Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78bd46657c-dj9st Total loading time: 1.964 Render date: 2021-05-07T02:26:06.658Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Invisible Disabilities: Unique Challenges for Employees and Organizations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 January 2015

Alecia M. Santuzzi
Affiliation:
Northern Illinois University
Pamela R. Waltz
Affiliation:
Northern Illinois University
Lisa M. Finkelstein
Affiliation:
Northern Illinois University
Deborah E. Rupp
Affiliation:
Purdue University
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Workers with invisible disabilities encounter unique challenges compared to workers with other concealable identities and even workers with visible disabilities. These challenges occur not only in the decisions of whether to disclose the invisible disability in the workplace but also in the detection and acceptance of having a disability to disclose. Disclosure of disabilities in the workplace likely has implications for the individual worker's health, social relationships, and work performance as well as for an employing organization's outcomes. We argue that current legislation and policies might not be sensitive to the unique experiences and disclosure decisions faced by workers with invisible disabilities. We invite researchers and practitioners to consider adjustments to current legislation and workplace practices in order for employing organizations to account for the unique challenges facing workers with invisible disabilities and fully accommodate those workers.

Type
Focal Article
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acemoglu, D., & Angrist, J. D. (2001). Consequences of employment protection? The case of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Political Economy, 109, 915957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ADA Amendments Act of 2008. (2008). Pub. L. No. 110–325, 122 Stat. 3553.Google Scholar
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (1991). Pub. L. No. 101–336, § 2, 104 Stat. 328.Google Scholar
Baffo v. New York Institute of Technology, No. CV 10-1245 (LDW)(ETB) (E.D.N.Y. January 18, 2012) (LEXIS 6884).Google Scholar
Baldridge, D. C., & Swift, M. L. (2013). Withholding requests for disability accommodation: The role of individual differences and disability attributes. Journal of Management, 39, 375385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beatty, J. E., & Kirby, S. L. (2006). Beyond the legal environment: How stigma influences invisible identity groups in the workplace. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 18, 2944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brault, M. W. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010 (Report No. P70-131). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
Buck, D. M., & Plant, E. A. (2011). Interorientation interactions and impressions: Does the timing of disclosure of sexual orientation matter? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 333342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butterworth, B. (2008). Developmental dyscalculia. In Campbell, J. (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 455467). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Butterworth, B., Varma, S., & Laurillard, D. (2011). Dyscalculia: From brain to education. Science, 332, 10491053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, N. C., & Paetzold, R. L. (2013, January 21). An examination of factors influencing responses to requests for disability accommodations. Rehabilitation Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charles, K. K. (2004). The extent and effect of employer compliance with the accommodations mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 15(2), 8696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaudoir, S. R., & Quinn, D. M. (2010). Revealing concealable stigmatized identities: The impact of disclosure motivations and positive first disclosure experiences on fear of disclosure and well being. Journal of Social Issues, 66, 570584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clair, J. A., Beatty, J. E., & MacLean, T. L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30, 7895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colella, A. (2001). Coworker distributive fairness judgments of the workplace accommodation of employees with disabilities. Academy of Management Review, 26, 100116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colella, A. (2012, April). Presidential address. Speech presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
Colella, A., & Bruyère, S. (2011). Disability and employment. In Zedeck, S. (Ed.), American psychological association's handbook of industrial/organizational psychology (Vol. 1): Building and developing the organization (pp. 473504). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
Colella, A., DeNisi, A. S., & Varma, A. (1998). The impact of ratee's disability on performance judgments and choice as partner: The role of disability-job fit stereotypes and interdependence of rewards. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 102111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colella, A., Paetzold, R., & Belliveau, M. A. (2004). Factors affecting coworkers' procedural justice inferences of workplace accommodations of employees with disabilities. Personnel Psychology, 57, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colella, A., & Stone, D. L. (2005). Workplace discrimination toward persons with disabilities: A call for some new research directions. In Dipboye, R., & Colella, A. (Eds.), Discrimination at work: The psychological and organizational bases (pp. 227253). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Dalgin, R. S., & Bellini, J. (2008). Invisible disability disclosure in an employment interview: Impact on employers' hiring decisions and views of employability. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 52, 615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erickson, W., Lee, C., & vonSchrader, S. (2012). Disability statistics from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Employment and Disability Institute (EDI). Retrieved April 14, 2013, from www.disabilitystatistics.orgGoogle Scholar
Gordon, B. O., & Rosenblum, K. E. (2001). Bringing disability into the sociological frame: A comparison of disability with race, sex, and sexual orientation statuses. Disability & Society, 16, 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hebl, M. R., & Skorinko, J. L. (2005). Acknowledging one's physical disability in the interview: Does “when” make a difference? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 24772492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hétu, R., Riverin, L., Getty, L., Lalande, N. M., & St-Cyr, C. (1990). The reluctance to acknowledge hearing difficulties among hearing-impaired workers. British Journal of Audiology, 24, 265276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Higgins, E. L., Raskind, M. H., Goldberg, R. J., & Herman, K. L. (2002). Stages of acceptance of a learning disability: The impact of labeling. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York, NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
King, E. B., & Botsford, W. E. (2009). Managing pregnancy disclosures: Understanding and overcoming the challenges of expectant motherhood at work. Human Resource Management Review, 19, 314323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Licht, B. G. (1983). Cognitive-motivational factors that contribute to the achievement of learning-disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 483490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livneh, H. (2009a). Denial of chronic illness and disability: Part I. Theoretical, functional, and dynamic perspectives. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 52, 225236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Livneh, H. (2009b). Denial of chronic illness and disability: Part II. Research findings, measurement considerations, and clinical aspects. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 53, 4455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madaus, J. W. (2008). Employment self-disclosure rates and rationales of university graduates with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 291299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mashek v. Soo Line Railroad Company, Civil File No. 11-487 (MJD/JJG) (D. Minn. December 14, 2012) (LEXIS 177176).Google Scholar
McLaughlin, M. E., Bell, M. P., & Stringer, D. Y. (2004). Stigma and acceptance of persons with disabilities understudied aspects of workforce diversity. Group & Organization Management, 29, 302333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paetzold, R. L., García, M. F., Colella, A., Ren, L. R., Triana, M. D. C., & Ziebro, M. (2008). Perceptions of people with disabilities: When is accommodation fair? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30, 2735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, D. M., & Earnshaw, V. A. (2011). Understanding concealable stigmatized identities: The role of identity in psychological, physical, and behavioral outcomes. Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 160190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragins, B. R. (2008). Disclosure disconnects: Antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Academy of Management Review, 33, 194215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragins, B. R., Singh, R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2007). Making the invisible visible: Fear and disclosure of sexual orientation at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, D. (2013, April). Presidential address. Speech presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
Roberts, L. L., & Macan, T. H. (2006). Disability disclosure effects on employment interview ratings of applicants with nonvisible disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51, 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruggs, E. N., Law, C., Cox, C. B., Roehling, M. V., Wiener, R. L., Hebl, M. R., & Barron, L. (2013). Gone fishing: I–O psychologists' missed opportunities to understand marginalized employees' experiences with discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6, 3960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rupp, D. E., & Thornton, M. (in press). The role of employee justice perceptions in influencing climate and culture. In Schneider, B., & Barbera, K. M. (Eds.), Handbook of organizational climate and culture: An integrated perspective on research and practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (1999). Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 474486.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (2000). The hidden costs of hidden stigma. In Heatherton, T., Kleck, R., & Hull, J. (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 220242). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Southall, K., Gagné, J. P., & Jennings, M. B. (2010). Stigma: A negative and a positive influence on help-seeking for adults with acquired hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 49, 804814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephens, D., & Hétu, R. (1991). Impairment, disability and handicap in audiology: Towards a consensus. International Journal of Audiology, 30, 185200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, D. S. (2005). Reactions to invisible disability: The experiences of young women survivors of hemorrhagic stroke. Disability & Rehabilitation, 27, 293304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, D. L., & Colella, A. (1996). A model of factors affecting the treatment of disabled individuals in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 21, 352401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In Worchel, S., & Austin, L. W. (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 724). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy, Job Accommodation Network. (2011). Accommodation and compliance series: The ADA amendments act of 2008. Retrieved from http://askjan.org/bulletins/adaaa1.htmGoogle Scholar
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2011). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Applying performance and conduct standards to employees with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/performance-conduct.htmlGoogle Scholar
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2012, September). Home Depot to pay $100,000 to settle EEOC disability discrimination suit. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/9-5-12c.cfmGoogle Scholar
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013a, March). EEOC sues Toys “R” Us for disability discrimination. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/3-1-13.cfmGoogle Scholar
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2013b, March). Outback Steakhouse to pay $65,000 to settle EEOC disability discrimination lawsuit. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/3-22-13.cfmGoogle Scholar
Wadlington, E. M., & Wadlington, P. L. (2008). Helping students with mathematical disabilities succeed. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 53, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wadlington, E. M., Wadlington, P. L., & Rupp, D. E. (2006). Teachers with dyslexia and dyscalculia: Effects on life. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10, 110123.Google Scholar
Wallhagen, M. I. (2010). The stigma of hearing loss. The Gerontologist, 50, 6675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waltz, P., Rupp, D. E., Santuzzi, A., & Finkelstein, L. (2012, April). Defining disability: The role of labels in justice perceptions. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Invisible Disabilities: Unique Challenges for Employees and Organizations
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Invisible Disabilities: Unique Challenges for Employees and Organizations
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Invisible Disabilities: Unique Challenges for Employees and Organizations
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *