Skip to main content
×
Home

A three-dimensionally preserved aglaspidid euarthropod with a calcitic cuticle from the Ordovician of China

  • DEREK J. SIVETER (a1) (a2), RICHARD A. FORTEY (a3), XUEJIAN ZHU (a4) and ZHIYI ZHOU (a4)
Abstract
Abstract

Aglaspidid euarthropods are usually preserved as flattened carapaces. We here describe a new species and genus, Gogglops ensifer, from the Ordovician Shaanxi Province, China, which shows the best three-dimensional (3D) preservation yet discovered. We show that the cuticle was originally composed of calcium carbonate, except for the visual surfaces of the eyes which were probably originally organic but have been selectively phosphatized. A review is given of the problems pertaining to the original nature of the aglaspidid cuticle. Gogglops is probably closely related to certain poorly known aglaspidid genera from Ordovician deposits of the Siberian Platform. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new genus is closely related to Aglaspis itself, and securely nested within the clade Aglaspidida.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: derek.siveter@oum.ox.ac.uk
References
Hide All
An T.-X., Zhang A.-T. & Xu J.-M. 1985. Ordovician conodonts from Yaoxian and Fuping, Shaanxi and their stratigraphic significance. Acta Geologica Sinica 59, 92108 (in Chinese with English abstract).
An T.-X. & Zheng Z.-C. 1990. The Conodonts of the Marginal Areas around the Ordos Basin, North China. Beijing: Science Press, 201 pp. (in Chinese with English abstract).
Andreeva O. N. 1957. New discoveries of arthropods from eastern Siberia. Ežegodnik Vsesoûznogo Paleontologičeskogo Obŝestva 16, 80–6.
Bengtson S. & Conway Morris S. 1992. Early radiation of biomineralizing phyla. In Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa (eds Lipps J. H. & Signor P. W.), pp. 447–80. Springer, New York, Topics in Geobiology no. 10.
Bockelie T. G., Bruton D. L. & Fortey R. A. 1976. Research of the Ordovician rocks of North Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinstitutt Årbok (for 1975), 214–7.
Bockelie T. G. & Fortey R. A. 1976. An early Ordovician vertebrate. Nature 260, 36–8.
Briggs D. E. G., Bruton D. L. & Whittington H. B. 1979. Appendages of the arthropod Aglaspis spinifer (Upper Cambrian, Wisconsin) and their significance. Palaeontology 22, 167–80.
Briggs D. E. G. & Fortey R. A. 1982. The cuticle of the aglaspidid arthropods, a red herring in the early history of the vertebrates. Lethaia 15, 25–9.
Briggs D. E. G. & Kear A. J. 1993. Fossilization of soft tissue in the laboratory. Science 259, 1439–42.
Briggs D. E. G., Kear A. J., Martill D. M. & Wilby P. R. 1993. Phosphatization of soft-tissue in experiments and fossils. Journal of the Geological Society of London 150, 1035–8.
Černyšev B. I. 1945. On Obrutschweia Tschern. and other Arthropoda [sic] from the Angara River (Siberia). Ežhegodnik Vsesoûznogo Paleontologičeskogo Obŝestva 12, 60–8.
Černyšev B. I. 1953. Novye členistonogie s reki Angary. Ežhegodnik Vsesouznogo Paleontologičeskogo Obŝestva 14, 106–22.
Chen J.-Y., Zhou Z.-Y., Lin Y.-K., Yang X.-C., Zou X.-P., Wang Z.-H., Luo K.-Q., Yao B.-Q. & Shen H. 1984. Ordovician biostratigraphy of western Ordos. Memoirs of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica 20, 131 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Chen J.-Y. & Zou X.-P. 1984. Ordovician cephalopods from the Ordos area. Memoirs of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica 20, 33112 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Cisne J. 1981. Triarthrus eatoni (Trilobita): anatomy of its exoskeletal, skeletomuscular, and digestive systems. Paleontographica Americana 9, 96142.
Clarkson E. N. K., Levi-Setti R. & Horvath G. 2006. The eyes of trilobites: the oldest preserved visual system. Arthropod Structure and Development 35, 247–59.
Cocks L. R. M., Fortey R. A. & Rushton A.W. A. 2010. Correlation for the Lower Palaeozoic. Geological Magazine 147, 171–80.
Cooper R. A. 1999. The Ordovician time scale-calibration of graptolite and conocont zones. Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica 43, 14.
Dalingwater J. E., Hutchinson S. J., Mutvei H. & Siveter D. J. 1991. Cuticular ultrastructure of the trilobite Ellipsocephalus polytomus from the Middle Cambrian of Öland, Sweden. Palaeontology 34, 205–17.
Dalingwater J. E., Hutchinson S. J., Mutvei H. & Siveter D. J. 1993. Cuticular ultrastructure of some Silurian calymenid trilobites from the Welsh Borderland and Gotland. Palaeontographica A 229, 3749.
Feng Z.-Z., Chen J.-X. & Zhang J.-S. 1991. Lithofacies Paleogeography of Ordos. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 190 pp. (in Chinese with English summary).
Fortey R. A. 1975. Early Ordovician trilobite communities. Fossils and Strata 4, 339–60.
Fortey R. A. 1980. Generic longevity in Lower Ordovician trilobites: relation to environment. Palaeobiology 6, 2431.
Fortey R. A., Harper D. A. T., Ingham J. K., Owen A. W. & Rushton A. W. A. 1995. A revision of Ordovician series and stages from the historical type area. Geological Magazine 132, 1530.
Fortey R. A., Harper D. A. T., Ingham J. K., Owen A. W., Parkes M. A., Rushton A. W. A. & Woodcock N. H. 2000. A revised correlation of Ordovician rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society of London, Special Report no. 24, 83 pp.
Fortey R. A. & Rushton A. W. A. 2003. A new aglaspidid arthropod from the Lower Ordovician of Wales. Palaeontology 46, 1031–8.
Fortey R. A. & Theron J. N. 1995. A new Ordovician arthropod, Soosmaspis and the agnostid problem. Palaeontology 37, 841–61.
Fröhlich F., Mayrat A., Riou B. & Secretan S. 1992. Structures rétiniennes phosphatisées dans l’œil géant de Dollocaris, un crustacé fossil. Annales de Paléontologie (Vert.-Invert.) 78, 193204.
Hall J. 1862. On a new crustacean from the Potsdam Sandstone. Canadian Naturalist 7, 443–5.
Hesselbo S. P. 1992. Aglaspidida (Arthropoda) from the Upper Cambrian of Wisconsin. Journal of Paleontology 66, 885923.
Hou X.-G. & Bergström J. 1997. Arthropods of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, southwest China. Fossils and Strata 45, 1116.
Klug C., Schultz H. & De Baets K. 2009. Red Devonian trilobites with green eyes from Morocco and the silicification of the trilobite exoskeleton. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54, 117–23.
Lerosey-Aubril R., Ortega-Hernández J., Kier C. & Bonino E. 2013. Occurrence of the Ordovician-type aglaspidid Tremaglaspis in the Cambrian Weeks Formation (Utah, USA). Geological Magazine 150, 945–51.
Lerosey-Aubril R., Ortega-Hernández J. & Zhu X.-J. 2013. The first aglaspidid sensu stricto from the Cambrian of china (Sandu Formation, Guangxi). Geological Magazine 150 (3), 565–71.
Lerosey-Aubril R., Paterson J. R., Gibb S. & Chatterton B. D. E. 2017. Exceptionally-preserved late Cambrian fossils from the McKay Group (British Columbia, Canada) and the evolution of tagmosis in aglaspidid arthropods. Gondwana Research 42, 264–79.
Lin J.-P., Ivantsov A. Y. & Briggs D. E. G. 2011. The cuticle of the enigmatic arthropod Phytophilaspis and biomineralization in Cambrian arthropods. Lethaia 44, 344–9.
Miller S.A. 1877. The American Paleozoic fossils. Cincinnati, OH. The author, 334 pp.
Muller K. J. & Walossek D. 1987. Morphology, Ontogeny and Life Habit of Agnostus pisiformis from the Upper Cambrian of Sweden. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo University, Oslo, Fossils and Strata 24, 124 pp.
Novozilov N. 1962. Klass Merostomata. Mečehvosty. In Osnovy Paleontologii. Spravočnik diȃ la Paleontologov i Geologov SSSR. Členistonogie, Trahejiye i Helitserovye (ed. Rodendorf B. B.), pp. 386401. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR.
Obruchev S. 1932. The Tungus coal Basin (southern and western parts). Volume 1. Geological Sketch. Transactions of the United Geological Prospecting Service of the USSR, Fascicle 164, 237 pp.
Ortega-Hernández J. 2016. Making sense of ‘lower’ and ‘upper’ stem-group Euarthropoda, with comments on the strict use of the name Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 91 (1), 255–73.
Ortega-Hernández J., Braddy S. J., Jago J. B. & Baillie P. W. 2010. A new aglaspidid arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of Tasmania. Palaeontology 53, 1065–76.
Ortega-Hernández J., Legg D. A. & Braddy S. J. 2013. The phylogeny of aglaspidid arthropods and the internal relationships within Artiopoda. Cladistics 29, 1545, doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00413.
Ortega-Hernández J., Van Roy P. & Lerosey-Aubril R. 2016. A new aglaspidid euarthropod with a six-segmented trunk from the Lower Ordovician Fezouata Konservat-Lagerstätte, Morocco. Geological Magazine 153, 524–36.
Owens R. M. 1973. British Ordovician and Silurian Proetidae (Trilobita). Palaeontographical Society, Monograph, 98 pp.
Peel J. S. 1979. Anatolepis from the Early Ordovician of East Greenland – not a fishy tail. Rapport Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse 91, 111–15.
Peel J. S. & Higgins A. C. 1977. Anatolepis – a problematic Ordovician vertebrate re-interpreted as an arthropod. Rapport Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse 85, 108–9.
Raasch G. O. 1939. Cambrian Merostomata. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 16, 146 pp.
Rak Š., Bergström J., Fatka O. & Budil P. 2009. The Upper Ordovician arthropod Zonozoe drabowiensis Barrande (Libeň and Letná formations, Sandbian, Barrandian area, Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 84, 184–8.
Repina L. N. & Okuneva O. G. 1969. Cambrian arthropods of the maritime territory. Paleontological Journal 3, 95103.
Rozov S. N. 2009. New Ordovician Aglaspidiodes arthropods from the Siberian Platform. In New Data on the Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Lower Palaeozoic of Siberia (eds Varlamov A. I., Rozova A. V., Rozov S. N. & Efimov A.S.), pp. 6289. Siberian Scientific Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Materials. Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk.
Schmidt F. T. 1886. A survey of fossils found in the Vilyui Territory. In Vilyui District of the Yakutsk Region (Maak, R., Viliuiskii okrug Iakutskoi obl.) (ed. Maak R.), c. 2, pp. 355–66. A. Transhei, St Petersburg.
Shirley J. 1936. Some British trilobites of the family Calymenidae. Quarterly Journal of The Geological Society of London 92, 384421.
Siveter D. J. 1996. Calymenid trilobites from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Britain: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 86, 257–85.
Smith M. P., Sansom I. J. & Repetski J. E. 1996. Histology of the first fish. Nature 380, 702–4.
Torsvik T. H. & Cocks R. M. 2013. New global palaeogeographical reconstructions for the Early Palaeozoic and their generation. In Early Palaeozoic Biogeography and Palaeogeography (eds Harper D. A. T. & Servais T.), 524. Geological Society, London, Memoir no. 38.
Van Roy P. 2006. A new aglaspidid arthropod from the Upper Ordovician of Morocco with remarks on the affinities and limitations of Aglaspidida. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 96, 327–50.
Waggoner B. 2003. Non-trilobite arthropods from the Silver Peak Range, Nevada. Journal of Paleontology 77, 706–20.
Walcott C. D. 1912. Cambrian geology and paleontology II. Middle Cambrian Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, Trilobita and Merostomata. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 57, 145229.
Wang Z.-H., Bergström S. M. & Lane H. R. 1996. Conodont provinces and biostratigraphy in Ordovician of China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 35, 159.
Wang Z.-H. & Luo K.-Q. 1984. Late Cambrian and Ordovician conodonts from the marginal areas of the Ordos Platform, China. Bulletin of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica 8, 237316 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Westermann G. E. G. 1973. Strength of concave septa and depth limits of fossil cephalopods. Lethaia 6, 383403.
Ye J.-A., Yang Y.-Y., Xu A.-D., Zheng B.-Y., Zuo Z.-F., Song G.-C. & Li J.-S. 1996. Middle Ordovician reefs in the region north of the Weihe River, Shaanxi Province. In The Ancient Organic Reefs of China and their Relation to Oil and Gas (ed. Fan J.-S.), pp. 3947. Beijing: Oceanographic Publishing House (in Chinese).
Zhang Y.-B. 1998. Latest Llanvirn-middle Caradoc faunal differentiation of nautiloids, North China Block. Palaeoworld 10, 40.
Zhen Y.-Y., Wang Z.-H., Zhang Y.-D., Bergström S. M., Percival L. G. & Cheng J.-F. 2011. Middle to Late Ordovician (Darriwillian-Sandbian) conodonts from the Dawangou Section, Kalpin Area of the Tarim Basin, northwestern China. Records of the Australian Museum 63, 203–66.
Zhou Z.-Y., Ni Y.-N., Lin H.-L., Zhou Z.-Q. & Yu F. 1996. Palaeogeographic development during the Ordovician. In Phanerozoic Geology of Northwest China (eds Zhou Z.-Y. & Dean W. T.), pp. 7182. Beijing: Science Press.
Zhou Z.-Y., Zhou Z.-Q. & Zhang J.-L. 1989. Ordovician trilobite biofacies of North China Platform and its western marginal area. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 28, 296313 (in Chinese with English summary).
Zhu X.-J., Peng S.-C., Zamora S., Lefebre B. & Chen G.-Y. 2016. Furongian (upper Cambrian) Guole Konservat-Lagerstätte from South China. Acta Geologica Sinica 90, 30–7.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Siveter supplementary material S4
Siveter supplementary material

 Unknown (6 KB)
6 KB
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Siveter supplementary material S3
Siveter supplementary material

 Word (212 KB)
212 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Siveter supplementary material S2
Supplementary Figure

 Unknown (3.7 MB)
3.7 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Siveter supplementary material S1
Supplementary Figure

 Unknown (3.2 MB)
3.2 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 35 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 196 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th April 2017 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.