Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A global Chitinozoa biozonation for the Silurian

  • J. Verniers (a1), V. Nestor (a2), F. Paris (a3), P. Dufka (a4), S. Sutherland (a5) and G. Van Grootel (a1)...

Abstract

A global Chitinozoan biozonation for the Silurian Period is proposed. Each biozone is an interval range defined by the first occurrence of an index species, selected from well-defined species with a relatively short biostratigraphic range. To be included in the scheme, index species must have been recorded from at least two major Silurian palaeocontinents where usable Chitinozoa assemblages have been studied, that is, Avalonia—Baltica (which had already undergone collision by the Silurian), Laurentia, Gondwana and Southern China. Seventeen biozones are identified with seven in the Llandovery: the fragilis, postrobusta, electa, maennili, alargada, dolioliformis and longicollis biozones; four in the Wenlock: the margaritana, cingulata, pachycephala and lycoperdoides biozones; three in the Ludlow: the elongata, philipi and barrandei biozones; and three in the Přídolí: the kosovensis, elegans and superba biozones. Chronostratigraphic calibration is partly provided by reference to the range of the appropriate Chitinozoa index species in the global stratotype sections and points (GSSP) of the Silurian series, e.g. in Bohemia (Czech Republic) for the Přídolí and the Welsh Borderland in England for the Ludlow and part of the Wenlock. When this information was not available, independent biostratigraphic control was provided by calibration with graptolite biozones or in a few cases, conodont or trilobite biozonal schemes. The index and most characteristic species of each biozone are illustrated and their total stratigraphie range provided.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Achab, A., 1981. Biostratigraphie par les Chitinozoaires de l’ Ordovicien supérieur—Silurien inférieur de l’ Ile d’ Anticosti, Résultats préliminaires. In Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy, Ordovician-Silurian Boundary Working Group. Field Meeting, Anticosti-Gaspé 1981, Vol. II, Stratigraphy and Paleontology (ed. Lesperance, P. J.), pp. 143–57.
Achab, A., 1989. Ordovician chitinozoan zonation of Quebec and western Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology 63, 1424.
Achab, A., & Asselin, E., 1993. Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian chitinozoan microfaunas in the Chaleurs Group, Eastern Canada. Special Papers in Palaeontology 48, 715.
Al-Ameri, T. K., 1989. Chitinozoa of the Tanezzuft and Acacus Formations, Libya. Iraqi Journal of Sciences 30, 203–42.
Aldridge, R. J., Dorning, K. J., Hill, P. J., Richardson, J. B., & Siveter, D. J., 1979. Microfossil distribution in the Silurian of Britain and Ireland. In The Caledonides of the British Isles reviewed (eds Harris, A. L., Holland, C. H. and Leake, B. E.), pp. 433–8. Geological Society, London, Special Publication no. 8.
Aldridge, R. J., Jeppsson, L., & Dorning, K. J., 1993. Early Silurian oceanic episodes and events. Journal of the Geological Society, London 150, 501–13
Asselin, E., Achab, A., & Bourque, P. A., 1989. Chitinozoaires du Silurien inférieur dans la région de la Baie des Chaleurs en Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 26, 2435–49.
Blaise, J., Bouyx, E., Degardin, J. M., Goujet, D., Le menn, J., & Paris, F., 1990. Données biostratigraphiques nouvelles sur le Silurien de la Zone de Meguma en Nouvelle-Écosse (Appalaches septentrionales, Canada). Comptes rendus de l’ Académie des Sciences de Paris 310, 787–93.
Cramer, F. H., 1967. Chitinozoans of a composite section of Upper Llandoverian to basal Lower Gedinnian sediments in northern Leon, Spain. A preliminary report. Bulletin de la Société Beige de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’ Hydrologie 75, 69129.
Cramer, F. H., 1969. Possible implications for Silurian paleogeography from phytoplankton assemblages of the Rose Hill and Tuscarora Formations of Pennsylvania. Journal of Paleontology 43, 485–91.
Cramer, F. H., 1970. Acritarchs and Chitinozoans from the Silurian Ross Brook Formation, Nova Scotia. Journal of Geology 78, 745–9.
Cramer, F. H., & Diez, M., 1978. Iberian Chitinozoans. 1. Introduction and summary of Pre-Devonian data. Palinologia Num. ext. 1, 149201.
Cramer, F. H., Diez, M., & Cuerda, A. J., 1974. Late Silurian chitinozoans and acritarchs from Cochabamba, Bolivia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1974, 112.
De Bock, F., 1982. Présence de chitinozoaires dans le passage siluro-dévonien de la Montagne Noire sud-orientale (Hérault, France). Géobios 15, 845–71.
Degardin, J. M., & Paris, F., 1978. Présence de Chitinozoaires dans les calcaires siluro-dévoniens de la Sierra Negra (Pyrénées centrales espagnoles). Géobios 11, 769–77.
Deunff, J., Lefort, J. P., & Paris, F., 1971. Le microplancton ludlovien des formations immergées des Minquiers (Manche) et sa place dans la distribution du patéoplancton silurien. Bulletin de la Société Géologique et Minéralogique de Bretagne 3, 928.
Diez, M. D. C. R., & Cramer, F. H., 1978. Iberian chitinozoans. II. Lower Devonian forms (La Vid shales and equivalents). Palinologia Num. ext. 1, 203–17.
Dorning, K. J., 1981. Silurian Chitinozoa from the type Wenlock and Ludlow of Shropshire, England. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 34, 205–8.
Dorning, K. J., 1983. Palynology and stratigraphy of the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation of Dudley, Central England. Mercian Geologist 9, 3140.
Dufka, P., 1992. Lower Silurian Chitinozoans of the Prague Basin (Barrandian, Czechoslovakia). Preliminary results. Revue de Micropaléontologie 35, 117–26.
Dufka, P., & Fatka, O., 1993. Chitinozoans and acritarchs from the Ordovician—Silurian boundary of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic. Special Papers in Palaeontology 48, 1728.
Eisenack, A., 1931. Neue Mikrofossilien des baltischen Silurs. I. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 13, 74118.
Eisenack, A., 1934. Neue Mikrofossilien des baltischen Silurs. III. und Neue Mikrofossilien des böhmischen Silurs. I. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 16, 5276.
Eisenack, A., 1937. Neue Mikrofossilien des baltischen Silurs. IV. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 19, 217–43.
Eisenack, A., 1959. Neotypen baltischer Silur — Chitinozoen und neue Arten. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 114, 291316.
Eisenack, A., 1964. Mikrofossilien aus dem Silur Gotlands. Chitinozoen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 120, 308–42.
Eisenack, A., 1971. Weitere Mikrofossilien aus dem Beyrichienkalk (Silur). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 8, 449–60.
Eisenack, A., 1977. Mikrofossilien in organischer Substanz aus den Middle Nodular Beds (Wenlock) von Dudley, England. Neues Jahrbuch für Ceologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1977 (1), 2535.
Gailite, L. K., Ulst, R. Z., & Jakovleva, V. J., 1987. Silurian stratotypical and typical sections in Latvia (in Russian). Zinatne 112, 1142.
Geng, L., & Cai, X., 1988. Sequences of Llandoverian Chitinozoans in Yangzi region. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27, 249–57.
Geng, L., Grahn, Y., & Qian, Z., 1987. Llandoverian Chitinozoa from Borehole DI-2 AT Daduo, Xinghua, Jiangsu. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 26, 728–36.
Geng, L., & Li, Z. 1984. Chitinozoans from the Yulongsi Formation of Qujing, Yunnan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 1, 100–5.
Grahn, Y., 1982. Chitinozoophoran palaeoecology in the Ordovician of Öland. Sveriges Ceologiska Undersökning, Ser. C 792, 117.
Grahn, Y., 1985. Llandoverian and early Wenlockian Chitinozoa from southern Ohio and northern Kentucky U.S.A. Palynology 9, 147–64.
Grahn, Y., & Paris, F., 1992. Age and correlation of the Trombetas Group, Amazonas Basin, Brazil. Revue de Micropaléontologie 35, 197209.
Grignani, D., 1967. Correlation with Chitinozoa in the Devonian and Silurian in some Tunisian well samples. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 5, 315–25.
Hill, J. P., Paris, F., & Richardson, J. B., 1985. Silurian palynomorphs. In The Palynostratigraphy of northeast Libya (eds Thusu, B. G. and Owens, B.), pp. 2748. Journal of Micropalaeontology 4.
Holland, C. H., & Bassett, M. G., (eds) 1989. A Global Standard for the Silurian System. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales, Geological Series no. 10, 325 pp.
Jaeger, H., 1981. Comments on the graptolite chronology of Gotland. Sveriges Geologiska undersökning Rapporter och meddelander 25, 12.
Jaglin, J. C., & Massa, D., 1985. Biostratigraphie des chitinozoaires du Přídolí de Libye. E.U.G. III Strasbourg, Terra Cognita 5, p. 262.
Jaglin, J. C., & Paris, F. 1992. Exemples de tératologie chez les Chitinozoaires du Přídolí de Libye et implications sur la signification biologique du groupe. Lethaia 25, 151–64.
Jardiné, S., & Yapaudjan, L., 1968. Lithostratigraphie et palynologie du Dévonien—Gothlandien gréseux du bassin de Polignac (Sahara). Revue de l’ Institut Français du Pétrole 13, 439–69.
Jeppsson, L., & Männik, P., 1993. High-resolution correlations between Gotland and Estonia near the base of the Wenlock. Terra Nova 5, 348–58.
Kaljo, D., 1990. The Silurian of Estonia. In Field Meeting Estonia, 1990. An Excursion Guidebook (eds Kaljo, D. and Nestor, H.), pp. 21–6. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Sciences.
Kříž, J., 1992. Silurian Field Excursions: Prague Basin (Barrandian), Bohemia (ed. Bassett, M.G.). Cardiff: National Museum of Wales, Geological Series no. 13, 111 pp.
Kříž, J., Jaeger, H., Paris, F., & Schönlaub, H. P., 1986. Přídolí — the Fourth subdivision of the Silurian system. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 129, 291360.
Kříž, J., Dufka, P., Jaeger, H., & Schönlaub, H. P., 1993. The Wenlock—Ludlow boundary in the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 136, 809–39.
Laufeld, S. 1974. Silurian Chitinozoa from Gotland. Fossils and Strata 5, 1130.
Laufeld, S., Bergström, J., & Warren, P.J., 1975. The boundary between the Silurian Cyrtograptus and Colonus Shales in Skane, southern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar 97, 207–22.
Louwye, S., Van Grootel, G., & Verniers, J. 1992. Stratigraphy of the type locality of the? Late Wenlock/Early Ludlow Mont Godart Formation and the Early Ludlow Ronquières Formation, Brabant Massif, Belgium. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 115, 307–31.
Mabillard, J. E., & Aldridge, R. J., 1985. Microfossils distribution across the base of the Ludlow Series in the type area. Palaeontology 28, 89100.
Magloire, L., 1967. Etude stratigraphique, par la palynologie, des dépôts argilo-gréseux du Silurien et du Dévonien inférieur dans la région du Grand Erg occidental (Sahara algérien). International Symposium on the Devonian system, II, Calgary, pp. 473–91.
Martin, F., 1974. Ordovicien supérieur et Silurien inférieur à Deerlijk (Belgique). Palynofaciès et Microfaciès. Mémoire de l’ Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 174, 171.
Nestor, V., 1980 a. New Chitinozoan species from the Lower Llandoverian of Estonia [in Russian with English translation]. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 29, 98107.
Nestor, V., 1980 b. Middle Llandoverian Chitinozoans from Estonia [in Russian with English translation]. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 29, 136–42.
Nestor, V., 1982. New Wenlockian species of Conochitina from Estonia [in Russian with English translation]. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 31, 105–10.
Nestor, V., 1984. Distribution of Chitinozoans in the Late Llandoverian Rumba Formation (Pentamerus oblongus beds) of Estonia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 43, 145–53.
Nestor, V., 1990. Silurian Chitinozoans. In Field Meeting Estonia, 1990. An Excursion Guidebook (eds Kaljo, D. and Nestor, H.), pp. 80–3. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Sciences.
Nestor, V. 1994. Early Silurian chitinozoans of Estonia and North Latvia. Academia 4, 1163.
Nōlvak, J., & Grahn, Y., 1993. Ordovician chitinozoan zones from Baltoscandia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 79, 245–69.
Obut, A. M., 1973. On the geographical distribution, comparative morphology, ecology, phylogeny and systematical position of the Chitinozoa (in Russian). In Morfologiia i ekologiia vodnykh [Morphology and Ecology of Aquatic Organisms] (eds Betektina, O.A. and Zhuravleva, I. T.), pp. 7284. USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Transactions of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics 169.
Paris, F., 1981. Les Chitinozoaires dans le Paléozoïque du sud-ouest de l' Europe (Cadre géologique—Étude systématique—Biostratigraphie). Mémoires de la Société Géologique et Minéralogique de Bretagne 26, 1412.
Paris, F., 1986. Les Chitinozoaires. In Le Groupe de Liévin, Přídolí—Lochkovien de l’ Artois (N. France) (ed. Racheboeuf, P.), pp. 5561. Biostratigraphie du Paléozoique 3.
Paris, F., 1988. Late Ordovician and Early Silurian Chitinozoans from central and southern Cyrenaica. In Subsurface Palynostratigraphy of Northeast Libya (eds El Arnauti, A., Owens, B. and Thusu, B.), pp. 6171. Benghazi: Garyounis University Publications.
Paris, F., 1989. Chitinozoans. In A Global Standard for the Silurian System (eds Holland, C. H. and Bassett, M. G.), pp. 280–4. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales, Geological Series no. 9.
Paris, F., 1990. The Ordovician chitinozoan biozones of the Northern Gondwana domain. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 66, 181209.
Paris, F., 1995. Chitinozoan biostratigraphy and paleobiology. In Palynology and Stratigraphy (eds Jansonius, J. and McGregor, D. C.), Memoir of the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation (in press).
Paris, F., & Grahn, Y., in press. Chitinozoa of the Silurian-Devonian boundary sections in Podolia, Ukraine. Palaeontology.
Paris, F., & Kříž, J., 1984. Nouvelles espèces de Chitinozoaires à la limite Ludlow—Přídolí en Tchécoslovaquie. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 43, 155–77.
Paris, F., Laufeld, S., & Chlupáč, I. 1981. Chitinozoa of the Silurian—Devonian boundary stratotypes in Bohemia. Sveriges Ceologiska Undersökning Ser. Ca 51, 129.
Paris, F., & Le Hérissé, A., 1992. Palaeozoic in Western Brittany (Outline of the armorican geological history and geological intinerary in the Crozon Peninsula). Cahiers de Micropaléontologie 7, 528.
Paris, F., Verniers, J., Al-Hajri, S., & Al-Tayyar, H., 1995 (in press). Biostratigraphy and palaeogeographic affinities of Early Silurian chitinozoans from Central Saudi Arabia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 89.
Racheboeuf, P., Le Hérissé, A., Paris, F., Babin, C., Guillocheau, F., Truyols-Massoni, M., & Suarezsoruco, R., 1993. Le Dévonien de Bolivie: biostratigraphie et chronostratigraphie. Comptes rendus de l' Académie des Sciences, Paris, II, 317, 795802.
Rauscher, R., & Robardet, M., 1975. Les microfossiles (Acritarches, Chitinozoaires et spores) des couches de passage du Silurien au Dévonien dans le Cotentin (Normandie). Annales de la Société Géologique du Nord 95, 8192.
Richardson, J. B., & Rasul, S. M., 1990. Palynofacies in a Late Silurian regressive sequence in the Welsh Borderland and Wales. Journal of the Geological Society, London 147, 675–86.
Rombouts, L. P., 1982. Factors controlling the distribution of Chitinozoa in the Gleedon chronozone (Wenlockian) of northern Europe. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 105, 259–71.
Schweineberg, J., 1987. Silurische Chitinozoen aus der Provinz Palencia (Kantabrisches Gebirge, N Spaniën). Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Paläontologie 33, 194.
Sutherland, S. J. E., 1994. Ludlow chitinozoans from the type area and adjacent regions. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, London 148, 1104.
Swire, P. H., 1990. New Chitinozoan taxa from the Lower Wenlock (Silurian) of the Welsh Borderlands, England. Micropalaeontology 9, 107–13.
Swire, P.H., 1993. The palynology of the Lower Wenlock of the Wenlock type area, Shropshire. Special Papers in Palaeontology 48, 97109.
Taugourdeau, P., 1963. Étude de quelques espèces critiques de Chitinozoaires de la région d’ Edjeté et compléments à la faune locale. Revue de Micropaléontologie 6, 130–44.
Taugourdeau, P., & de Jekhowsky, B., 1960. Répartition et description des Chitinozoaires siluro-dévoniens de quelques sondages de la C.R.E.P.S., de la C.F.P.A. et de la S.N. Repal au Sahara. Revue de l’ Institut Français du Pétrole 15, 11991260.
The Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy 1995. Left hand column for correlation charts. Silurian Times, a Newsletter of the Silurian Subcommission 3, 78.
Tsegelnjuk, P. D., 1982. Silurian Chitinozoa from Podolia. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 160 pp. (in Russian).
Umnova, N. I., 1976. Structural types of the prosome and operculum in the Chitinozoa and their association with genera and species. Paleontological Journal 4, 393406.
Verniers, J. 1982. The Silurian Chitinozoa of the Mehaigne area (Brabant Massif, Belgium). Professional Paper, Belgium Geological Survey no. 192, 76 pp.
Verniers, J., & Van Grootel, G., 1991. Review of the Silurian in the Brabant Massif, Belgium. In Proceedings of the International Meeting on the Caledonides of the Midlands and the Brabant Massif (eds André, L., Herbosch, A., Vanguestaine, M. and Verniers, J.), pp. 163–93. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 114.
Vllleneuve, M., Diallo, M. C., Keleba, F., Kourouma, S., Paris, F., & Racheboeuf, P. R., 1989. Données patéontologiques nouvelles sur le Paléozoïque du Bassin Bové (Guinée, Afrique de l' Ouest): conséquences stratigraphiques. Comptes rendus de l’ Académie des Sciences de Paris 309, 1583–9.
White, D. E., Barron, H. F., Barnes, R. P., & Lintern, B. C., 1991. Biostratigraphy of late Llandovery (Telychian) and Wenlock turbiditic sequences in the SW Southern Uplands, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 62, 297322.
Wrona, R., 1980. Upper Silurian—Lower Devonian Chitinozoa from the subsurface of southeastern Poland. Palaeontologia Polonica 41, 103–65.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A global Chitinozoa biozonation for the Silurian

  • J. Verniers (a1), V. Nestor (a2), F. Paris (a3), P. Dufka (a4), S. Sutherland (a5) and G. Van Grootel (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.