Scott, Joanne and Trubek, David, ‘Mind the Gap: Law and New Approaches to Governance in the European Union’, European Law Journal, 8: 1 (2002), pp. 1–18
Majone, Giandomenico, ‘A European Regulatory State?’, in Richardson, Jeremy J. (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making, London, Routledge, 1996, pp. 263–77.
Sabel, Charles and Cohen, Joshua, ‘Sovereignty and Solidarity in the EU’, in Zeitlin, J. and Trubek, D. (eds), Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy: European and American Experiments, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 345–75.
Héritier, Adrienne, ‘Elements of Democratic Legitimation in Europe: An Alternative Perspective’, Journal of European Public Policy, 6: 2 (1999), pp. 269–82, p. 273.
Smismans, Stijn, ‘New Modes of Governance and the Participatory Myth’, West European Politics, 31: 5 (2008), pp. 874–95.
Taylor, Michael, The Possibility of Cooperation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987
Levi, Margaret, Consent, Dissent and Patriotism, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1998
Kydd, Andrew H., Trust and Mistrust in International Relations, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2005
Rawls, John, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 336
; and cf.
Scanlon, Thomas M., What We Owe to Each Other, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1998, p. 339
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, On the Social Contract, New York, St Martin's Press, 1978, 2.4.5; James Madison, ‘Vices of the Political System of the United States’, in William T. Hutchinson (ed.), The Papers of James Madison, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1987, pp. 348–57; Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991; Fritz W. Scharpf, Games Real Actors Play: Actor-Centered Institutionalism in Policy Research, Boulder, CO, Westview, 1997; Glen Loury, ‘A Dynamic Theory of Racial Income Differences’, in Phyllis A. Wallance and Annette Le Mund (eds), Women, Minorities, and Employment Discrimination, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1977; Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993.
I here modify Margaret Levi's model of contingent consent found in Margaret Levi, ‘A State of Trust’, in Margaret Levi and Valerie Braithwaite (eds), Trust and Governance, New York, Russell Sage, 1998. Cf. Robert E. Goodin, Green Political Theory, Cambridge, Polity, 1992.
Tore Vincents Olsen, ‘United Under God? Or Not?’, in Lynn Dobson and Andreas Føllesdal (eds), Political Theory and the European Constitution, London, Routledge, 2004.
Renaud Dehousse, ‘Towards a Regulation of Transitional Governance? Citizens' Rights and the Reform of Comitology Procedures’, in Christian Joerges and Ellen Vos (eds), EU Committees: Social Regulation, Law and Politics, Oxford, Hart, 1999, pp. 109–27; Héritier, ‘Elements of Democratic Legitimation in Europe’.
Levi, ‘A State of Trust’.
Héritier, ‘Elements of Democratic Legitimation in Europe’.
Føllesdal, Andreas and Hix, Simon, ‘Why There Is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 44: 3 (2006), pp. 533–62.
Cf. Charles R. Beitz, Political Equality, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1989; Ian Shapiro, Democracy's Place, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1996; Albert Weale, Democracy, New York, St Martin's Press, 1999.
Simon Hix, What's Wrong with the EU and How to Fix It, Cambridge, Polity, 2008.
Hooge, Liesbeth and Marks, Gary, ‘Unravelling the Central State, but How? Types of Multi-Level Governance’, American Political Science Review, 97: 2 (2001), pp. 233–43.
Smismans, ‘New Modes of Governance and the Participatory Myth’.
Schmitter, Philippe C., ‘Still the Century of Corporatism?’, Review of Political Studies, 36 (1974), pp. 85–131
; David Held, Models of Democracy, Cambridge, Polity, 1987, p. 219; Thomas Christiansen, Andreas Føllesdal and Simona Piattoni, ‘Informal Governance in the European Union: An Introduction’, in Thomas Christiansen and Simona Piattoni (eds), Informal Governance in the European Union, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 1–21.
Kydland, Finn E. and Prescott, Edward C., ‘Rules Rather than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans’, Journal of Political Economy, 85 (1977), pp. 473–90.
For related arguments, cf.
Majone, Giandomenico, ‘Europe's “Democratic Deficit”: The Question of Standards’, European Law Journal, 4: 1 (1998), pp. 5–28
.; and see
Dehousse, Renaud, ‘Constitutional Reforms in the European Community: Are There Alternatives to the Majoritarian Avenue?’, West European Politics, 18: 3 (1995), pp. 118–36.
Bellamy, R., ‘Still in Deficit: Rights, Regulation and Democracy in the EU’, European Law Journal, 12: 3 (2006), pp. 737–78.
For an additional argument to this effect, see see
Bellamy, R., ‘Democracy without Democracy?: Can the EU's Democratic “Outputs” Be Separated from the Democratic “Inputs” Provided by Competitive Parties and Majority Rule?’, Journal of European Public Policy, 17: 1 (2010), pp. 2–19