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I.—Notes on the Pycnodont Fishes

  • Arthur Smith Woodward


The Pycnodonts were the coral fishes of Mesozoic seas, with a deepened body, produced face, and a small mouth having grasping and grinding teeth, capable of obtaining their hard-shelled food from hollows and crannies. They are evidently not to be regarded as closely allied to any of the typical coral fishes of Tertiary and existing seas, which are spiny-finned teleosteans. They are merely Lepidotus-like and Dapedius-like forms with adaptations to a similar mode of life. The study of their skeleton is therefore of great interest.



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page 385 note 1 Woodward, A. S., Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British Museum, pt. iii (1895), pp. 190–8; also On some Remains of the Pycnodont Fish, Mesturus, discovered by Alfred N. Leeds, Esq., in the Oxford Clay of Peterborough”: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [6], vol. xvii (1896), pp. 115, pls. i–iii.

page 385 note 2 Kramberger, D. G., “De Piscibus Fossilibus Comeni, etc.”: Djela Jugoslav. Akad., vol. xvi (1895), pp. 1834, pls. v–vii, fig. 1. Hennig, E., “Gyrodus und die Organisation der Pyknodonten”: Palæontographica, vol. liii (1906), pp. 137208, pls. x–xiii; also Ueber einige Pyknodonten vom Libanon”: Centralbl. für Mineral., 1907, pp. 360–71.

page 386 note 1 Hennig, E., Palæontographica, vol. liii (1906), p. 143, pls. x, xi.

page 387 note 1 Starks, E. C., “The Osteology and Relationships of the Family Zeidæ”: Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxi (1898), p. 471, pl. xxxiii.

page 387 note 2 Dames, W., “Ueber Ancistrodon”: Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges., 1883, pp. 655–70, pl. xix. See also figure by Gaudry, A., Les Enchaînements du Monde Animal.—Fossiles Secondaires (1890), p. 167, fig. 263.

page 388 note 1 Leriche, M., “Un Pycnodontoide aberrant du Sénonien du Hainaut”: Bull. Soc. Belge Géol., vol. xxv (1911), Proc. Verb., pp. 162–8, pl. A.

page 388 note 2 e.g. specimen figured by Woodward, A. S., Fossil Fishes of English Chalk (Mon. Pal. Soc., 1909), pl. xxxv, fig. 8.

page 388 note 3 e.g. specimen figured by Woodward, A. S., Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. x (1888), pl. i, fig. 10.

page 388 note 4 Kramberger, D. G., Djela Jugoslav. Akad., vol. xvi (1895), pp. 21, 31, pls. v, vi.

page 388 note 5 Bassani, F. & D'Erasmo, G., “La Ittiofauna del Calcare Cretacico di Capo d'Orlando presso Castellammare (Napoli)”: Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. [3], vol. xvii (1912), p. 227, fig. 12.

page 388 note 6 Loc. cit., p. 221, fig. 9.

page 388 note 7 Woodward, A. S., Vertebrate Palœontology (1898), p. 105, fig. 74.


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