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Comparative, global and transnational constitutionalism: The emergence of a transnational legal-pluralist order


Comparative lawyers have for more than a century sought to increase the understanding of ‘foreign’ legal orders and regulatory systems. Despite some never fully resolved methodological questions, great advances have been made in the comparative study of different regulatory areas both in ‘private’ (contract, tort, corporate, labour) and ‘public’ law (administrative law, environmental law). Comparative constitutional law [CCL] has emerged as a field with particular significance. Born in the context of a politically extremely divided world after the Second World War, CCL has undergone tremendous change in an economically fast-integrating world since the late 1980s. The distinction between ‘liberal’ and ‘socialist’ constitutional orders that characterized early monographical treatments of the subjects has since given way to a very incoherent landscape of varieties of constitutionalism, with enormous consequences for the task of comparative constitutional law. Rather than being able to set side-by-side distinct doctrinal instruments or legal principles that can be associated with a particular constitutional system, the emerging transnational legal-pluralist order demands a methodologically radically opened and methodologically interdisciplinary approach to capture the dynamics of constitutionalization, which characterize today’s processes of public-private norm creation and diffusion.

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2 Zweigert Konrad and Kötz Hein, An Introduction to Comparative Law (3rdedn, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998).

3 Berman Harold J, ‘World Law’ (1995) 18 Fordham International Law Journal 1617–22.

4 Kahn-Freund Otto, ‘On Use and Misuse of Comparative Law’ (1974) 37 Modern Law Review 1–27; Hill Jonathan, ‘Comparative Law, Law Reform and Legal Theory’ (1989) 9 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 101–15; Frankenberg, note 1.

5 But, see the sobering notes by Michaels Ralf, ‘Im Westen nichts Neues?’ (2003) 66 RabelsZ 97–115.

6 See the contributions to the 10th Anniversary German Law Journal Symposium on ‘The Transnationalization of Legal Cultures’, June–July 2009, 1291–1416, available at <>.

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8 Stuckey Roy T, ‘Preparing Students to Practice Law: A Global Problem in Need of Global Solutions’ (2002) 43 South Texas Law Review 649.

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10 See e.g. ‘Washington and Lee School of Law Announces Dramatic Third Year Reform’, 10 March 2008, available at <>.

11 Carl Kester W, ‘Governance, Contracting, and Investment Horizons: A Look at Japan and Germany’, in Chew Donald (ed) Studies in International Corporate Finance and Governance Systems. A Comparison of the U.S., Japan and Europe (OUP, Oxford, 1997).

12 Scott Craig M, ‘Introduction to “Torture as Tort”: From Sudan to Canada to Somalia’, in Scott Craig M (ed) Torture as Tort (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2001).

13 Brunnée Jutta, ‘Of Sense and Sensibility: Reflections on International Liability Regimes as Tools for Environmental Protection’, (2004) 53 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 351–67.

14 Hopt Klaus Jürgen, ‘Comparative Company Law’, in Reimann M and Zimmermann R (eds) Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law (OUP, Oxford, 2006); Zumbansen Peer, ‘Neither “Public” nor “Private”, “National” nor “International”: Transnational Corporate Governance from a Legal Pluralist Perspective’, (2011) 38 Journal of Law and Society 50–75.

15 Wiener Antje, ‘Contested Meanings of Norms: A Research Framework’ (2007) 5 Comparative European Politics 1–17, 2: ‘…under conditions of transnationalization the regulatory practices of modern constitutionalism are increasingly moved out of the social contexts of their modern i.e. Hegelian conception. Subsequently, interpretation of the principles and norms of governance depends increasingly on cultural practices.’

16 For the examples of transnational contract and corporate law, see Calliess Gralf-Peter and Zumbansen Peer, Rough Consensus and Running Code: A Theory of Transnational Private Law (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2010) ch. 3, ch. 4.

17 Antje Wiener ‘Global Constitutionalism: Mapping an Emerging Field’ (2011), Paper prepared for the Conference Constitutionalism in a New Key? Cosmopolitan, Pluralist and Public Reason-Oriented, Berlin, Wissenschaftszentrum and Humboldt University, 28–29 January 2011, available at <> at 2.

18 Fassbender Bardo, ‘The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community’ (1998) 36 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 529–619; Walter Christian, ‘Constitutionalizing (Inter)national Governance – Possibilities and Limits to the Development of an International Constitutional Law’ (2001) 44 German Yearbook of International Law 170–201.

19 Peters Anne, ‘The Merits of Global Constitutionalism’ (2009) 16 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 397–411; Dunoff Jeffrey L and Trachtman Joel P, ‘A Functional Approach to Global Constitutionalism’, in Dunoff Jeffrey L and Trachtman Joel P (eds) Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law and Global Governance (CUP, Cambridge, 2009); see also, for a differentiated position, which seeks to mediate between the structures and potentialities of national and international constitutionalism: Kumm Mattias, ‘The Legitimacy of International Law: A Constitutionalist Framework of Analysis’ (2004) 15 Eur J Int’l L 907–31.

20 Tsagourias Nicholas (ed) Transnational Constitutionalism: International and European Models (CUP, Cambridge, 2007).

21 Held David, ‘Cosmopolitanism’ in Zalta EN (ed) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (rev. 28 November 2006) available at <>; Archibugi Daniele, ‘Cosmopolitan Democracy and Its Critics: A Review’ (2004) 10 European Journal of International Relations 437–73.

22 See Tully James, ‘The Unfreedom of the Moderns in Comparison to Their Ideals of Constitutional Democracy’ (2002) 65 Modern Law Review 204–28; Cohen Jean L, ‘A Global State of Emergency or the Further Constitutionalization of International Law: A Pluralist Approach’ (2008) 15 Constellations 456–84; and Krisch Nico, Beyond Constitutionalism. The Pluralist Structure of Post-national Law (Oxford, Oxford University, 2010).

23 Kingsbury Benedict, Krisch Nico and Stewart RichardThe Emergence of Global Administrative Law’ (2005) 68 Law & Contemporary Problems 15–61; for alternative and challenging views, see e.g. Harlow Carol, ‘Global Administrative Law: The Quest for Principles and Values’, (2006) 17 Eur J Int’l L 187–214, Chimni BSCo-option and Resistance: Two Faces of Global Administrative Law’ (2005) 37 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 799–827, and Marks SusanNaming Global Administrative Law’ (2005) 37 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 995–1001. For an alternative project addressing the ‘public’ nature of global governance through legal institutions, see von Bogdandy Armin, Dann Philipp and Goldmann MatthiasDeveloping the Publicness of Public International Law’ (2008) 9 German Law Journal 1375–1400, and the ensuing contributions to the symposium, id.

24 Kingsbury BenedictThe Concept of “Law” in Global Administrative Law’ (2009) 20 Eur J Int’l L 23–57.

25 Zürn MichaelGlobalization and global governance: from societal to political denationalization’ (2003) 11 European Review 341–64.

26 Held David: ‘Reframing Global Governance: Apocalypse Soon or Reform!’ in Held David and McGrew Anthony (eds) Globalization Theory. Approaches and Controversies (Polity Press, Cambridge, 2007); Koenig-Archibugi Mathias ‘Global Governance’ in Michie Jonathan (ed) The Handbook of Globalisation (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2003); Kennedy DavidChallenging Expert Rule: The Politics of Global Governance’ (2005) 27 Sydney Law Review 1–24.

27 Schwöbel Christine EJOrganic Global Constitutionalism’ (2010) 23 Leiden Journal of International Law 529–53.

28 Cappelletti Mauro and Cohen William, Comparative Constitutional Law (Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1979); Basu Durga Das, Comparative Constitutional Law (Prentice Hall of India, 1984); Jackson Vicki C and Tushnet Mark, Comparative Constitutional Law (2ndedn, Foundation Press, New York, 2006); Dorsen Norman, Rosenfeld Michel, Sajó András and Baer Susanne, Comparative Constitutionalism. Cases and Materials (2ndedn, West Publishing, St. Paul, 2010) 36ff.

29 Choudhry Sujit (ed), The Migration of Constitutional Ideas (CUP, Cambridge, 2006).

30 Slaughter Anne-Marie, ‘Judicial Globalization’ (2000) 40 Virginia Journal of International Law 1103–24.

31 La Forest Gérard V., ‘The Expanding Role of the Supreme Court of Canada in International Law Issues’ (1996) 34 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 89; Arbour Louise and Lafontaine FannieBeyond Self-Congratulation: The Charter at 25 in an International Perspective’ (2007) 45 Osgoode Hall Law Journal 239–75.

32 But see: Choudhry Sujit, ‘Globalization in Search of Justification: Toward a Theory of Comparative Constitutional Interpretation’, (1999) Indiana Law Journal 819–92, 941: ‘A court’s choice of interpretive methodology will affect more than the outcome the particular case before it. It will also likely affect the broader constitutional culture of the interpreting court’s jurisdiction.’

33 Otto Kahn-Freund, Comparative Law as an Academic Subject. Inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 12 May 1965 (1965); Kahn-Freund Otto, ‘On Use and Misuse of Comparative Law’, (1974) 37 Modern Law Review 1–27; Legrand Pierre, Le droit comparé (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1999); Miller Russell, ‘Introduction’ in Bazyler Michael, Miller Russell, Yu Peter and An-Na’im Abdullahi (eds) Global Legal Traditions: Comparative Law in the Twenty-First Century (LexisNexis, forthcoming 2012).

34 Williams Susan H ‘Introduction: Comparative Constitutional Law, Gender Equality, and Constitutional Design’ in Williams Susan H (ed), Constituting Equality. Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law (CUP, New York, 2009) 1.

35 Ibid.

36 Marks Susan, The Riddle of All Constitutions. International Law, Democracy, and the Critique of Ideology (OUP, Oxford, 2000) 103, 146.

37 It is in this respect that this approach differs from the one taken by Nicholas Tsagourias (see note 20).

38 Cranston Ross, ‘Theorizing Transnational Commercial Law’ (2007) 42 Texas International Law Journal 597–617.

39 Ford Richard, ‘Law’s Territory (A History of Jurisdiction)’ (1999) 97 Michigan Law Review 843; Blank Yishai, ‘Localism in the Global Legal Order’ (2006) 47 Harvard International Law Journal 263–81.

40 Walker Neil, ‘Taking Constitutionalism Beyond the State’ (2008) 56 Political Studies 519–43, 523.

41 Jessup Philip C, Transnational Law (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956); Wolfgang G Friedmann, ‘Corporate Power, Government by Private Groups, and the Law’ (1957) 57 Columbia Law Review 155–86.

42 Goldman Berthold, ‘Arbitrage International et droit commun des nations’ (1956) Revue de l’Arbitrage 115; Schmitthoff Clive M, ‘International Business Law: A New Law Merchant’ (1961) 2 Current Law and Social Problems 129–53; Gralf-Peter Calliess and Peer Zumbansen (see n 16).

43 Teubner Gunther, ‘“Global Bukowina”: Legal Pluralism in the World Society’, in Teubner Gunther (ed) Global Law Without A State (Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1997); Merry Sally Engle, ‘New Legal Realism and the Ethnography of Transnational Law’ (2006) 31 Law & Social Inquiry 975–95; Berman Paul Schiff, ‘The New Legal Pluralism’ (2009) Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences 225–42.

44 Scott Craig M ‘Introduction to “Torture as Tort”: From Sudan to Canada to Somalia’ in Scott Craig M (ed) Torture as Tort (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2001); Hongju Koh Harold, ‘Transnational Legal Process’ (1996) 75 Nebraska Law Review 181–206.

45 Scott Craig M, ‘“Transnational Law” as Proto-Concept: Three Conceptions’ (2009) 10 German Law Journal 859–76; Zumbansen Peer ‘Transnational Law’ in Smits Jan (ed) Encyclopedia of Comparative Law (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2006).

46 Merry Sally Engle, ‘Legal Pluralism’ (1988) 22 Law & Society Review 869–901; Galanter Marc, ‘Farther Along’ (1999) 33 Law & Society Review 1113–23.

47 Luhmann Niklas, Political Theory in the Welfare State [1981, trans. John Bednarz Jr.] (de Gruyter, Berlin and NewYork, 1990).

48 Max Weber On Law in Economy and Society (translated from Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, 2nd edn 1925, by E Shils and M Rheinstein, edited/annotated by M Rheinstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1967).

49 Fischer-Lescano Andreas and Teubner Gunther, ‘Regime-Collisions: The Vain Search for Legal Unity in the Fragmentation of Global Law’ (2004) 25 Michigan Journal of International Law 999–1046; see already Bozeman Adda B, The Future of Law in a Multicultural World (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1971) ix, ‘…biased in favor of the assumption that differences between cultures and political systems are functions primarily of different modes of perceiving and evaluating reality.’

50 An excellent overview is given by Berman Paul Schiff, ‘From International Law to Law and Globalization’ (2005) 43 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 485–556.

51 Eugen Ehrlich, Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law (orig. published in German as Grundlegung der Soziologie des Rechts, 1913, Russell & Russell, New York, 1962); Moore Sally Falk, ‘Law and Social Change: the semi-autonomous field as an appropriate subject of study’ (1973) 7 Law & Society Review 719–46; Arthurs Harry W, Without the Law: Administrative Justice and Legal Pluralism in Nineteenth Century England (Toronto University Press, Toronto, 1988).

52 Luhmann Niklas, A Sociological Theory of Law (London, Routledge, 1985).

53 Hoffmann Florian F ‘In Quite a State: Trials and Tribulations of an Old Concept in New Times’, in Miller Russell and Bratspies Rebecca (eds) Progress in International Law (Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008).

54 Luhmann Niklas, ‘The World Society as a Social System’, (1982) 8 International Journal of General Systems 131–8; Meyer John W, Boli John, Thomas George M and Ramirez Francisco O, ‘World Society and the Nation-State’ (1997) 103 American Journal of Sociology 144–81.

55 Jackson Vicki C, ‘Methodological Challenges in Comparative Constitutional Law’ (2010) 28 Penn State International Law Review 319–26, 324.

56 Rosenfeld Michel, ‘Rethinking constitutional ordering in an era of legal and ideological pluralism’ (2008) 6 International Journal of Constitutional Law 415–55.

57 For a discussion of the ‘four ‘i’s’ (inappropriate, inconceivable, improbable or illegitimate), see Neil Walker (see n 40) 519–43, 520–5.

58 Poignantly depicted by Hill Jonathan, ‘Comparative Law, Law Reform and Legal Theory’ (1989) 9 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 101–15.

59 Ralf Michaels (see n 9).

60 de Tocqueville Alexandre, Democracy in America (Reeve H trans.) [1835] (2000).

61 Beatty David M, The Ultimate Rule of Law (OUP, Oxford, 2004).

62 Mauro Cappelletti and William Cohen, note 28; Durga Das Basu, note 28; Konrad Zweigert and Hein Kötz, note 2.

63 Reinhart Koselleck, ‘Modernity and the Planes of Historicity (orig. in German, 1979, Vergangene Zukunft der frühen Neuzeit)’, (1981) 10 Economy and Society 166–83, cited after Koselleck, Futures Past. On the Semantics of Historical Time (Keith Tribe trans., Columbia University, New York, 2004) 9, 22.

64 Cited in JGA Pocock, ‘Burke and the Ancient Constitution: A Problem in the History of Ideas’ in JGA Pocock, Politics, Language & Time. Essays on Political Thought and History (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1989) 202–32, 205.

65 Cited in Pocock, n 64, 211.

66 Pocock, n 64, 204–5.

67 Koselleck, n 63, 23.

68 Koselleck, n 63, 22.

69 Pocock, n 64, 212.

70 Grimm Dieter, ‘Der Wandel der Staatsaufgaben und die Zukunft der Verfassung’, in Grimm Dieter (ed) Staatsaufgaben (Frankfurt, 1996).

71 Neil Walker (see n 40) 521: ‘The invocation of the ideas and practices of constitutionalism involves a distinctive way of thinking about the world – an epistemic horizon and political imaginary that presupposes and refers to the particular form of the state.’

72 Consider the ‘controversy over citation’, Dorsen et al (see n 28) 6 ff; see also the discussion of the ‘living constitution’ and the ‘constitution as living tree’ metaphors in Jackson Vicki C, ‘Constitutions as ‘Living Trees’? Comparative Constitutional Law and Interpretive Metaphors’, (2006) 75 Fordham Law Review 921–60, 941 ff.

73 Lawrence v. Texas, 123 S. Ct. 2472, 2481 (2003); Teitel Ruti, ‘Comparative Constitutional Law in a Global Age’ (2004) 117 Harvard Law Review 2570–96; for a skeptical view: McCrudden Christopher, ‘A Common Law of Human Rights? Transnational Judicial Conversations on Constitutional Rights’, (2000) 20 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 499–532.

74 Kemmerer Alexandra, ‘Constitutional Law as Work of Art – Experts’ Eyes: Judges of the World Examine the Constitution of Europe’, (2003) 4 German Law Journal 859–62.

75 O’Rourke Kevin H and Williamson Jeffrey G, Globalization and History. The Evolution of a Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999); Osterhammel Jürgen and Petersson Niels P, Globalization: A Short History [Geyer Dona trans.] (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004).

76 See Sajó András, Limiting Government. An Introduction to Constitutionalism (Central European University Press, Budapest, 1999); Alexander Somek, ‘Constitutionalization and the Common Good’, paper for the Cardozo-NYU I-CON Colloquium, February 2010, on file with author.

77 Scott Craig and Zumbansen PeerForeword: Making a Case for Comparative Constitutionalism and Transnational Law’, (2006) 46 Osgoode Hall Law Journal vii–xix; Rosenfeld MichelRethinking constitutional ordering in an era of legal and ideological pluralism’, (2008) 6 International Journal of Constitutional Law 415–55; Brennan Timothy, ‘Postcolonial Studies and Globalization Theory’ in Krishnaswamy Revathi and Hawley John C (eds) The Postcolonial and the Global (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 2008), 37 ff, 39, highlighting the normative bias of modern globalization writing: ‘The “now” is the new, and the new is rapturously and exuberantly embraced.’

78 Dobner Petra, ‘More Law, Less Democracy? Democracy and Transnational Constitutionalism’, in Dobner Petra and Loughlin Martin (eds) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? (OUP, Oxford, 2010), 141.

79 Kennedy David, ‘New Approaches to Comparative Law: Comparativism and International Governance’, (1997) Utah Law Review 545–37; Whytock Christopher A, ‘Taking Causality Seriously in Comparative Constitutional Law: Insights from Comparative Politics and Comparative Political Economy’, (2008) 41 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 629–82.

80 Habermas Jürgen, The Postnational Constellation: Political Essays (MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001); Habermas Jürgen, ‘A Political Constitution for the Pluralist World Society?’ in Habermas Jürgen (ed) Between Naturalism and Religion. Philosophical Essays [Ciaran Cronin trans.] (Polity Press, Cambridge, 2008).

81 Hall R and Biersteker T (eds), The Emergence of Private Authority: Forms of Private Authority and their Implications for International Governance (CUP, Cambridge, 2001).

82 Schneiderman David, ‘Investment Rules and the New Constitutionalism’ (2000) 25 Law & Soc Inquiry 757–83.

83 Sinclair Timothy J, ‘Passing Judgment: Credit Rating Processes as Regulatory Mechanisms of Governance in the Emerging World Order’, (1994) 1 Review of International Political Economy 133–59; Kerwer DieterHolding Global Regulators Accountable: The Case of Credit Rating Agencies’, (2005a) 18 Governance 453–75.

84 Schepel Harm, The Constitution of Private Governance. Product Standards in the Regulation of Integrating Markets (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2005).

85 Brunsson Nils and Jacobsson Bengt (eds), A World of Standards (OUP, Oxford, 2000).

86 Claire Cutler A, Private Power and Global Authority: Transnational Merchant Law in the Global Political Economy (CUP, Cambridge, 2003).

87 von Bogdandy Armin, Dann Philipp and Goldmann Matthias, ‘Developing the Publicness of Public International Law’, (2008) 9 German Law Journal 1375–1400.

88 See e.g. Keohane Robert O and Nye Joseph S, ‘Introduction’, in Nye Joseph S and Donahue John D (eds), Governance in a Globalizing World (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2000); McDougal Myres S, Lasswell Harold D and Michael Reisman W, ‘The World Constitutive Process of Authoritative Decision’, in McDougal Myres S and Michael Reisman W (eds), International Law Essays; A Supplement to International Law in Contemporary Perspective (Foundation Press, New York, 1981); Hobson John M, The State and International Relations (CUP, Cambridge, 2000).

89 Bevir Mark, Rhodes RAW and Weller Patrick, ‘Traditions of Governance: Interpreting the Changing Role of the Public Sector’ (2003) 81 Public Administration 1–17; JrAman Alfred., ‘Law, Markets and Democracy: A Role for Law in the Neo-Liberal State’ (2007) 51 New York Law School Review 801–15; Rhodes Rod AW ‘Waves of Governance’ in Levi-Faur David (ed) Oxford Handbook of Governance (OUP, Oxford, forthcoming 2012).

90 Goldman Berthold, ‘Frontières du droit et “lex mercatoria”’ (1964) 13 Archives de la Philosophie de Droit 177–92; Berger Klaus Peter (ed), The Practice of Transnational Law (Kluwer Law, The Hague, 2001); for a critique, see Schultz Thomas, ‘Some Critical Comments on the Juridicity of Lex Mercatoria’ (2008) 10 Yearbook of Private International Law 667–710; Zumbansen Peer, ‘Piercing the Legal Veil: Commercial Arbitration and Transnational Law’, (2002) 8 European Law Journal 400–32; Gralf-Peter Calliess and Peer Zumbansen (see n 16).

91 Gunther Teubner, (see n 43).

92 Michaels Ralf, ‘The True New Lex Mercatoria: Law Beyond the State’ (2007) 14 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 447–68.

93 Teubner Gunther, ‘Fragmented Foundations: Societal Constitutionalism Beyond the Nation State’ in Dobner Petra and Loughlin Martin (eds) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? (OUP, Oxford, 2010) 328.

94 Patrick Glenn H, ‘Comparative Legal Families and Comparative Legal Traditions’, in Reimann M. and Zimmermann R. (eds) Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law (OUP, Oxford, 2006), and Professor Glenn’s ground-breaking textbook, soon to be published in its fifth edition (see n 110).

95 Hirschl Ran, ‘The Question of Case Selection in Comparative Constitutional Law’ (2005) 53 American Journal of Comparative Law 125–55.

96 Russell Miller, ‘Introduction’ (see n 33) who draws on Patrick Glenn’s concept of legal traditions to argue that ‘the answer must be that legal tradition need not be the object of a comparative undertaking, but instead might be part of the inquiry to be made in better understanding the laws or legal institutions that eventually become the objects of comparison.’

97 Luhmann Niklas, ‘Globalization or World Society: How to Conceive of Modern Society?’ (1997) 7 Int’l Rev. Sociol. 67–79; John W Meyer et al (see n 54).

98 Eugen Ehrlich (see n 51) 465; Sally Engle Merry (see n 43) 975–95; Gunther Teubner (see n 93) 331.

99 Sally Engle Merry (see n 43) 975–95.

100 Willke Helmut, Smart Governance. Governing the Global Knowledge Society (Campus Verlag, Frankfurt, 2007) 53.

101 Anghie Antony, ‘The evolution of international law: Colonial and postcolonial realities’ (2006) 27 Third World Quarterly 739–53; Chimni BS, ‘Third World Approaches to International Law: A Manifesto’, (2006) 8 International Community Law Review 3–27.

102 Alston Philip, ‘The “Not-a-Cat” Syndrome: Can the International Human Rights Regime Accommodate Non-State Actors?’ in Alston Philip (ed) Non-State Actors and Human Rights (OUP, Oxford, 2005).

103 Chang Wen-Chen, ‘An Isolated Nation with Global-Minded Citizens: Bottom-Up Transnational Constitutionalism in Taiwan’, (2009) 4 National Taiwan University Law Review 203–35, 222–30.

104 de Sousa Santos Boaventura, ‘The World Social Forum and the Global Left’, (2008) 36 Politics & Society 247–70.

105 Otto Diane, ‘Lost in translation: re-scripting the sexed subjects of international human rights law’, in Orford Anne (ed) International Law and its Others (CUP, Cambridge, 2006).

106 Somek Alexander, ‘Die Verfassung im Zeitalter ihrer transnationalen Reproduzierbarkeit. Gedanken zum Begriff der Konstitutionalisierung’ in Franzius C, Mayer FC and Neyer J (eds) Strukturfragen der Europäischen Union (Nomos, Baden-Baden, 2011), 141.

107 Id., at 142.

108 Ulrich Beck, World at Risk [orig. German ‘Weltrisikogesellschaft’ Ciaran Cronin, trans.] (Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 2009).

109 Brunkhorst Hauke, ‘Constitutionalism and Democracy in the World Society’, in Dobner Petra and Loughlin Martin (eds) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? (OUP, Oxford, 2010), 186–7.

110 Patrick Glenn H., Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law (2ndedn, OUP, Oxford, 2004).

111 Bazyler Michael, Miller Russell, Yu Peter and An-Na’im Abdullahi (eds) Global Legal Traditions: Comparative Law in the Twenty-First Century (LexisNexis, forthcoming 2012).

112 Tomuschat Christian, ‘The Effects of the Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights According to the German Constitutional Court’ (2010) 11 German Law Journal 513–26; Norman Dorsen et al (see n 28) 77 ff (‘The Transnational Constitution’).

113 Hoffmann-Riem Wolfgang, ‘Two Hundred Years of Marbury v. Madison: The Struggle for Judicial Review of Constitutional Questions in the United States and Europe’ (2004) 5 German Law Journal 685–701.

114 Christian Tomuschat (see n 112).

115 Helmut Willke (see n 100) 39.

116 An-Na’im Abdullahi Ahmed, Islam and the Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shari’a (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008) 84 ff (ch 3).

117 Dorsen et al (see n 28).

118 Sujit Choudhry (see n 29).

119 Excellent: Petra Dobner (see n 78) and Neil Walker (see n 40) 519–43, 525 ff.

120 Grey Thomas C., ‘Constitutionalism: An Analytic Framework’ in Pennock JR and Chapman JW (eds) Constitutionalism: Nomos XX [Yearbook of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy] (New York University, New York, 1979) 189.

121 See e.g. Niklas Luhmann (n 52).

122 Beck Ulrich, ‘Living in the world risk society’ (2006) 35 Economy and Society 329–45.

123 Amstutz Marc, ‘The Letter of the Law: Legal Reasoning in a Societal Perspective’ (2009) 10 German Law Journal 361–82.

124 Sally Falk Moore (see n 51); Galanter Marc, ‘Why the “Haves” Come Out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change’, (1974) 9 Law & Society Review 95–160.

125 Engle Merry Sally, ‘Anthropology, Law, and Transnational Processes’, (1992) 21 Annual Review of Anthropology 357–79; Zumbansen Peer, ‘Transnational Legal Pluralism’ (2010) 1 Transnational Legal Theory 141–89 available at <>.

126 See e.g. Ashby Wilson Richard, ‘Tyrannosaurus Lex: The Anthropology of Human Rights and Transnational Law’ in Goodale Mark and Engle Merry Sally (eds) The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local (CUP, Cambridge, 2006).

127 See e.g. Brough Macpherson Crawford, ‘The Rise and Fall of Economic Justice’ in The Rise and Fall of Economic Justice, and other Essays. The role of state, class and property in twentieth-century democracy (OUP, Oxford, 1985) 1–20.

128 Wiethölter Rudolf, ‘Social Science Models in Economic Law’, in Daintith Terence and Teubner Gunther (eds) Contract and Organisation. Legal Analysis in the Light of Economic and Social Theory (de Gruyter, Berlin, 1986); for a perspective after the ‘rights revolution’, see Sunstein Cass, After the Rights Revolution: Reconceiving the Regulatory State (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1990); and Lobel Orly, ‘The Paradox of Extralegal Activism: Critical Legal Consciousness and Transformative Politics’ (2007) 120 Harvard Law Review 937–88.

129 Ackerman Bruce A, ‘The Storrs Lectures: Discovering the Constitution’ (1984) 93 Yale Law Journal 1013–72; Habermas Jürgen, ‘On the Internal Relation between the Rule of Law and Democracy’ (1995) 3 European Journal of Philosophy 12–20; Dworkin Ronald, ‘Constitutionalism and Democracy’ (1995) 3 European Journal of Philosophy 2–11; András Sajó (see n 76) xiv.

130 Compare with Jeremy Waldron, ‘Constitutionalism: A Skeptical View’ (2010) New York University Public Law & Legal Theory Research Paper No. 10–87 at <>, 13: ‘Unlike, say, the Rule of Law, constitutionalism is not just a normative theory about the forms and procedures of governance. It is about controlling, limiting, and restraining the power of the state.’

131 Id. at 17–18.

132 Yeh Jiunn-Rong, ‘The Emergence of Asian Constitutionalism: Features in Comparison’ (2009) 4 National Taiwan University Law Review 39–53, 41. Professor Yeh has argued that this type of constitutionalism has been succeeded by ‘transitional constitutionalism’, marked by a high degree of dynamic change, future empowerment and contingent constitutional arrangements, which are likely to be changed and adapted later. The last stage in this development he depicts as ‘transnational constitutionalism’, marked by the emergence of supra-national constitutional frameworks (for example the EU), the tension between ‘domestic’ and ‘transnational’ constitutional norms, and the increasing institutional borrowing and judicial dialogue. Id. at 44.

133 Konrad Zweigert and Hein Kötz (see n 2), 43 ff.

134 For a critique, see only Baxi Upendra, The Future of Human Rights (OUP, Oxford, 2002).

135 Teubner Gunther, ‘The King’s Many Bodies: The Self-Deconstruction of Law’s Hierarchy’ (1997) 31 Law & Society Review 763–87.

136 Ackerman Bruce A, ‘The Rise of World Constitutionalism’ (1997) 83 Virginia Law Review 771; see also the contributions to Macdonald Ronald St. John and Johnston Douglas M (eds), Towards World Constitutionalism. Issues in the Legal Ordering of the World Community (Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, 2005).

137 Immanuel Kant, To Perpetual Peace. A Philosophical Sketch (Ted Humphrey trans., orig. 1795, 2003); David Held (see n 21); Archibugi Daniele, The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2008).

138 Brun-Otto Bryde, ‘International Democratic Constitutionalism’, in Macdonald and Johnston (n 36); Regina Kreide, ‘The Ambivalence of Juridification. On Legitimate Governance in the International Context’, (2009) 2 Global Justice: Theory Practice Rhetoric 18.

139 Benedict Kingsbury et al (see n 23).

140 Nico Krisch, ‘Global Administrative Law and the Constitutional Ambition’ (2009) LSE Law, Society and Economy Working Papers 10/2009 available at <>.

141 Benedict Kingsbury (see n 24).

142 Griffiths John, ‘What is Legal Pluralism?’ (1986) 24 Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 1–55; Marc Galanter (see n 46).

143 Berman Paul Schiff, ‘Global Legal Pluralism’, (2007) 80 Southern California Law Review 1155–1237; Paul Schiff Berman (see n 43); Ralf Michaels, ‘Global Legal Pluralism’ (2009) Duke Public Law & Legal Theory Research Paper No. 259 available at <>; Peer Zumbansen (see n 125).

144 Sassen Saskia, ‘The Places and Spaces of the Global: An Expanded Analytic Terrain’, in Held David and McGrew Anthony (eds) Globalization Theory. Approaches and Controversies (Polity Press, Cambridge, 2007); Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos Andreas, ‘Spatial Justice: Law and the Geography of Withdrawal’ (2010) 6 International Journal of Law in Context 201.

145 Colin Scott, ‘Regulatory Governance and the Challenge of Constitutionalism’ (2010) EUI Working Papers. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Private Regulation Series 02 available at <>.

146 Amstutz Marc and Karavas Vaios, ‘Weltrecht: Ein Derridasches Monster’, in Soziologische Jurisprudenz. Liber Amicorum für Gunther Teubner zum 65. Geburtstag (Berlin, 2009).

147 Twining William, ‘Diffusion and Globalization Discourse’ (2006) 47 Harvard International Law Journal 507; Blank Yishai, ‘Federalism, Subsidiarity, and the Role of Local Governments in an Age of Multilevel Governance’ (2010) 37 Fordham Urban Law Journal 509.

148 Rose-Ackerman Susan, ‘Risk Taking and Reelection: Does Federalism Promote Innovation?’ (1980) 9 Journal of Legal Studies 593.

149 Nicolaidis Kalypso and Howse Robert (eds), The Federal Vision. Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the United States and the European Union (OUP, Oxford, 2001).

150 Markovits Inga, ‘Selective Memory: How the Law Affects What We Remember and Forget from the Past: The Case of East Germany’ (2001) 35 Law & Society Review 513–63.

151 Teitel Ruti, Transitional Justice (OUP, Oxford, 2000).

152 Michel Rosenfeld, The Identity of the Constitutional Subject (2010), reproduced in part in Norman Dorsen et al (see n 28) 66–74 at 73.

153 Yerushalmi Yosef Hayim, Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1982).

154 See the contributions by Anker Llewellyn, Nagi and Joerges in Zumbansen Peer and Buchanan Ruth (eds) Rights, Development and Transitional Justice (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2012 forthcoming).

155 See e.g. Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P Petersson (see n 75); Gilroy Paul, Postcolonial Melancholia (Columbia University Press, New York, 2006).

156 Albert HY Chen, ‘Western Constitutionalism in Southeast Asia: Some Historical and Comparative Observations’ (2010) available at <>.

157 Sujit Choudhry (see n 32).

158 Telling: Williamson Oliver E, The Mechanisms of Governance (OUP, Oxford, 1996), ch. 6; see also Posner Richard A, ‘Creating a Legal Framework for Economic Development’ (1998) 13 The World Bank Research Observer 1–11.

159 For an insightful account, see Williamson Oliver E, ‘The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead’ (2000) 38 Journal of Economic Literature 595–613; see also Ostrom Elinor, ‘Challenges and growth: the development of the interdisciplinary field of institutional analysis’ (2007) 3 Journal of Institutional Economics 239–64, 242–3.

160 Williamson Oliver E, ‘The Economics of Governance’ (2005) 95 American Economic Review 1; for a discussion see Calliess and Zumbansen, (see n 16) ch. 2, part III, C i. (113–19)

161 Dixit Avinash K, Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of Governance (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004).

162 Oliver E Williamson (see n 158); Oliver E Williamson (see n 160).

163 See e.g. Hadfield Gillian K and Talley Eric, ‘On Public versus Private Provision of Corporate Law’, (2006) 22 Journal of Law, Economics & Organization 414; Hadfield Gillian, ‘The Public and the Private in the Provision of Law for Global Services’ in Gessner Volkmar (ed), Contractual Certainty in International Trade. Empirical Studies and Theoretical Debates on Institutional Support for Global Economic Exchanges (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2009).

164 Ehrlich (see n 51); Moore Sally Falk, Law as Process: An Anthropological Approach (London, Kegan Paul, 1978); Harry W Arthurs (see n 51); Griffiths John, ‘What is Legal Pluralism?’ (1986) 24 Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 1; Merry (see n 46).

165 Hale Robert L, ‘Coercion and Distribution in a Supposedly Non-Coercive State’ (1923) 38 Political Science Quarterly 470; Cohen Morris R, ‘Property and Sovereignty’, (1927) 13 Cornell Law Quarterly 8.

166 Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (orig. 1776, Prometheus Books, New York, 1991); Marx Karl, The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 [Milligan Martin trans.] (Prometheus Books, New York, 1988).

167 Alexander Somek (see n 106) 145.

168 Id.

169 Gunther Teubner, ‘Justice under Global Capitalism?’ (European University Institute, 2008) 1 European Journal of Legal Studies 1–8 available at <> 6.

170 Schneiderman David, ‘Transnational Legality and the Immobilization of Local Agency’ (2006) 2 Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences 387–408; Cutler (see n 86); see already Vagts Detlev F, ‘The Multinational Enterprise: A New Challenge for Transnational Law’ (1969) 83 Harvard Law Review 739–92.

171 Compare with Jiunn-Rong Yeh (see n 132) 39–53, 47–9, stressing the ‘thin understanding of liberal constitutionalism’, whereby constitutional change in Asia in recent decades has – different to the transitional context in Eastern Europe – not been focused on market transformation, but on the simultaneous, non-oppositional development of liberal and social rights.

172 On point: Loughlin Martin, ‘What is Constitutionalization?’ in Dobner Petra and Loughlin Martin (eds) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? (2010).

173 Petra Dobner (see n 78); Somek Alexander, ‘The argument from transnational effects II: Establishing transnational democracy’ (2010) 16 European Law Journal 375–95, depicting the unresolved nature of legitimacy in ‘Global Administrative Law’ as evidence for an assumed, but not scrutinized natural law basis of the project.

174 Jeremy Waldron (see n 132) 40: ‘Constitutions are not just about retraining and limiting power; they are about the empowerment of ordinary people in a democracy and allowing them to control the sources of law and harness the apparatus of government to their legitimate expectations. That is the democratic view of constitutions, but it is not the constitutionalist view.”

175 Schmitt Carl, Constitutional Theory (Seitzer Jeffrey trans. [orig. German 1928]) (Duke University Press, Durham, 2008).

176 Sassen Saskia, ‘The State and Globalization’ in Nye Joseph S and Donahue John D (eds), Governance in a Globalizing World (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2000).

177 Nonet Philippe and Selznick Philip, Law and Society in Transition: Toward Responsive Law (Harper Torch, 1978); Teubner Gunther, ‘Substantive and Reflexive Elements in Modern Law’ (1983) 17 Law & Society Review 239–85; Teubner Gunther, ‘Autopoiesis in Law and Society: A Rejoinder to Blankenburg’ (1984) 18 Law & Society Review 291–301.

178 Ladeur Karl-Heinz, ‘Risiko Sozialstaat. Expansion des Sozialstaats ohne verfassungsrechtliche Schranken’ (2007) 46 Der Staat 61–88; Ladeur Karl-Heinz, ‘Staat und Gesellschaft. Von der liberalen zur postmodernen Gesellschaft’ in Depenheuer Otto and Grabenwerter Christoph (eds), Verfassungstheorie (Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2010); Young Ernest A, ‘The Constitution outside the Constitution’, (2007) 117 Yale Law Journal 408–73; and see already Luhmann Niklas, ‘Verfassung als evolutionäre Errungenschaft’, (1990) 9 Rechtshistorisches Journal 176–220.

179 Schneiderman David, ‘Realising Rights in an Era of Economic Globalisation: Discourse Theory, Investor Rights, and Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment’, in Shaw Wenhua, Simons Penelope and Singh Dalvinder (eds) Redefining Sovereignty in International Economic Law (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2008).

180 Rittich Kerry, ‘Functionalism and Formalism: Their latest Incarnations in Contemporary Development and Governance Debates’ (2005) 55 University of Toronto Law Journal 853–68.

181 Grimm Dieter, ‘Integration by Constitution’ (2005) 3 International Journal of Constitutional Law 191–210; Walker Neil, ‘Taking Constitutionalism Beyond the State’ (2008) 56 Political Studies 519–43, 531

182 Gunther Teubner (see n 93) 341: ‘… one can only be amazed at the naivety of participatory romanticism.’

183 Hutchinson Allan C and Monahan Patrick (eds), The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology (Carswell, Toronto, 1987)

184 Stolleis Michael, ‘Die Entstehung des Interventionsstaates und das öffentliche Recht’, (1989) 11 ZNR 129–147.

185 Ewald François, L’Etat providence (Bernard Grasset, Paris, 1986).

186 Scott Colin, ‘Regulation in the Age of Governance: The Rise of the Post-Regulatory State’ in Jordana Jacint and Levi-Faur David (eds) The Politics of Regulation: Institutions and Regulatory Reforms for the Age of Governance (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2004).

187 Fraser Nancy, Scales of Justice: Reimagining Political Space in a Globalizing World (Polity Press, Cambridge, 2008); Chatterjee Partha, The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World (Columbia University Press, New York, 2004) 59 ff; Stichweh Rudolf, Inklusion und Exklusion. Studien zur Gesellschaftstheorie (transcript-Verlag, Bielefeld, 2005) 45 ff; Luhmann Niklas, Law as a Social System (Ziegert trans K., Kastner F, Schiff D, Nobles R and Ziegert R eds) (OUP, Oxford, 2004), ch. 12.; Neil Walker (see n 40) 519–43, 540: ‘a powerful continuing counterpoint’.

188 Cover Robert M, ‘Nomos and Narrative’, (1983) 97 Harvard Law Review 4–68; Philippe Nonet and Philip Selznick (see n 177); Rodgers Daniel T, Atlantic Crossings. Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, 1998).

189 Nico Krisch (see n 140); for a critique, see Alexander Somek, (see n 173) and Somek ‘Administration without Sovereignty’ in Petra Dobner and Martin Loughlin (eds) The Twilight of Constitutionalism? (OUP, Oxford, 2010) 267 ff.

190 For a rescue attempt, see Kingsbury n 24.

191 Niklas Luhmann (see n 178); Niklas Luhmann (see n 47).

192 Jeremy Waldron (see n 132).

193 Konrad Zweigert and Hein Kötz (see n 2), 34 ff.

194 See e.g. Donald David C, ‘Approaching Comparative Company Law’ (2008) 14 Fordham Journal of Corporate and Financial Law 83–178.

195 Patrick Glenn H (see n 110); Annelise Riles, ‘Comparative Law and Socio-Legal Studies’ in Reimann M and Zimmermann R (eds) Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law (OUP, Oxford, 2006); Peer Zumbansen (see n 9).

196 Latour Bruno, We have never been modern (Porter Catherine trans.) (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1993).

197 Baxi Upendra, ‘The Colonialist Heritage’, in Roderick Munday Pierre Legrand and (eds) Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions (CUP, Cambridge, 2003) 4675

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Global Constitutionalism
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