Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Interpretation of data from the monitoring thermal camera of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

  • V. ZANON (a1), M. NERI (a2) and E. PECORA (a2)

Twenty eruptive events from the Northeast Crater of Stromboli volcano recorded by a thermal monitoring camera in early 2004 were analysed in order to understand the eruptive dynamics. Selected events were chosen to be typical of explosions that characterize the steady activity of Stromboli in terms of jet height and duration. Most of the explosions consisted of clast-rich single bursts, originating from the same vent inside the Northeast Crater. Conspicuous ash emission was scarce. Eruptions were preceded by the flashing of a perturbation wave characterized by low temperatures and an average propagation velocity of about 35–100 m s−1. This perturbation was thought to be caused by the bursting of the gas slug at the bottom of the crater and is interpreted as an air wave. This was immediately followed by the expansion of a jet of ‘hot’ gas and particles, at a velocity of 35–75 m s−1. Ejecta coarser than 138 cm appeared ~1.6–2 s after the onset of the explosion, moving at a variable velocity (30–60 m s−1). Eruptive events were either vertical or inclined 7–13° towards the NNW. This inclination is thought to be a consequence either of the morphology of the conduit, following modest rock falls that partially obstructed the uppermost part of the crater, or of the displacement of the internal conduit due to the explosive activity of the volcano. The instability of the summit area is a further possible cause of the deformation of the conduit.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence:
Hide All
Acocella V., Neri M. & Scarlato P. 2006. Understanding shallow magma emplacement at volcanoes: Orthogonal feeder dykes during the 2002–2003 Stromboli (Italy) eruption. Geophysical Research Letters 33 (17), L17310, doi:10.1029/2006GL026862.
Apuani T., Corazzato C., Cancelli A. & Tibaldi A. 2005. Stability of a collapsing volcano (Stromboli, Italy): Limit equilibrium analysis and numerical modelling. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 144, 191210.
Arrighi S., Rosi M., Tanguy J. C. & Courtillot V. 2004. Recent eruptive history of Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) determined from high-accuracy archeomagnetic dating. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (L19603), doi:10.1029/2004GL020627.
Ballestracci R. 1982. Self-potential survey near the craters of Stromboli volcano (Italy). Inference for internal structure and eruption mechanism. Bulletin of Volcanology 45 (4), 349–65.
Blackburn E. A., Wilson L. & Sparks R. S. J. 1976. Mechanisms and dynamics of strombolian activity. Journal of the Geological Society, London 132, 429–40.
Bonaccorso A., Calvari S., Garfì G., Lodato L. & Patane D. 2003. Dynamics of the December 2003 flank failure and tsunami at Stromboli volcano inferred by volcanological and geophysical observations. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (18), 1941–4.
Braun T. & Ripepe M. 1993. Interaction of seismic and air waves recorded on Stromboli Volcano. Geophysical Research Letters 20 (1), 65–8.
Buongiorno M. F., Realmuto V. J. & Doumaz F. 2002. Recovery of spectral emissivity from thermal infrared multispectral scanner imagery acquired over a mountainous terrain: A case study from Mount Etna Sicily. Remote Sensing of Environment 79, 123–33.
Burton M. R., Allard P., Murè F. & La Spina A. 2007. Magmatic gas composition reveals the source depth of slug-driven Strombolian explosive activity. Science 317, 227–30.
Calvari S. & Pinkerton H. 2004. Birth, growth and morphologic evolution of the ‘Laghetto’ cinder cone during the 2001 Etna eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 132 (2–3), 225–39.
Calvari S., Spampinato L., Lodato L., Harris A. J. L., Patrick M. R., Dehn J., Burton M. R. & Andronico D. 2005. Chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002–2003 flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, B02201, doi:10.1029/2004JB003129.
Chouet B., Dawson P., Ohminato T., Martini M., Saccorotti G., Giudicepietro F., De Luca G., Milana G. & Scarpa R. 2003. Source mechanisms of explosions at Stromboli volcano, Italy, determined from moment-tensor inversions of very-long-period data. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B1), 2019, doi:10.1029/2002JB001919.
Chouet B., Hamisevicz N. & McGetchin T. R. 1974. Photoballistics of volcanic jet activity at Stromboli, Italy. Journal of Geophysical Research 79, 4961–76.
Chouet B., Saccorotti G., Marini M., Dawson P., De Luca G., Milana G., Cattaneo M. & Scarpa R. 1999. Source and path effects in the wave fields of tremor and explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy. Geophysical Research Letters 29, 1937–40.
Falsaperla S., Maiolino V., Spampinato S., Jaquet O. & Neri M. 2008. Sliding episodes during the 2002–2003 Stromboli lava effusion: insights from seismic, volcanic, and statistical data analysis. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, Q04022, doi:10.1029/2007GC001859.
Falsaperla S., Neri M., Pecora E. & Spampinato S. 2006. Multidisciplinary study of flank instability phenomena at Stromboli volcano, Italy. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L09304, doi:10.1029/2006GL025940.
Firstov P. P. & Kravchenko N. M. 1996. Estimation of the amount of explosive gas released in volcanic eruptions using air waves. Vulkanologiya i Seismologiya 17, 547–60.
Francalanci L., Tommasini S. & Conticelli S. 2004. The volcanic activity of Stromboli in the 1906–1998 AD period: mineralogical, geochemical and isotope data relevant to the understanding of the plumbing system. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 131 (1–2), 179211.
Gillot P. Y. & Keller J. 1993. Radiochronological dating of Stromboli. Acta Vulcanologica 3, 6977.
Harris A. J. L. & Ripepe M. 2007. Synergy of multiple geophysical approaches to unravel explosive eruption conduit and source dynamics – A case study from Stromboli. Chemie der Erde 67, 135.
Hort M. & Seyfried R. 1998. Volcanic eruption velocities measured with a micro radar. Geophysical Research Letters 25 (1), 113–16.
Hort M., Seyfried R. & Voge M. 2003. Radar Doppler velocimetry of volcanic eruptions: theoretical considerations and quantitative documentation of changes in eruptive behavior at Stromboli volcano, Italy. Geophysical Journal International 154, 515–32.
Jaupart C. & Vergniolle S. 1989. The generation and collapse of a foam layer at the roof of a basaltic magma chamber. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 203, 347–80.
Johnson J. B. 2002. Generation and propagation of infrasonic airwaves from volcanic explosions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 121, 114.
Johnson J. B., Aster R. C. & Kyle P. R. 2004. Volcanic eruptions observed with infrasound. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (L14604), doi:10.1029/2004GL020020.
Johnson J. B. & Lees J. M. 2000. Plugs and chugs – seismic and acoustic observations of degassing explosions at Karymsky, Russia and Sangay, Ecuador. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 101 (1–2), 6782.
Livshits L. D. & Bolkhovitinov L. G. 1977. Weak shock waves in the eruption column. Nature 267, 420–1.
McGreger A. D. & Lees J. M. 2004. Vent discrimination at Stromboli Volcano, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137, 169–85.
Nairn I. A. 1976. Atmospheric shock waves and condensation clouds from Ngauruhoe explosion eruption. Nature 259, 190–2.
Neri M., Lanzafame G. & Acocella V. 2008. Dike emplacement and related hazard in volcanoes with sector collapse: the 2007 Stromboli eruption. Journal of the Geological Society, London 165, 883–6.
Pasquarè G., Francalanci L., Garduño V. H. & Tibaldi A. 1993. Structure and geological evolution of the Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. Acta Vulcanologica 3, 7989.
Patrick M. R. 2007. Dynamics of Strombolian ash plumes from thermal video: motion, morphology, and air entrainment. Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (B06202), doi:10.1029/2006JB004387.
Patrick M. R., Harris A. J. L., Ripepe M., Dehn J., Rothery D. A. & Calvari S. 2007. Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) video. Bulletin of Volcanology 69 (7), 769–84.
Perret A. F. 1912. The flashing arcs: A volcanic phenomenon. American Journal of Science 4, 329–33.
Ripepe M. 1996. Evidence for gas influence on volcanic seismic signals recorded at Stromboli. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 70 (3–4), 221–33.
Ripepe M., Ciliberto S. & Della Schiava M. 2001. Time constraint for modelling source dynamics of volcanic explosions at Stromboli. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 8713–27.
Ripepe M. & Gordeev E. 1999. Gas bubble dynamics model for shallow volcanic tremor at Stromboli. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (B5), 10639–54.
Ripepe M., Marchetti E., Ulivieri G., Harris A. J. L., Dehn J., Burton M., Caltabiano T. & Salerno G. 2005. Effusive to explosive transition during the 2003 eruption of Stromboli volcano. Geology 33 (5), 341–4.
Ripepe M., Rossi M. & Saccorotti G. 1993. Image processing of explosive activity at Stromboli. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 54 (3–4), 335–51.
Rosi M., Bertagnini A. & Landi P. 2000. Onset of the persistent activity at Stromboli Volcano (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology 62, 294300.
Rowe C. A., Aster R. C., Kyle P. R., Dibble R. R. & Schlue J. W. 2000. Seismic and acoustic observations at Mount Erebus Volcano, Ross Island, Antarctica, 1994–1998. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 101, 105–28.
Sawyer G. M. & Burton M. R. 2006. Effects of a volcanic plume on thermal imaging data. Geophysical Research Letters 33 (14), doi:10.1029/2005GL025320.
Tibaldi A. 2001. Multiple sector collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy: How they work. Bulletin of Volcanology 63 (2–3), 112–25.
Tibaldi A. 2003. Influence of cone morphology on dykes, Stromboli, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 126, 7995.
Vaggelli G., Francalanci L., Ruggieri G. & Testi S. 2003. Persistent polybaric rests of calc-alkaline magmas at Stromboli volcano, Italy: pressure data from fluid inclusions in restitic quartzite nodules. Bulletin of Volcanology 65 (6), 385404.
Vergniolle S. & Brandeis G. 1994. Origin of the sound generated by Strombolian explosions. Geophysical Research Letters 21 (18), 1959–62.
Vergniolle S. & Brandeis G. 1996. Strombolian explosions, 1, A large bubble breaking at the surface of a lava column as a source of sound. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (B9), 20433–48.
Vergniolle S., Brandeis G. & Mareschal J. C. 1996. Strombolian explosions, 2, Eruption dynamics determined from acoustic measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (B9), 20449–66.
Weill A., Brandeis G., Vergniolle S., Baudin F., Bilbille J., Févre J. F., Piron B. & Hill X. 1992. Acoustic sounder measurements of the vertical velocity of volcanic jets at Stromboli volcano. Geophysical Research Letters 19 (23), 2357–60.
Yokoo A., Ichihara M. & Taniguchi H. 2004. Flashing arc on Izu–Oshima 1986 eruption. Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan 49, 299304.
Yokoo A. & Taniguchi H. 2004. Application of video image processing to detect volcanic pressure waves: A case study on archived images of Aso Volcano, Japan. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (23), L23604.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 73 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.