Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America


Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.

Hide All

Cas Mudde is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Affairs of the University of Georgia. Contact email: Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser is Marie Curie Research Fellow in the Department of Politics of the University of Sussex. Contact email:

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. Albertazzi D. McDonnell (eds) (2008), Twenty-First Century Populism: The Spectre of Western Democracy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

T. Bale , S. van Kessel P. Taggart (2011), ‘Thrown around with Abandon? Popular Understandings of Populism as Conveyed by the Print Media: A UK Case Study’, Acta Politica, 46(2): 111131.

H-G. Betz (1994), Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan).

H-G. Betz (2001), ‘Exclusionary Populism in Austria, Italy, and Switzerland’, International Journal, 56(3): 393420.

H-G. Betz S. Meret (2009), ‘Revisiting Lepanto: The Political Mobilization against Islam in Contemporary Western Europe’, Patterns of Prejudice, 43(3–4): 313334.

A. Brewer-Carías (2010), Dismantling Democracy in Venezuela: The Chávez Authoritarian Experiment (New York: Cambridge University Press).

M. Canovan (1999), ‘Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy’, Political Studies, 47(1): 34.

F. Decker (2008), ‘Germany: Right-wing Populist Failures and Left-wing Successes’, in D. Albertazzi and D. McDonnell (eds), Twenty-First Century Populism: The Spectre of Western Democracy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan): 119134.

P. Domingo (2009), ‘Evo Morales, the MAS, and a Revolution in the Making’, in J. Grugel and P. Riggirozzi (eds), Governance after Neoliberalism in Latin America (New York: Palgrave Macmillan): 113145.

K. Eaton (2011), ‘Conservative Autonomy Movements: Territorial Dimensions of Ideological Conflict in Bolivia and Ecuador’, Comparative Politics, 43(3): 291310.

M. Freeden (1996), Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach (Oxford: Clarendon).

M. Freeden (1998), ‘Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology?’, Political Studies, 46(4): 748765.

K. Hawkins (2010), Venezuela's Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press).

D. Hough M. Koß (2009), ‘Populism Personified or Reinvigorated Reformers? The German Left Party in 2009 and Beyond’, German Politics and Society, 27(2): 7691.

P. Ignazi (1992), ‘The Silent Counter-Revolution: Hypotheses on the Emergence of Extreme Right-wing Parties in Europe’, European Journal of Political Research, 22(1–2): 334.

H. Kriesi , E. Grande , R. Lachat , M. Dolezal , S. Bornschier T. Frey (2008), West European Politics in the Age of Globalization (New York: Cambridge University Press).

R.L. Madrid (2012), The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America (New York: Cambridge University Press).

J. Meltzer (2009), ‘Hugo Chávez and the Search for Post-Neoliberal Policy Alternatives in Venezuela’, in L. Macdonald and A. Ruckert (eds), Post-neoliberalism in the Americas (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan): 89104.

Y. Mény Y. Surel (eds) (2002), Democracies and the Populist Challenge (Basingstoke: Palgrave).

N. Mouzelis (1985), ‘On the Concept of Populism: Populist and Clientelist Modes of Incorporation in Semiperipheral Polities’, Politics & Society, 14(3): 329348.

C. Mudde (2004), ‘The Populist Zeitgeist’, Government and Opposition, 39(4): 541563.

C. Mudde (2007), Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

C. Mudde C. Rovira Kaltwasser (eds) (2012), Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy? (New York: Cambridge University Press).

W. Müller (1999), ‘Plebiscitary Agenda-setting and Party Strategies: Theoretical Considerations and Evidence from Austria’, Party Politics, 5(3): 303315.

M.F. Plattner (2010), ‘Populism, Pluralism, and Liberal Democracy’, Journal of Democracy, 21(1): 8192.

S. Rivera Cusicanqui (2008), ‘Colonialism and Ethnic Resistance in Bolivia: A View from the Coca Markets’, in F. Rosen (ed.), Empire and Dissent. The United States and Latin America (Durham, NC: Duke University Press): 137161.

M. Rooduijn T. Pauwels (2011), ‘Measuring Populism: Comparing Two Methods of Content Analysis’, West European Politics, 34(6): 12721283.

P. Rosanvallon (2008), Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

C. Rovira Kaltwasser (2012), ‘The Ambivalence of Populism: Threat and Corrective for Democracy’, Democratization, 19(2): 184208.

E. Silva (2009), Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America (New York: Cambridge University Press).

B. Stanley (2008), ‘The Thin Ideology of Populism’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 13(1): 95110.

K. Weyland (1996), ‘Neopopulism and Neoliberalism in Latin America: Unexpected Affinities’, Studies in Comparative and International Development, 31(3): 331.

K. Weyland (2001), ‘Clarifying a Contested Concept. Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics’, Comparative Politics, 34(1): 122.

D. Yashar (2005), Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge (New York: Cambridge University Press).

J.P. Zúquete (2008), ‘The Missionary Politics of Hugo Chávez’, Latin American Politics and Society, 50(1): 91121.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Government and Opposition
  • ISSN: 0017-257X
  • EISSN: 1477-7053
  • URL: /core/journals/government-and-opposition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 196
Total number of PDF views: 1604 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2032 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.