon, AG (1957) Germinating spores in the Rhynie Chert. Nature 180, 1219–21.
Lyon, AG and Edwards, D (1991) The first zosterophyll from the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert, Aberdeenshire. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 82, 324–32.
Mark, DF, Rice, CM, Fallick, AE, Trewin, NH, Lee, MR, Boyce, A and Lee, JKW (2011) 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal activity, biota and gold mineralization in the Rhynie hot-spring system, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 555–69.
Mark, DF, Rice, CM and Trewin, NH (2013) Discussion on ‘A high-precision U–Pb age constraint on the Rhynie Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: time scale and other implications’: Journal, Vol. 168, 863–872. Journal of the Geological Society 170, 701–3.
Marshall, JEA (1991) Palynology of the Stonehaven Group, Scotland: evidence for a Mid Silurian age and its geological implications. Geological Magazine 128, 283–6.
Mills, BJW, Batterman, SA and Field, KJ (2018) Nutrient acquisition by symbiotic fungi governs Palaeozoic climate transition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160503. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0503.
Oehler, D (1977) Pyrenoid-like structures in late Precambrian algae from the Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. Journal of Paleontology 51, 885901.
Parry, SF, Noble, SR, Crowley, QG and Wellman, CH (2011) A high-precision U–Pb age constraint on the Rhynie Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: time scale and other implications. Journal of the Geological Society, London 168, 863–72.
Parry, SF, Noble, SR, Crowley, QG and Wellman, CH (2013) Reply to discussion on ‘A high-precision U–Pb age constraint on the Rhynie Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: time scale and other implications’: Journal, 168, 863–872. Journal of the Geological Society 170, 703–6.
Pocock, RI (1902) II. – Eophrynus and allied Carboniferous Arachnida. Geological Magazine 9, 439–48.
Pocock, RI (1903a) II.–A new Carboniferous arachnid. Geological Magazine 4, 247–51.
Pocock, RI (1903b) V.–Details of Further remarks upon the Carboniferous Arachnid Anthracosiro with the description of a second species of the genus. Geological Magazine 4, 405–8.
Poinar, G (2015) The geological record of parasitic nematode evolution. In Fossil Parasites (eds Littlewood, T and De Baets, K), pp. 5392. Advances in Parasitology 90. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Poinar, G, Kerp, H and Hass, H (2008) Palaeonema phyticum gen. n., sp. n. (Nematoda: Palaeonematidae fam. n.), a Devonian nematode associated with early land plants. Nematology 10, 914.
Powell, CL, Trewin, NH and Edwards, D (2000) Palaeoecology and plant succession in a borehole through the Rhynie cherts, Lower Old Red Sandstone, Scotland. In New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone (eds Friend, PF and Williams, BPJ), pp. 439–57. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 180.
Preston, LJ and Genge, MJ (2010) The Rhynie Chert, Scotland, and the search for life on Mars. Astrobiology 10, 549–60.
Raven, JA (2018) Evolution and palaeophysiology of the vascular system and other means of long-distance transport. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160497. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0497.
Remy, W, Gensel, PG and Hass, H (1993) The gametophyte generation of some Early Devonian land plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences 154, 3558.
Remy, W and Remy, R (1980a) Devonian gametophytes with anatomically preserved gametangia. Science 208, 295–6.
Remy, W and Remy, R (1980b) Lyonophyton rhyniensis n. gen. et nov. spec., ein Gametophyt aus dem Chert von Rhynie (Unterdevon, Schottland). Argumenta Palaeobotanica 6, 3772.
Rice, CM and Ashcroft, WA (2003) The geology of the northern half of the Rhynie Basin, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 94, 299308.
Rice, CM, Ashcroft, WA, Batten, DJ, Boyce, AJ, Caulfield, JBD, Fallick, AE, Hole, MJ, Jones, E, Pearson, MJ, Rogers, G, Saxton, JM, Stuart, FM, Trewin, NH and Turner, G (1995) A Devonian auriferous hot spring system, Rhynie, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society 152, 229–50.
Rice, CM and Trewin, NH (1988) A Lower Devonian gold-bearing hot spring system, Rhynie, Scotland. Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 97, B141–4.
Rice, CM, Trewin, NH and Anderson, LI (2002) Geological setting of the Early Devonian Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland: an early terrestrial hot spring system. Journal of the Geological Society 159, 203–14.
Richardson, JB (1967) Some British Lower Devonian spore assemblages and their stratigraphic significance. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 1, 111–29.
Rickards, RB (2000) The age of the earliest club mosses: the Silurian Baragwanathia flora in Victoria, Australia. Geological Magazine 137, 207–9.
Rolfe, WDI (1967) Rochdalia, a Carboniferous insect nymph. Palaeontology 10, 307–13.
Rota-Stabelli, O, Daley, AC and Pisani, D (2013) Molecular timetrees reveal a Cambrian colonization of land and a new scenario for ecdysozoan evolution. Current Biology 23, 392–8.
Scott, DH (1923) Studies in Fossil Botany. Volume II: Spermophyta, 3rd ed. London: A & C Black Ltd, 446 pp.
Scott, DH (1924) Extinct Plants and Problems of Evolution. London: Macmillan & Co., 240 pp.
Scourfield, DJ (1926) On a new type of crustacean from the Old Red Sandstone (Rhynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire) – Lepidocaris rhyniensis, gen. et sp. nov. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 214, 153–87.
Scourfield, DJ (1940) The oldest known fossil insect (Rhyniella praecursor Hirst & Maulik) – further details from additional specimens. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 152, 113–31.
Scudder, SH (1876) Fossil Palæozoic insects. Geological Magazine 3, 519–20.
Selden, P (2012) Terrestrialisation (Precambrian-Devonian). In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902. a0001641.pub3.
Selden, PA, Shear, WA and Bonamo, PMP (1991) A spider and other arachnids from the Devonian of New York, and reinterpretations of Devonian Araneae. Palaeontology 34, 241–81.
Smith, A, Braddy, SJ, Marriott, SB and Briggs, DEG (2003) Arthropod trackways from the Early Devonian of South Wales: a functional analysis of producers and their behaviour. Geological Magazine 140, 6372.
Stephenson, D (ed.) (2000) Caledonian Igneous rocks of Great Britain. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 648 pp.
Strachan, RA (2012) The Grampian Orogeny: mid-Ordovician arc-continent collision along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. In Geological History of Britain and Ireland (eds Woodcock, N & Strachan, R), pp. 91109. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Strachan, RA, Smith, M, Harris, AL, Fettes, DJ and Trewin, NH (2003) The Northern Highland and Grampian terranes. In The Geology of Scotland (ed. Trewin, NH), pp. 81147. London and Bath: Geological Society of London.
Strullu-Derrien, C, Goral, T, Longcore, JE, Olesen, J, Kenrick, P and Edgecombe, GD (2016) A new Chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment. PLOS ONE 11, e0167301. doi: 10.1371/journalpone.0167301.
Strullu-Derrien, C, Kenrick, P, Goral, T and Knoll, AH (2019) Testate amoebae in the 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert. Current Biology 29, R93R95.
Strullu-Derrien, C, Kenrick, P, Pressel, S, Duckett, JG, Rioult, J-P and Strullu, D-G (2014) Fungal associations in Horneophyton ligneri from the Rhynie Chert (c. 407 million year old) closely resemble those in extant lower land plants: novel insights into ancestral plant-fungus symbioses. The New Phytologist 203, 964–79.
Strullu-Derrien, C, Spencer, ART, Goral, T, Dee, J, Honegger, R, Kenrick, P, Longcore, JE and Berbee, ML (2018) New insights into the evolutionary history of Fungi from a 407 Ma Blastocladiomycota fossil showing a complex hyphal thallus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160502. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0502.
Strullu-Derrien, C, Wawrzyniak, Z, Goral, T and Kenrick, P (2015) Fungal colonization of the rooting system of the early land plant Asteroxylon mackiei from the 407-Myr-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland, UK). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 179, 201–3.
Taylor, TN, Hass, H and Kerp, H (1997) A cyanolichen from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert. American Journal of Botany 84, 9921004.
Taylor, TN, Klavins, SD, Krings, M, Taylor, EL, Kerp, H and Hass, H (2003) Fungi from the Rhynie chert: a view from the dark side. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 94, 457–73.
Taylor, TN and Krings, M (2015) A colony-forming microorganism with probable affinities to the Chroococcales (cyanobacteria) from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 219, 147–56.
Taylor, TN, Remy, W and Hass, H (1992) Parasitism in a 400-million-year-old green alga. Nature 357, 493–4.
Taylor, TN, Remy, W, Hass, H and Kerp, H (1995a) Fossil arbuscular Mycorrhizae from the Early Devonian. Mycologia 87, 560–73.
Taylor, TN, Remy, W, Hass, H and Kerp, H (1995b) The oldest fossil lichen. Nature 378, 244.
Tillyard, RJ (1928) Some remarks on the Devonian fossil insects from the Rhynie chert beds, Old Red Sandstone. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 76, 6571.
Tosdal, R and Richards, J (2001) Magmatic and structural controls on the development of porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology 14, 157–81.
Trewin, NH (1994) Depositional environment and preservation of biota in the Lower Devonian hot-springs of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 84, 433–42.
Trewin, NH (1996) The Rhynie cherts: an early Devonian ecosystem preserved by hydrothermal activity. Ciba Foundation Symposium 202, 131–45; discussion 145–9.
Trewin, NH, Fayers, SR and Kelman, R (2003) Subaqueous silicification of the contents of small ponds in an Early Devonian hot-spring complex, Rhynie, Scotland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 40, 16971712.
Trewin, NH and Rice, CM (1992) Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Devonian Rhynie chert locality. Scottish Journal of Geology 28, 3747.
Trewin, NH and Rice, CM (2004) The Rhynie Hot-Spring System: Geology, Biota and Mineralisation. Edinburgh: Royal Society of Edinburgh, 246 pp.
Trewin, NH and Wilson, E (2004) Correlation of the Early Devonian Rhynie chert beds between three boreholes at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Scottish Journal of Geology 40, 7381.
Vecoli, M, Clément, G and Meyer-Berthaud, B (eds) (2010) The Terrestrialization Process: Modelling Complex Interactions at the Biosphere–Geosphere Interface. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 339.
Wacey, D, Battison, L, Garwood, RJ, Hickman-Lewis, K and Brasier, MD (2017) Advanced analytical techniques for studying the morphology and chemistry of Proterozoic microfossils. In Earth System Evolution and Early Life: A Celebration of the Work of Martin Brasier (eds Brasier, AT, McIlroy, D and McLoughlin, N), pp. 81104. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 448.
Wang, B, Dunlop, JA, Selden, PA, Garwood, RJ, Shear, WA, Müller, P and Lei, X (2018) Cretaceous arachnid Chimerarachne yingi gen. et sp. nov. illuminates spider origins. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2, 614–22.
Wellman, CH (2004) Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie Chert plants: evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271, 985–92.
Wellman, CH (2006) Spore assemblages from the Lower Devonian ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ deposits of the Rhynie Outlier, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 97, 167211.
Wellman, CH (2018) Palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography of the Rhynie chert plants: further evidence from integrated analysis of in situ and dispersed spores. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20160491. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0491.
Wellman, CH, Thomas, RG, Edwards, D and Kenrick, P (1998) The Cosheston Group (Lower Old Red Sandstone) in southwest Wales: age, correlation and palaeobotanical significance. Geological Magazine 135, 397412.
Whalley, P. and Jarzembowski, EA (1981) A new assessment of Rhyniella, the earliest known insect, from the Devonian of Rhynie, Scotland. Nature 291, 317.
Woodward, H (1868) III. – Contributions to British Fossil Crustacea. Geological Magazine 5, 258–61.
Woodward, H (1870) I. – Contributions to British Fossil Crustacea. Geological Magazine 7, 493–7.
Woodward, H (1871a) II. – On Euphoberia Brownii, H. Woodw., a new species of myriapod from the Coal-measures of the West of Scotland. Geological Magazine 8, 102–4.
Woodward, H (1871b) I. – On the discovery of a new and very perfect arachnide from the ironstone of the Dudley Coal-field. Geological Magazine 8, 383–7.
Woodward, H (1871c) I. – Relics of the Carboniferous and other old land-subfaces. Geological Magazine 8, 492500.
Woodward, H (1872) I. – On a new Arachnide from the Coal-measures of Lancashire. Geological Magazine 9, 385–7.
Woodward, H (1873) V. – On some supposed fossil remains of Arachnida (?) and Myriopoda from the English Coal-Measures. Geological Magazine 10, 104–12.
Woodward, H (1874) I. – On the dawn and development of life on the Earth. Geological Magazine 1, 289300.
Woodward, H (1885) II. – Iguanodon Mantelli, Meyer. Geological Magazine 2, 1015.
Woodward, H (1887a) I. – On some spined myriapods from the Carboniferous series of England. Geological Magazine 4, 110.
Woodward, H (1887b) I. – On the discovery of the larval stage of a cockroach, Etoblattina Peachii, H. Woodw., from the Coal-Measures of Kilmaurs, Ayrshire. Geological Magazine 4, 433–5.
Woodward, H (1887c) I. – Some new British Carboniferous cockroaches. Geological Magazine 24, 4958.
Woodward, H (1906) IV. – A fossil insect from the Coal-measures of Longton, North Staffordshire. Geological Magazine 3, 25–9.
Woodward, H (1913a) III. – The position of the Merostomata. Geological Magazine 10, 293300.
Woodward, H (1913b) IV. – Rochdalia Parkeri, a new branchiopod crustacean from the Middle Coal-Measures of Sparth, Rochdale. Geological Magazine 10, 352–6.
Xu, H-H and Wang, Y (2008) The palaeogeographical significance of specimens attributed to Protolepidodendron scharyanum Krejči (Lycopsida) from the Middle Devonian of North Xinjiang, China. Geological Magazine 145, 295–9.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed