Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The non-existence of private self-regulation in the transnational sphere and its implications for the responsibility to procure legitimacy: The case of the lex sportiva

  • KLAUS DIETER WOLF (a1)
Abstract

This article is a critical examination of the claim that the emergence of private self-regulatory regimes in the transnational sphere signals a new trend of self-constitutionalization outside the limits of nation-state based or intergovernmental control. It deals with the question to what extent the diffusion of public authority in the sphere beyond the state affects the responsibility of the state(s) to procure the legitimacy of such private self-regulation. First, a conceptual argument is developed which identifies private self-regulatory regimes as rule systems nested in a specific constitutional order of the international society, here described as ‘neo-Westphalian’ (Section I). Second, implications for the responsibility to procure the legitimacy of collectively binding regulatory functions performed by private actors in the sphere beyond the state are considered (Section II). Often cited as a model example of autonomous societal self-regulation, the lex sportiva renders particularly strong plausibility for the claimed non-existence of purely private self-regulation. The regulation of performance-enhancing substances can serve to demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple public and private sites of constitutional authority (Section III). In conclusion (Section IV), I argue that, although the ultimate responsibility for providing legitimacy continues to lie with the state/world of states, the political order of the international society as construed in neo-Westphalian terms provides a dispersed and fragmented constitutional-style legal framework with few reliable guarantees that states are capable or willing to enact their background role. Therefore, a substantial part of the burden of – initial – legitimation must be carried by those directly involved in private self-regulation by constituting and exercising public authority.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Email: wolf@hsfk.de
References
Hide All
Abbott, Kenneth W. and Snidal, Duncan. 2009. “The Governance Triangle: Regulatory Standards Institutions and the Shadow of the State.” In The Politics of Global Regulation, edited by Mattli, Walter and Woods, Ngaire, 4488. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Avbelj, Matej and Komarek, Jan, eds. 2012. Constitutional Pluralism in the European Union and Beyond. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Baumgart-Ochse, Claudia, et al. 2012. The Relevance of Private Actors in the Transnational Sphere for Just Peace Governance. PRIF Working Paper No. 13, Frankfurt am Main, June 2012.
Bellamy, Alex J. 2009. Responsibility to Protect: The Global Effort to End Mass Atrocities. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Black, Julia. 2008. “Constructing and Contesting Legitimacy and Accountability in Polycentric Regulatory Regimes.” Regulation and Governance 2(2):137–64.
Bogdandy, Armin von, Dann, Philipp and Goldmann, Matthias. 2008. “Developing the Publicness of Public International Law: Towards a Legal Framework for Global Governance Activities.” German Law Journal 9(11):1375–400.
Bogdandy, Armin von, Wolfrum, Rüdiger, Bernstorff, Jochen von, Dann, Philipp and Goldmann, Matthias, eds. 2010. The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.
Börzel, Tanja. 2010. “Governance with/out Government. False Promises or Flawed Premises?” SFB Governance Working Paper Series, No. 23, March 2010.
Börzel, Tanja and Risse, Thomas. 2005. “Public Private Partnerships: Effective and Legitimate Tools of Transnational Governance?” In Complex Sovereignty. Reconstituting Political Authority in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Grande, Edgar and Pauly, Louis, 195216. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Buchanan, Allen and Keohane, Robert O.. 2006. “The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions.” Ethics and International Affairs 20(4):405–37.
Bumke, Christian and Röthel, Anne, eds. 2012. Privates Recht. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Burnheim, John. 1986. “Democracy, Nation States and the World System.” In New Forms of Democracy, edited by Held, David and Pollitt, Christopher, 219–39. London: Open University.
Cohen, Jean L. 2014. “Reply to Scheuerman’s review of Globalization and Sovereignty.” Global Constitutionalism 3(1):119–41.
Collin, Peter. 2011. “‘Gesellschaftliche Selbstregulierung’ und ‘regulierte Selbstregulierung’” – ertragversprechende Analysekategorien für eine (rechts-)historische Perspektive?” In Selbstregulierung im 19. Jahrhundert – zwischen Autonomie und staatlichen Steuerungsansprüchen, edited by Collin, Peteret al., 331. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann.
Conzelmann, Thomas and Wolf, Klaus Dieter. 2007. “The Potential and Limits of Governance by Private Codes of Conduct.” In Transnational Private Governance and its Limits, edited by Graz, Jean–Christophe and Nölke, Andreas, 98114. London: Routledge.
Craig, Paul. 2003. “National Courts and Community Law.” In Governing Europe, edited by Hayward, Jack and Menon, Anand, 1535. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cutler, A. Claire, Haufler, Virginia and Porter, Tony, eds. 1999. Private Authority and International Affairs. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Deitelhoff, Nicole and Wolf, Klaus Dieter. 2013. “Business and Human Rights: How Corporate Norm Violaters become Norm-entrepreneurs.” In The Persistent Power of Human Rights. From Commitment to Compliance, edited by Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen and Sikkink, Kathryn, 222–38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dingwerth, Klaus. 2007. The New Transnationalism: Transnational Governance and Democratic Legitimacy. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dingwerth, Klaus 2008. “North-South Parity in Global Governance: The Affirmative Procedures of the Forest Stewardship Council.” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 14(1):5372.
Dingwerth, Klaus and Pattberg, Philipp. 2006. “Global Governance as a Perspective on World Politics.” Global Governance 12(2):185203.
Flohr, Annegret. 2014. Industry Self-Regulation and International Legalization. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Flohr, Annegret, Rieth, Lothar, Schwindenhammer, Sandra and Wolf, Klaus Dieter, eds. 2010. The Role of Business in Global Governance. Corporations as Norm-entrepreneurs. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan 2010.
Friedman, Milton. 1970. The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York Times Magazine, 13 September 1970.
Grant, J. Andrew. 2011. “The Kimberly Process at Ten: Reflections on a Decade of Efforts to End the Trade in Conflict Diamonds.” In High-Value Natural Resources and Peacebuilding, edited by Lujala, Päivi and Rustad, Siri Aas, 159–80. Milton Park: Earthscan.
Grant, J. Andrew and Taylor, Ian. 2004. “Global Governance and Conflict Diamonds: The Kimberley Process and the Quest for Clean Gems.” The Round Table 93:385401.
Graz, Jean-Christophe and Nölke, Andreas, eds. 2007. Transnational Private Governance and its Limits. London: Routledge.
Gulbrandsen, Lars H. 2004. “Overlapping Public and Private Governance. Can Forest Certification Fill the Gaps in the Global Forest Regime?Global Environmental Politics 4(2):7599.
Haas, Ulrich. 2004. “Effektive Dopingbekämpfung ist ohne Staat nicht möglich. “ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 26 February 2004.
Hall, Rodney Bruce, and Biersteker, Thomas J.. 2002. “The Emergence of Private Authority in the International System.” In The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance’, edited by Hall, Rodney Bruce and Biersteker, Thomas J., 322. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hart, Herbert L.A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Haufler, Virginia. 2001. A Public Role for the Private Sector: Industry Self-Regulation in a Global Economy. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Haufler, Virginia 2009a. “The Kimberley Process, Club Goods, and Public Enforcement of a Private Regime.” In Voluntary Programs: A Club Theory Perspective’, edited by Potoski, Matthew and Prakash, Aseem, 89105. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Haufler, Virginia 2009b. “The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme: An Innovation in Global Governance and Conflict Prevention.” Journal of Business Ethics 89(4):403–16.
Held, David and McGrew, Anthony, eds. 2002. Governing Globalization. Power, Authority and Global Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Héritier, Adrienne and Lehmkuhl, Dirk. 2008. “Introduction: The Shadow of Hierarchy and New Modes of Governance.” Journal of Public Policy 28(1):117.
Jakobi, Anja P. 2013. “Governing War Economies: Conflict Diamonds and the Kimberley Process.” In The Transnational Governance of Violence and Crime. Non-State Actors in Security, edited by Jakobi, Anja P. and Wolf, Klaus Dieter, 84105. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Joerges, Christian and Neyer, Juergen. 1997. “From Intergovernmental Bargaining to Deliberative Political Processes: The Constitutionalisation of Comitology.” European Law Journal 3(3):273–99.
Kauerhof, Rico. 2007. “Ein Anti-Doping-Gesetz als Garant für den sauberen Sport?HRRS. Onlinezeitschrift für Höchstrichterliche Rechtsprechung im Strafrecht 2(8):71–5, available at <http://hrr-strafrecht.de> accessed 20 August 2013.
Kell, Georg. 2003. “The Global Compact: Origins, Operations, Progress, Challenges.” Journal of Corporate Citizenship 3(11):3549.
Ki-moon, Ban. 2013. “Responsibility to Protect: State Responsibility and Prevention. Report of the Secretary-General.” United Nations Document, A /67/929 – S /2013/399, available at <http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/67/929> accessed 25 October 2013.
Knill, Christoph and Lehmkuhl, Dirk. 2002. “Private Actors and the State: Internationalization and Changing Patterns of Governance.” Governance 15(1):4163.
Koenig-Archibugi, Matthias. 2004. “Transnational Corporations and Public Accountability.” Government and Opposition 39(2):234–59.
Kooiman, Jan. 2000. “Societal Governance: Levels, Modes, and Orders of Social-Political Interaction.” In Debating Governance – Authority, Steering, and Democracy’, edited by Pierre, Jon, 138–64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kooiman, Jan 2003. Governing as Governance. London: Sage.
Kotzenberg, Jochen. 2007. Die Bindung des Sportlers an private Dopingregeln und private Schiedsgerichte. Schriften zum Sportrecht, vol. 8. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Kumm, Mattias, Lang, Anthony F. Jr., Tully, James and Wiener, Antje. 2014. “Editorial: How Large is the World of Global Constitutionalism?Global Constitutionalism 3(1):18.
Lehmkuhl, Dirk. 2004. “Verrechtlichung privater Selbstregulierung: der lange Schatten staatlichen Rechts im transnationalen Sport. “ In Vom Nutzen und Elend internationaler Verrechtlichung. Eine Perspektive für Global Governance?, edited by Zürn, Michael and Zangl, Bernhard, 179–97. Bonn: Dietz.
Lehmkuhl, Dirk 2008. “Control Modes in the Age of Transnational Governance.” Law and Policy 30(3):336–63.
Leibfried, Stefan and Zürn, Michael, eds. 2005. Transformations of the State? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lengauer, Alina. 2011. Drittwirkung von Grundfreiheiten. Ein Beitrag zu dem Konzept des Normadressaten im Gemeinschaftsrecht. Wien/New York: Springer.
Levy, Roy. 2012. “Swiss Federal Tribunal Overrules CAS Award in a Landmark Decision: FIFA vs Matuzalem.” International Sports Law Journal 34:35–8.
Loughlin, Martin. 2014. “‘Constitutional Pluralism’: An Oxymoron?Global Constitutionalism 3(1):930.
Lüer, Christoph. 2006. Dopingstrafen im Sport und der Grundsatz ‘Ne bis in idem’. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des WADA-Code und des NADA-Code. Schriften zum Sportrecht, vol. 3. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
MacCormick, Neil. 1999. Questioning Sovereignty: Law, State and Nation in the European Commonwealth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Majone, Giandomenico. 1998. “Europe’s Democratic Deficit.” European Law Journal 4(1):528.
Mathews, Jessica Tuchman. 1997. “Power Shift.” Foreign Affairs 76(1):5066.
Mätzler, Andreas. 2009. Die internationalen Organisationsstrukturen im Spitzensport und die Regelwerke der Sportverbände. Dissertation: University of Vienna, available at <http://othes.univie.ac.at/7863/1/2009-07-21_9709964.pdf> accessed 21 December 2011.
Michael, Lothar. 2005. “Private Standardsetter und demokratisch legitimierte Rechtsetzung. “In Demokratie in Europa’, edited by Bauer, Hartmut, Huber, Peter M. and Sommermann, Karl-Peter, 431–56. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Miller, David. 2007. National Responsibility and Global Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1994. “Why the European Community Strengthens the State: International Co-operation and Domestic Politics.” Center for European Studies Working Paper Series No. 52. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Moravcsik, Andrew 2002. “In Defence of the ‘Democratic Deficit’: Reassessing Legitimacy in the European Union.” Journal of Common Market Studies 40(4):603–24.
Niesen, Peter, ed. 2012. Transnationale Gerechtigkeit und Demokratie. Frankfurt am Main and New York, NY: Campus.
Nolte, Martin. 2012. “Vereinbartes Recht am Beispiel der lex sportiva. Wechselwirkungen zwischen ‘lex sportiva’ und ‘lex extra sportiva’.” In Privates Recht, edited by Bumke, Christian and Röthel, Anne, 107–18. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Ougaard, Morten, and Leander, Anna, eds. 2010. Business and Global Governance. London: Routledge 2010.
Papadopoulos, Yannis. 2013. “The Challenge of Transnational Private Governance: Evaluating Authorization, Representation, and Accountability.” LIEPP Working Paper 8, February 2013, Lausanne.
Peters, Anne, and Armingeon, Klaus. 2009. “Introduction – Global Constitutionalism from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 16(2):385–95.
Pierre, Jon and Peters, B. Guy. 2000. Governance, Politics and the State. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Poiares Maduro, Miguel. 2012. “Three Claims of Constitutional Pluralism.” In Constitutional Pluralism in the European Union and Beyond, edited by Avbelj, Matej and Komarek, Jan, 6784. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Quack, Sigrid. 2010. “Law, Expertise and Legitimacy in Transnational Economic Governance: An Introduction.” Socio-Economic Review 8(1):316.
Rasche, Andreas and Kell, Georg, eds. 2010. The United Nations Global Compact: Achievements, Trends and Challenges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reinicke, Wolfgang H. 1998. Global Public Policy. Governing without Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Reissinger, Fabian. 2010. Staatliche Verantwortung zur Bekämpfung des Dopings. Schriften zum Sportrecht, vol. 19. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Risse, Thomas, ed. 2011. Governance without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood. New York: Columbia University Press.
Risse, Thomas 2013. “Transnational Actors and World Politics.” In Handbook of International Relations, edited by Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas and Simmons, Beth A., 426–53. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi and Singapore: Sage.
Rosenau, James N. and Czempiel, Ernst-Otto, eds. 1992. Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Röthel, Anne. 2007. “Lex mercatoria, lex sportiva, lex technica – Private Rechtsetzung jenseits des Nationalstaates?JuristenZeitung 62(15–16):755–63.
Ruggie, John G. 2004. “Reconstituting the Global Public Domain. Issues, Actors, and Practices.” European Journal of International Relations 10(4):499531.
Ruggie, John. 2013. Just Business. Multinational Corporations and Human Rights. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.
Scharpf, Fritz W. 1999. Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Scherer, Andreas Georg and Palazzo, Guido, eds. 2008. Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Scheuerman, William E. 2014. “Globalization, Constitutionalism, and Sovereignty.” Global Constitutionalism 3(1): 102–18.
Schimank, Uwe and Glagow, Manfred. 1984. “Formen politischer Steuerung: Etatismus, Subsidiarität, Delegation und Neokorporatismus.” In Gesellschaftssteuerung zwischen Korporatismus und Subsidiarität, edited by Glagow, Manfred, 428. Bielefeld: A. J. Z. Druck & Verlag.
Schuppert, Gunnar Folke. 2001. “Das Konzept der regulierten Selbstregulierung als Bestandteil einer als Regelungswissenschaft verstandenen Rechtswissenschaft.” In Regulierte Selbstregulierung als Steuerungskonzept des Gewährleistungsstaates. Die Verwaltung, suppl. 4, 201–50.
Schuppert, Gunnar Folke 2011a. Governance und Rechtsetzung. Grundfragen einer modernen Regelungswissenschaft. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Schuppert, Gunnar Folke 2011b. “Law without the State? A New Interplay between State and Non-State Actors in Governance by Rule Making.” In Governance without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood, edited by Risse, Thomas, 6586. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Schuppert, Gunnar Folken.d. New Modes of Governance and the Rule of Law: The Case of Transnational Rule-Making, MS.
Sciulli, David. 1992 Theory of Societal Constitutionalism: Foundations of a Non-Marxistic Critical Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sciulli, David 2001. Corporate Power in Civil Society. An Application of Societal Constitutionalism. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Siekmann, Robert C. R. 2012. “Anti-Doping Law in Sport: The Hybrid Character of WADA and the Human Rights of Athletes in Doping Cases (Proportionality Principle).” In Introduction to International and European Sports Law’, edited by Siekmann, Robert C. R., 313–33. The Hague: T. M. C. Asser Press.
Stephen, Matthew and Zürn, Michael. 2013. “Contested World Orders: Rising Powers, Non-State Actors, and the Politics of Authority Beyond the Nation-state.” Paper presented at the “Rising Powers and Contested Orders in the Multipolar System” Conference, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio, 19–20 September 2013.
Strange, Susan. 1996. The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Take, Ingo. 2012. “Regulating the Internet Infrastructure: A Comparative Appraisal of the Legitimacy of ICANN, ITU, and the WSIS.” Regulation and Governance 6(4):499523.
Teubner, Gunther. 1997. “Foreword: Legal Regimes of Global Non-state Actors.” In Global Law without a State, edited by Teubner, Gunther, xiii–xvii. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Teubner, Gunther 2010. “Selbst-Konstitutionalisierung transnationaler Unternehmen? Zur Verknüpfung ‘privater‘ und ‘staatlicher‘ Corporate Codes of Conduct.” In Unternehmen, Markt und Verantwortung: Festschrift für Klaus Hopt, edited by Grundmann, Stephanet al., 1449–70. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Teubner, Gunther 2011. “The Project of Constitutional Sociology: Irritating Nation State Constitutionalism.” Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie 32(2):189204.
Teubner, Gunther 2012. Constitutional Fragments: Societal Constitutionalism and Globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UNESCO. 2005. “International Convention against Doping in Sport.” ED.2005/CONVENTION ANTI-DOPING Rev, Paris, 19 October 2005, available at <http://www.wada-ama.org/en/World-Anti-Doping-Program/Governments/UNESCO-International-Convention-against-Doping-in-Sport> accessed 10 March 2013.
Voser, Nathalie, and Meier, Philipp. 2010. “Swiss Federal Tribunal’s reasoning in the ‘Pechstein’ case confirms its strict approach to petitions to set aside arbitral awards.” Practical Law, 2 June 2010, available at <http://us.practicallaw.com/5-502-4343?q=&qp=&qo=&qe=> accessed 1 April 2014.
Wiener, Antje, Lang, Anthony F., Tully, James, Poiares Maduro, Miguel, and Kumm, Mattias. 2012. “Global Constitutionalism: Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law.” Global Constitutionalism 1(1):115.
Wolf, Klaus Dieter. 1999. “The New Raison d’État as a Problem for Democracy in World Society.” European Journal of International Relations 5(3):333–63.
Wolf, Klaus Dieter 2008. “Emerging Patterns of Global Governance: The New Interplay between the State, Business and Civil Society.” In Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship, edited by Scherer, Andreas Georg and Palazzo, Guido, 225–48. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Wolf, Klaus Dieter 2010. “Chartered Companies: Linking Private Security Governance in Early and Post Modernity.” In Corporate Security Responsibility? Private Governance Contributions to Peace and Security in Zones of Conflict’, edited by Deitelhoff, Nicole and Wolf, Klaus Dieter, 154–76. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wolf, Klaus Dieter 2012a. “Legitimitätsbedarf und Legitimation privater Selbstregulierung im Fall der lex sportiva.” In Transnationale Gerechtigkeit und Demokratie, edited by Niesen, Peter, 189214. Frankfurt am Main and New York, NY: Campus.
Wolf, Klaus Dieter 2012b. “Private Akteure als Normsetzer – Politikwissenschaftliche Fragestellungen und Perspektiven.” In Privates Recht, edited Christian Bumke and Anne Röthel, 187205. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Wolfsberg Group. 2002. The Wolfsberg Anti-Money Laundering Principles for Correspondent Banking, available at <http://www.wolfsberg-principles.com/pdf/standards/Wolfsberg_Correspondent_Banking_Guidelines_(2002).pdf> accessed 30 April 2014.
World Anti-Doping Agency. 2009. World-Anti-Doping-Code 2009, Canada available at <http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-The-Code/WADA_Anti-Doping_CODE_2009_EN.pdf> accessed 30 April 2013.
World Conference on Doping in Sport. 2003. Copenhagen Declaration on Anti-Doping in Sport 2003, available at <http://www.wada-ama.org/en/World-Anti-Doping-Program/Governments/Copenhagen-Declaration-on-Anti-Doping-in-Sport> accessed 7 March 2013.
Wright, Christopher. 2009. “Setting Standards for Responsible Banking: Examining the Role of the International Finance Corporation in the Emergence of the Equator Principles.” In International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance, edited by Biermann, Frank, Siebenhüner, Bernd and Schreyögg, Anna, 5170. London: Routledge.
Zürn, Michael. 1998. Regieren jenseits des Nationalstaates. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Zürn, Michael, Binder, Martin and Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias. 2012. “International Political Authority and Its Politicization.” International Theory 4(1):69106.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Global Constitutionalism
  • ISSN: 2045-3817
  • EISSN: 2045-3825
  • URL: /core/journals/global-constitutionalism
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed