Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Smoking, health and academic outcomes: evidence from a limited smoking campus policy

  • Colin Cannonier (a1), Monica G. Burke (a2) and Kathryn Steward (a3)

Abstract

Although there is substantial literature on the impact of smoking laws, the number of studies that investigate the impact of such policies on college campuses is sparse. Using a rich data set from various waves of the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment survey for a mid-sized public university in the southern United States, we investigate a possible causal link between a limited smoking policy and smoking behaviours, health and academic outcomes among college students. We employ propensity score matching methods to control for endogeneity of unobservable characteristics. Our results show a significant reduction in the propensity to smoke cigarettes and cigars following the introduction of the policy. Further, we find that the policy has increased academic outcomes; however, it has no significant effect on student health. These findings have important policy implications for schools that are considering instituting comprehensive smoking bans on college.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence to: Colin Cannonier, Jack C. Massey College of Business, Belmont University, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Email: colin.cannonier@belmont.edu

Footnotes

Hide All

Deceased 11 May 2017.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adda, J. and Cornaglia, F. (2010), ‘The effect of bans and taxes on passive smoking’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 21(1): 132.
American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation (2016), Smokefree and Tobacco-Free U.S. and TRIBAL COLLEGES and Universities, Berkley, CA: ANRF. http://no-smoke.org/goingsmokefree.php?id=447 [14 February 2017].
An, L. C., Berg, C. J., Klatt, C. M., Perry, C. L., Thomas, J. L., Luo, X., Ehlinger, E. and Ahluwalia, J. S. (2009), ‘Symptoms of cough and shortness of breath among occasional young adult smokers’, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(2): 126133.
Angrist, J. D. and Pischke, J.-S. (2008), Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Apel, M., Klein, K., McDermott, R. and Westhoff, W. W. (1997), ‘Restricting smoking at the University of Köln, Germany: a case study’, Journal of American College Health, 45(5): 219223.
Barnoya, J. and Glantz, S. A. (2005), ‘Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: nearly as large as smoking’, Circulation, 111(20): 26842698.
Borders, T. F., Xu, K. T., Bacchi, D., Cohen, L. and SoRelle-Miner, D. (2005), ‘College campus smoking policies and programs and students’ smoking behaviors’, BMC Public Health, 5: 74.
Callison, K. and Kaestner, R. (2014), ‘Do higher tobacco taxes reduce adult smoking? New evidence of the effect of recent cigarette tax increases on adult smoking’, Economic Inquiry, 52(1): 155173.
Centers for Disease Control (2016), Fact sheet: current cigarette smoking among adults in the United States, https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/ [14 February 2017].
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2016), Fact sheets: health effects of secondhand smoke, https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects/ [14 February 2017].
Chaaya, M., Alameddine, M., Nakkash, R., Afifi, R. A., Khalil, J. and Nahhas, G. (2013), ‘Students’ attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study’, BMJ Open, 3(4): e002100.
Chaloupka, F. J. (2004), ‘The effect of public polices and prices on youth smoking’, Southern Economic Journal, 70(4): 796815.
Cho, Y.-N. and DeVaney, S. A. (2010), ‘Understanding college students’ opinions on a smoking policy’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34: 388393.
DeCicca, P., Kenkel, D., Mathios, A., Shin, Y.-J. and Lim, J.-Y. (2008), ‘Youth smoking, cigarette prices, and anti-smoking sentiment’, Health Economics, 17(6): 733749.
Dehejia, R. H. and Wahba, S. (1999), ‘Causal effects in nonexperimental studies: reevaluation of the evaluation of training programs’, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94(1): 10431062.
Dehejia, R. H. and Wahba, S. (2002), ‘Propensity score-matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1): 151161.
Dierker, L., Lloyd-Richardson, E., Stolar, M., Flay, B., Tiffany, S., Collins, L., Bailey, S., Nichter, M., Nichter, M. and Clayton, R., Tobacco Etiology Research Network (TERN) (2006), ‘The proximal association between smoking and alcohol use among first year college students’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81(1): 19.
Evans, W. N., Farrelly, M. C. and Montgomery, E. (1999), ‘Do workplace smoking bans reduce smoking?’, American Economic Review, 89(4): 728747.
Fallin, A., Roditis, M. and Glantz, S. A. (2015), ‘Association of campus tobacco policies with secondhand smoke exposure, intention to smoke on campus, and attitudes about outdoor smoking restrictions’, American Journal of Public Health, 105(6): 10981100.
Glantz, S. and Parmley, W. (2001), ‘Even a little secondhand smoke is dangerous’, JAMA, 286(4): 462463.
Halperin, A. C., Smith, S. S., Heiligenstein, E., Brown, D. and Fleming, M. (2010), ‘Cigarette smoking and associated health risks among students at five universities’, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12(2): 96104.
Hatziandreu, E. J., Pierce, J. P., Fiore, M. C., Grise, V., Novotny, T. E. and Davis, R. M. (1989), ‘The reliability of self-reported cigarette consumption in the United States’, American Journal of Public Health, 79(8): 10201023.
He, J., Vupputuri, S., Allen, K., Prerost, M. R., Hughes, J. and Whelton, P. K. (1999), ‘Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease—a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies’, New England Journal of Medicine, 340: 920926.
Institute of Medicine (2009), Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
International Tobacco Control Project, World Health Organization, and World Heart Federation (2012), Cardiovascular Harms from Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke: Global Gaps in Awareness and Implications for Action, Waterloo, ON, and Geneva: International Tobacco Control Project, World Health Organization, and World Heart Federation. http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/cardiovascular_harms_from_tobacco_use.pdf?ua=1 [14 February 2017].
Jamal, A., King, B. A., Neff, L. J., Whitmill, J., Babb, S. D. and Graffunder, C. M. (2016), ‘Current cigarette smoking among US adults—United States, 2005-2015’, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(44): 12051211.
Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G. and Schulenberg, J. E. (2016), Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2015: Overview, Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use, Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2015.pdf [14 February 2017].
Kenney, B. A. and Holahan, C. J. (2008), ‘Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample’, Journal of American College Health, 56(4): 409414.
Lochbihler, S. L., Miller, D. A. and Etcheverry, P. E. (2014), ‘Extending animal models to explore social rewards associated with designated smoking areas on college campuses’, Journal of American College Health, 62(3): 145152.
Marie, O. and Zölitz, U. (2015), ‘High Achievers? Cannabis Access and Academic Performance’, IZA Discussion Paper No. 8900, Institute for the Study of Labor, Germany, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8900.pdf [14 February 2017].
Mocan, N. and Tekin, E. (2006), ‘Catholic schools and bad behavior: a propensity score matching analysis’, Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy, 5(1): 13.
Odermatt, R. and Stutzer, A. (2015), ‘Smoking bans, cigarette prices and life satisfaction’, Journal of Health Economics, 44(1): 176194.
Prokhorov, A. V., Warneke, C., de Moor C, C., Emmons, K. M., Mullin Jones, M., Rosenblum, C., Hudmon, K. S. and Gritz, E. R. (2003), ‘Self-reported health status, health vulnerability, and smoking behavior in college students: implications for intervention’, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 5(4): 545552.
Rigotti, N. A., Lee, J. E. and Wechsler, H. (2000), ‘U.S. college students’ use of tobacco products: results of a national study’, JAMA, 284(6): 699705.
Rosenbaum, P. and Rubin, D. (1983), ‘The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects’, Biometrika, 70(1): 4155.
Seo, D., Macy, J., Torabi, M. and Middlestadt, S. E. (2011), ‘The effect of a smoke-free campus policy on college students’ smoking behaviors and attitudes’, Preventive Medicine, 53: 347352.
Shetty, K. D., DeLeire, T., White, C. and Bhattacharya, J. (2011), ‘Changes in U.S. hospitalization and mortality rates following smoking bans’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(1): 628.
Sutfin, E. L., McCoy, T. P., Berg, C. J., Champion, H., Helme, D. W., O’Brien, M. C. and Wolfson, M. (2012), ‘Tobacco use by college students: a comparison of daily and nondaily smokers’, American Journal of Health Behavior, 36: 218229.
Tucker, J. S., Ellickson, P. L. and Klein, D. J. (2003), ‘Predictors of the transition to regular smoking during adolescence and young adulthood’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(4): 314324.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2010), How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease—The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Tobacco-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2014), The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. https://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/full-report.pdf [14 February 2017].
Wasserman, J., Manning, W. G., Newhouse, J. P. and Winkler, J. D. (1991), ‘The effects of excise taxes and regulations on cigarette smoking’, Journal of Health Economics, 10(1): 4364.
Zhao, Z. (2005), ‘Sensitivity of Propensity Score Methods to the Specifications’, IZA Discussion Paper No. 1873, Institute for the Study of Labor, Germany, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4b54/4d5ca55d21be7d658e67d1cb5938fcb359bf.pdf [14 February 2017].
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Health Economics, Policy and Law
  • ISSN: 1744-1331
  • EISSN: 1744-134X
  • URL: /core/journals/health-economics-policy-and-law
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed