Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The ‘dark’ side of normative argumentation – The case of counterterrorism policy

  • REGINA HELLER (a1), MARTIN KAHL (a1) and DANIELA PISOIU (a1)
Abstract

After 9/11 state actors in different parts of the world and to various degrees decided to give security and counterterrorism measures priority over human rights and fundamental freedoms. In order to legitimize their policy choices, governmental actors used normative argumentation to redefine what is ‘appropriate’ to ensure security. We argue that, in the long run, this may lead to a setback dynamic hollowing out established human and civil rights norms. In this article, we develop a theoretical and analytical framework, oriented along the model of the life cycle of norms, in order to trace ‘bad’ norm dynamics in the field of counterterrorism. We conceptualize the norm erosion process, particularly focusing on arguments such as speech acts put forward by governmental norm challengers and their attempts to create new meaning and understanding. We also draw on convergence theory and argue that when a coalition of norm challengers develops, using the same or similar patterns of arguments, established international normative orders protecting human rights and civil liberties might be weakened over time and a more fundamental process of norm erosion may take place.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Email: heller@ifsh.de
kahl@ifsh.de
pisoiu@ifsh.de
References
Hide All
Adler, Emanuel, and Haas, Peter M.. 1992. “Conclusion: Epistemic Communities, World Order, and the Creation of a Reflective Research Program.” International Organization 46(1):367–90.
Amnesty International. 2005. Guantánamo and beyond: The continuing pursuit of unchecked executive power. London.
Amnesty International. 2008. World Report 2008, The State of the World’s Human Rights. London.
Aradau, Claudia. 2004. “Security and the Democratic Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation.” Journal of International Relations and Development 7(4):388–413.
Aronson, Elliot, and Golden, Burton W.. 1962. “The effect of relevant and irrelevant aspects of communicator credibility on opinion change.” Journal of Personality 30(2):135–46.
Babaeva, Svetlana, and Bovt, Georgi. 2004. September Revolution. Izvestiya 15 September.
Babb, Sarah. 1996. “True American System of Finance: Frame Resonance in the US Labor Movement, 1866 to 1886.” American Sociological Review 61:1033–52.
Badescu, Christina G., and Weiss, Thomas G.. 2010. “Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral?International Studies Perspective 11(4):354–74.
Baldwin, David. 1997. “The Concept of Security.” Review of International Studies 23(1):5–26.
Balzacq, Thierry. 2005. “The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context.” European Journal of International Relations 11(2):171–201.
Balzacq, Thierry. 2011. Enquiries into methods: a new framework for securitization analysis. In: Securitization Theory. How security problems emerge and dissolve, edited by Balzacq, Thierry, 31–54. London/New York: Routledge.
Benford, Robert D. 1993. “Frame Disputes within the Nuclear Disarmament Movement.” Social Force 71(3):692–3.
Benford, Robert D., and Snow, David A.. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:611–39.
Berbrier, Mitch. 1998. “Half the battle: Cultural resonance, framing processes, and ethnic affectations in contemporary white separatist rhetoric.” Social Problems 45(4):431–50.
Bigo, Didier, 2000. “When Two Become One: Internal and External Securitisations in Europe.” In: International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration: Power, Security and Community, edited by Kelstrup, Morten and Williams, Michael C., 171–204. London: Routledge.
Bigo, Didier, et al. . 2007. The Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security: Mid-Term Report on the Results of the CHALLENGE Project; Challenge – Liberty and Security, Research Paper No. 4, February.
Bowden, Mark. 2003. “The Dark Art of Interrogation.” Atlantic Monthly, October, 51–76.
Burgess, Niall, and Spence, David. 2004. “The European Union: new threats and the problem of coherence.” In: Business and Security: Public-Private Sector Relationships in a New Security Environment, edited by Bailes, Alyson and Frommelt, Isabel, 84–101. Stockholm: SIPRI.
Bush, George W., and Nordlinger, Jay. 2003. We Will Prevail: President George W. Bush on War, Terrorism and Freedom. Foreword by Noonan, Peggy; Introduction by Nordlinger, Jay. New York: Continuum.
Buzan, Barry. 1997. “Rethinking Security after the Cold War.” Cooperation and Conflict 32(1):5–28.
Buzan, Barry. 2004. The United States and the Great Powers: World Politics in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Polity.
Buzan, Barry. 2006. “Will the ‘global war on terrorism’ be the new Cold War?” International Affairs 82(6):1101–18.
Buzan, Barry, and Wæver, Ole. 1997. “Slippery? Contradictory? Sociologically Untenable? The Copenhagen School Replies.” Review of International Studies 23(2):241–50.
Buzan, Barry, and Wæver, Ole. 2003. Regions and powers: The structure of international security. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Buzan, Barry, et al. . 1998. Security – A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO/London: Lynne Rienner.
Chong, Dennis, and Druckmann, James N.. 2007. “Framing Theory”. Annual Review of Political Science 10:103–26.
Chowdhury, Arjun, and Krebs, Ronald R.. 2010. “Talking about terror: Counterterrorist campaigns and the logic of representation.” European Journal of International Relations 16(1):125–50.
Council of Europe. 2006. Alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states Draft report - Part II (Explanatory memorandum, Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Dick Marty (Rapporteur), AS/Jur (2006) 16 Part II, Strasbourg, 7 June 2006, ajdoc 16 2006 Part II.
Crawford, Neta C. 2002. Argument and Change in World Politics Ethics, Decolonization, and Humanitarian Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crelinsten, Ronald D. 2009. Counterterrorism. Cambridge: Wiley.
d’Anjou, Leo, and Van Male, John. 1998. “Between old and new: social movements and cultural change.” Mobilization 3(2):207–26.
Daase, Christopher. 2003. “Der Anfang vom Ende des nuklearen Tabus.” Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen 10(1):7–41.
Danner, Mark, 2004. Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Torture. New York: New York Review of Books.
Diez, Thomas, et al. . 2006. “The European Union and border conflicts: The transformative power of integration.” International Organization 60(3):563–93.
Dillon, Michael. 2007. “Governing Terror: The State of Emergency of Biopolitical Emergence.” International Political Sociology 1(1):7–28.
Dolowitz, David and Marsh, David. 2000. “Learning from Abroad: the Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy-Making.” Governance 13(1):5–23.
Donati, Paolo R. 2001. “Die Rahmenanalyse politischer Diskurse.” In: Handbuch sozialwissenschaftliche Diskursanalyse, Vol. 1: Theorien und Methoden, edited by Keller, R., et al. ., 145–76. Opladen: Leske and Budrich.
Elbe, Stefan. 2006. “Should HIV/AIDS Be Securitized? The Ethical Dilemmas of Linking HIV/AIDS and Security.” International Studies Quarterly 50(1):119–44.
Eriksson, Johan. 1999. “Observers or Advocates? On the Political Role of Security Analysts.” Cooperation and Conflict 34(3):311–30.
Eriksson, Johan and Erik, Noreen. 2002. Setting the Agenda of Threats: An Explanatory Model. Uppsala Peace Research Paper No. 6.
Erwin, Lorna. 1993. “Neoconservatism and the Canadian pro-family movement.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 30(3):401–20.
European Commission, 2002. Standard Eurobarometer 57. Public Opinion in the European Union. First Results, Brussels.
Evangelista, Matthew. 2008. Law, ethics and the war on terror. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Finnemore, Martha. 1996. National Interests in International Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “International Norms Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52(4):887–917.
Fiske, Susan T., and Taylor, Shelley E.. 1991. Social Cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fordham, Benjamin O., and Asal, Victor. 2007. “Billiard Balls or Snowflakes? Major Power Prestige and the International Diffusion of Institutions and Practices.” International Studies Quarterly 51(1):31–52.
Futrell, Robert. 2003. “Framing Processes, Cognitive Liberation, and NIMBY Protest in the U.S. Chemical-Weapons Disposal Conflict.” Social Inquiry 73(3):359–86.
Gerhards, Juergen, and Rucht, Dieter. 1992. “Mesomobilization: Organizing and Framing in Two Protest Campaigns in West Germany.” The American Journal of Sociology 98(3):555–96.
Goffman, Erving. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New Yorket al.: Harper & Row.
Golts, Alexander. 2004. “Military Reform in Russia and the Global War against Terrorism.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 17(1):29–41.
Greenberg, Karen J. 2008. The Enemy Combatant Papers: American Justice, the Courts, and the War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greenberg, Karen J., and Dratel, Joshua L.. 2005. The Torture Papers: The Road to Abu Ghraib. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Guiraudon, Virginie. 2003. “The Constitution of a European Immigration Policy Domain: A Political Sociology Approach.” Journal of European Public Policy 10(2):263–82.
Guzzini, Stefano and Jung, Dietrich. 2004. Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research. London/New York: Routledge.
Haas, Peter M. 1992, “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy-Coordination.” International Organization 46(1):1–36.
Hansen, Lene, and Nissenbaum, Helen. 2009. “Digital Disaster, Cyber Security, and the Copenhagen School.” International Studies Quarterly 53(4):1155–75.
Hass, Glen R. 1991. “Effects of source characteristics on cognitive responses and persuasion.” In: Cognitive Responses in Persuasion, edited by Petty, R. E., 141–72. Hillsdale: Erlbaum Associates.
Heichel, Stephan, et al. . 2005. “Is there convergence in convergence research? An overview of empirical studies on policy convergence.” Journal of European Public Policy 12(5):817–40.
Hersh, Seymour M. 2004. Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib. New York: HarperCollins.
Hill, Michael. 1997. The Policy Process in the Modern State, 3rd edn. London: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Hoge, Warren. 2006. “Investigators for UN Urge U.S. to Close Guantanamo.” New York Times, 17 February.
Holm, Ulla. 2004. “Algeria: Securitization of State/Regime, Nation and Islam.” In: Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research, edited by Guzzini, Stefano and Jung, Dietrich, 217–28. London: Routledge.
Holzinger, Katharina. 2004. “Bargaining Through Arguing: An Empirical Analysis Based on Speech Act Theory.” Political Communication 21(2):195–222.
Holzinger, Katharina. 2006. “Methodological Pitfalls of Convergence Analysis.” European Union Politics 7(2):271–87.
Hovland, Carl I., and Weiss, Walter. 1951. The Influence of Source Credibility on Communication Effectiveness. The Public Opinion Quarterly 15(4):635–50.
Human Rights Watch. 2005. Leadership Failure Firsthand Accounts of Torture of Iraqi Detainees by the U.S. Army’s 82nd Airborne Division. New York.
Human Rights Watch. 2006. World Report 2006. New York.
Human Rights Watch. 2008. World Report 2008. New York.
Huysmans, Jef. 1998, “Revisiting Copenhagen: Or, On the Creative Development of a Security Studies Agenda in Europe.” European Journal of International Relations 4(4):479–506.
Huysmans, Jef. 2000. “The European Union and the Securitization of Migration.” Journal of Common Market Studies 38(5):751–77.
Jackson, Richard. 2007a. “An analysis of EU counterterrorism discourse post-September 11. Cambridge Review of International Affairs20(2):233–47.
Jackson, Richard. 2007b. “Language, policy and the construction of a torture culture in the war on terrorism.” Review of International Studies 33(3):353–71.
Jaffer, Jameel, and Singh, Amrit. 2009. Administration of torture: a documentary record from Washington to Abu Ghraib and beyond. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Jarvis, Lee. 2009. Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jehl, Douglas, 2005. “Report Warned on CIA’s Tactics in Interrogation.” New York Times, 9 November.
Jenkins, Brian. 1975. “International terrorism: A new mode of conflict.” In: International Terrorism and World Security, edited by Carlton, David and Schaerf, Carlo, 13–49. London: Croom Helm.
Johnson, Victoria L. 1997. “Operation Rescue, Vocabularies of Motive, and Tactical Action: A Study of Movement Framing in the Practice of Quasi-Nonviolence.” In: Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Chance, vol. 20 edited by Kriesberg, Louis, et al. , 103–50. Greenwich, CT: Jay Press.
Johnston, David, and Risen, James. 2004. “The Reach of War: The Interrogations.” New York Times, 27 June.
Johnston, Hank. 2008. “Ritual, strategy, and deep culture in the Chechen national movement,” Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1(3):321–42.
Jones, Trevor, and Newburn, Tim. 2002. “Learning from Uncle Sam? Exploring U.S. Influences on British Crime Control Policy.” Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 15(1):97–119.
Karyotis, Georgios. 2007. “Securitization of Greek Terrorism and Arrest of the Revolutionary Organization November 17.”Cooperation and Conflict 42(3):271–93.
Keck, Margaret, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kelstrup, Morten. 2004. “Globalisation and societal insecurity: the securitisation of terrorism and competing strategies for global governance.” In: Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research, edited by Guzzini, Stefano and Jung, Dietrich, 106–16. London/New York: Routledge.
Kingdon, John W. 1994. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. New York: Harper Collins.
Klandermans, Bert. 1992. “The Social Construction of Protest and Multiorganizational Fields.” In: Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, edited by Morris, Aldon and McClurg Mueller, Carol, 77–103. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Knill, Christoph. 2005. “Introduction: Cross-national policy convergence: concepts, approaches and explanatory factors.” Journal of European Public Policy 12(5):764–74.
Knudsen, Olav F. 2001. “Post-Copenhagen Security Studies: Desecuritizung Securitization.” Security Dialogue 32(3):355–68.
Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2000. “The ‘Protective’ Union: Change and Continuity in Migration Law and Policy in Post-Amsterdam Europe.” Journal of Common Market Studies 38(3):497–518.
Kostyukov, Anatoli, 2004. “Restauration. The President announced his plans for state reform.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 14 September.
Krebs, Ronald R. 2006. “Fighting for Rights: Military Service and the Politics of Citizenship.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Krebs, Ronald R., and Jackson, Patrick T.. 2007. “Twisting Tongues and Twisting Arms: The Power of Political Rhetoric.” European Journal of International Relations 13(1):35–66.
Kubal, Timothy J. 1998. “The Presentation of Political Self: Cultural Resonance and the Construction of Collective Action Frames.” The Sociological Quarterly 39(4):539–54.
Legro, Jeffrey W. 2000. “The Transformation of Policy Ideas.” American Journal of Political Science 44(33):419–32.
Lelyveld, Joseph. 2005. “Interrogating Ourselves.” New York Times (Sunday Magazine), 12 June.
Leonard, Sarah, and Kaunert, Christian. 2011. “Reconceptualizing the Audience in Securitization Theory.” In: Securitization Theory. How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve, edited by Balzacq, Thierry, 57–76. London/New York: Routledge.
Lewis, Anthony. 2004. “Making Torture Legal.” New York Review of Books, 15 July.
Lewis, Neil, and Schmitt, Eric. 2005. “Inquiry Finds Abuses at Guantanamo Bay.” New York Times, 1 May.
Liese, Andrea. 2006. Staaten am Pranger. Zur Wirkung internationaler Regime auf innerstaatliche Menschenrechtspolitik. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
Liese, Andrea. 2009. “Exceptional necessity. How liberal democracies contest the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment when countering terrorism.” Journal of International Law and International Relations 5(1):17–47.
March, James J., and Olsen, Johan P.. 1998. “The Institutional Dynamics of International Political Orders.” International Organization 52(4):943–70.
Mayer, Jane. 2005a. “The Experiment.” New Yorker online, 11 and 18 July: http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/050711fa_fact4.
Mayer, Jane. 2005b. “Outsourcing torture: the secret history of America’s ‘extraordinary rendition’ program.” New Yorker online, 14 February: http://www.newyorker.com/printables/fact/050214fa_fact6.
McCaffrey, Dawn, and Keys, Jennifer. 2000. “Competitive Frame Processes in the Abortion Debate – Polarisation – Vilification, Frame Saving and Frame Debunking.” Sociological Quarterly 41(1):41–6.
McDonald, Matt. 2007. “Justifying Intervention: The Coalition of the Willing and the ‘War on Terror’.” Paper presented at BISA Conference, Cambridge, December.
McDonald, Matt. 2008. “Securitization and the Construction of Security.” European Journal of International Relations 14(4):563–87.
McGuire, William J. 1985. “Attitudes and Attitude Change.” In: Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by Lindzey, Gardner and Aronson, Elliot, 233–346. Hillsdale, NY: Random House.
McKeown, Ryder. 2009. “Norm Regress: US Revisionism and the Slow Death of the Torture Norm.” International Relations 23(1):5–25.
McSweeney, Bill. 1996. “Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School.” Review of International Studies 22(1):81–93.
Meyer, Christoph O. 2009. “International terrorism as a force of homogenization? A constructivist approach to understanding cross-national threat perceptions and responses.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22(4):647–66.
Meyer, John W., et al. . 1997. “World Society and the Nation-State.” American Journal of Sociology 103(1):144–81.
Michaelsen, Christopher. 2006. “Balancing Civil Liberties against National Security.” University of New South Wales Law Journal 29(2):1–21.
Nadelmann, Ethan A. 1990. “Global prohibition regimes: the evolution of norms in international society.” International Organization, 44(4):479–526.
Neal, Andrew W. 2009. “Securitization and Risk at the EU Border: The Origins of FRONTEX.” Journal of Common Market Studies 47(2):333–56.
Noonan, Rita K. 1995. “Women against the state: political opportunities and collective action frames in Chile’s transition to democracy.” Sociological Forum 10(1):81–111.
Nowak, Manfred. 2006. “Das System Guantánamo.” Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 36:23–30.
Oberschall, Anthony. 1989. “Culture change and social movements.” Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA, 9–13 August.
Omelicheva, Mariya Y. 2007. “Russia’s Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme.” Paper for presentation at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, 26–29 March.
OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, 2005. Report on Guantanamo, prepared by Mrs. Anne-Marie Lizin, Rapporteur of the committee Human Dimension of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly to the President of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Mr. Alcee Hastings. Copenhagen.
OSCE Parliamentary Assembly 2007. Report on Guantanamo Bay, by Mrs. Anne-Marie Lizin, Special Representative of the President of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Mr. Göran Lennmarker. Copenhagen, 8 July.
Panfilov, Oleg. 2005. Putin and the Press: The Revival of Soviet-style Propaganda. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.
Panke, Diana, and Petersohn, Ulrich. 2011. “Why international norms disappear sometimes, European Journal of International Relations,” online first, June 14, 2011, available athttp://ejt.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/06/14/1354066111407690.
Park, Kristin. 1998. “The religious construction of sanctuary provision in two congregations. Sociological Spectrum18(4):393–421.
Paust, Jordan J. 2007. Beyond the law: the Bush administration’s unlawful responses in the ‘war’ on terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Payne, Rodger A. 2001. “Persuasion, Frames and Norm Construction.” European Journal of International Relations 7(1):37–61.
Plater-Zyberk, Henry. 2005. Russia’s Special Forces. Conflict Studies Research Centre, Russian Series 05/50, September available athttp://studies.agentura.ru/centres/csrc/rsp.pdf.
Poleine, Martin, et al. . 2009. Counterterrorism Law and Practice – An International Handbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Powell, Walter W., and DiMaggio, Paul J.. 1991. The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Riskin, Andrei. 2004. “Russia prepares for the Great War.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 14 September.
Risse, Thomas. 1999. “Identitäten und Kommunikationsprozesse in der internationalen Politik – Sozialkonstruktivistische Perspektiven zum Wandel in der Außenpolitik.” In: Außenpolitischer Wandel in theoretischer und vergleichender Perspektive – die USA und die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, edited by Medick-Krakau, Monika, 33–57. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Risse, Thomas. 2000. ‘“Let’s Argue!’: Communicative Action in World Politics.” International Organization 54(1):1–39.
Risse, Thomas. 2003. “Konstruktivismus, Rationalismus und Theorien Internationaler Beziehungen – warum empirisch nichts so heiß gegessen wird, wie es theoretisch gekocht wurde.” In: Die neuen Internationalen Beziehungen. Forschungsstand und Perspektiven in Deutschland, edited by Hellmann, Gunther, 99–132. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Risse, Thomas, et al. . 1999. The Power of Human Rights. International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Risse, Thomas, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1999. “The Socialization of International Human Rights Norms Into Domestic Practice: Introduction.” In: The Power of Human Rights. International Norms and Domestic Change, edited by Risse, Thomas, et al. ., 1–38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roe, Paul. 2004. “Securitization and minority rights: Conditions of desecuritization.” Security Dialogue 35(3):279–94.
Rosert, Elvira, and Schirmbeck, Sonja. 2007. “Zur Erosion internationaler Normen.” Zeitschrift für internationale Beziehungen 14(2):253–87.
Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R., et al. . 2002. “The Influence of Accessibility of Source Likeability on Persuasion.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38(2):137–43.
Roth, Kenneth, 2006. “Justifying Torture.” In: Torture: Does it Make Us Safer? Is It Ever OK? A Human Rights Perspective, edited by Roth, Kenneth, et al. ., 184–201. New Yorket al.: New Press and Human Rights Watch.
Ruggie, John G. 1998. Constructing the World Polity. Essays on International Institutionalization. London: Routledge.
Sabatier, Paul, and Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.. 1993. Policy change and learning: an advocacy coalition approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Salter, Mark. 2011. “When securitization fails: the hard case of counterterrorism programs.” In: Securitization Theory. How security problems emerge and dissolve, edited by Balzacq, Thierry, 116–32. London/New York: Routledge.
Sandholtz, Wayne. 2008. “Dynamics of International Norm Change: Rules against Wartime Plunder.” European Journal of International Relations 14(1):101–31.
Sasse, Gwendolyn. 2005. “Securitization or Securing Rights? Exploring the Conceptual Foundations of Policies towards Minorities and Migrants in Europe.” Journal of Common Market Studies 43(4):673–93.
Schmitz, Hans Peter, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 2002. “International Human Rights”. In: Handbook of International Relations, edited by Carlsnaes, Walter, et al. ., 517–37. London: Sage.
Shumilov, A. J., and Safonov, I. I.. 2005. “Typical operational-investigational versions about cases of terrorist acts.” In: Terrorism: Legal aspects of Counteraction, edited by Trunov, I. L., 228–35. Moscow: Eksmo.
Siegert, Jens. 2003. “Angriff auf die Pressefreiheit.” In: Der Krieg im Schatten. Russland und Tschetschenien, edited by Hassel, Florian, 153–72. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Slater, Jerome. 2006. “Tragic Choices in the War on Terrorism: Should We Try to Regulate and Control Torture?Political Science Quarterly 121(1):191–215.
Slater, Michael D., and Rouner, Donna. 1996. “How Message Evaluation and Source Attributes May Influence Credibility Assessment and Belief Change.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73(4):974–91.
Snow, David A., and Benford, Robert D.. 1988. “Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1(1):197–218.
Soldatov, Andrei, and Borogan, Irina. 2005. Terrorism prevention in Russia: one year after Beslan, Report of Agentura.Ru Studies and Research Centre, September 2005.
Stritzel, Holger. 2007. “Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond.” European Journal of International Relations 13(3):357–83.
Stykow, Petra. 2004. “Russland: Wandel der Sicherheitspolitik als Funktion der Innen- und Außenpolitik.” In: Europäisierung der inneren Sicherheit. Eine vergleichende Untersuchung am Beispiel von organisierter Kriminalität und Terrorismus, edited by Glaeßner, Gert-Joachim and Lorenz, Astrid, 225–44. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
Sunstein, Cass. 1997. Free Markets and Social Justice. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vanderford, Marsha L. 1989. “Vilification and Social Movements: A Case Study of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 75(2):166–72.
Vultee, Fred. 2011. “Securitization as a media frame: what happens when the media ‘speak security’.” In: Securitization Theory. How security problems emerge and dissolve, edited by Balzacq, Thierry, 77–93. London/New York: Routledge.
Vuori, Juha A. 2008. “Illocutionary Logic and Strands of Securitization: Applying the Theory of Securitization to the Study of Non-Democratic Political Orders.” European Journal of International Relations 14(1):65–99.
Wade, Marianne, and Maljevic, Almir. 2010. A war on terror? The European stance on a threat, changing laws and human rights implications. New York: Springer.
Wæver, Ole, 1989. “Security, the Speech Act: Analyzing the Politics of a Word.” Working Paper 19, Copenhagen: Center for Peace and Conflict Research.
Wæver, Ole 1995. “Securitization and Desecuritization.” In: On Security, edited by Lipshutz, Ronnie, 46–86. New York: Columbia University Press.
Wæver, Ole 1999. “Insecurity, Security and Asecurity in the West European non-War Community.” In: Security Communities, edited by Adler, Emanuel and Barnett, Michael N., 69–118. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wæver, Ole 2000. “The EU as a Security Actor: Reflections from a Pessimistic Constructivist on Post Sovereign Security Orders.” In: International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration, edited by Kelstrup, Morten and Williams, Michael C, 250–94. London: Routledge.
Wiener, Antje. 2004. “Contested Compliance: Interventions on the Normative Structure of World Politics.” European Journal of International Relations 10(2):189–234.
Williams, Michael C. 2003. “Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics.” International Studies Quarterly 47(4):511–31.
Williams, Michael C. 2011. “The continuing evolution of securitization theory.” In: Securitization Theory. How security problems emerge and dissolve, edited by Balzacq, Thierry, 212–22. London/New York: Routledge.
Wolfe, Wojtek Mackiewicz. 2008. Winning the war of words: selling the war on terror from Afghanistan to Iraq. New York: Praeger.
Zuo, Jiping, and Benford, Robert D.. 1995. “Mobilization Processes and the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement.” The Sociological Quarterly 36(1):131–56.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Global Constitutionalism
  • ISSN: 2045-3817
  • EISSN: 2045-3825
  • URL: /core/journals/global-constitutionalism
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 148 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 877 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.