Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-s2vjv Total loading time: 1.012 Render date: 2023-01-29T16:44:45.588Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Strategies to Prevent Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 May 2016

Jonas Marschall
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland These authors contributed equally to this article
Leonard A. Mermel*
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island These authors contributed equally to this article
Mohamad Fakih
St. John Hospital and Medical Center and Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan
Lynn Hadaway
Lynn Hadaway Associates, Inc., Milner, Georgia
Alexander Kallen
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Naomi P. O’Grady
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Ann Marie Pettis
University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
Mark E. Rupp
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska
Thomas Sandora
Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Lisa L. Maragakis
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
Deborah S. Yokoe
Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Division of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903 (


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
SHEA/IDSA Practice Recommendation
© 2014 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1. Marschall, J, Mermel, LA, Classen, D, et al. Strategies to prevent central line–associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(suppl 1):S22S30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Yokoe, DS, Anderson, DJ, Berenholtz, SM, et al. Introduction to “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Updates.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(5):455459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Maki, DG, Kluger, DM, Crnich, CJ. The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin Proc 2006;81(9):11591171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Esteve, F, Pujol, M, Limon, E, et al. Bloodstream infection related to catheter connections: a prospective trial of two connection systems. J Hosp Infect 2007;67(1):3034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Climo, M, Diekema, D, Warren, DK, et al. Prevalence of the use of central venous access devices within and outside of the intensive care unit: results of a survey among hospitals in the Prevention Epicenter Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24(12):942945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Vonberg, RP, Behnke, M, Geffers, C, et al. Device-associated infection rates for non–intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(4):357361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Marschall, J, Leone, C, Jones, M, Nihill, D, Fraser, VJ, Warren, DK. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in general medical patients outside the intensive care unit: a surveillance study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28(8):905909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Vital signs: central line–associated blood stream infections—United States, 2001, 2008, and 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60(8):243248.Google Scholar
9. Kallen, AJ, Patel, PR, O’Grady, NP. Preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections outside the intensive care unit: expanding prevention to new settings. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51(3):335341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Zingg, W, Sandoz, L, Inan, C, et al. Hospital-wide survey of the use of central venous catheters. J Hosp Infect 2011;77(4):304308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Xue, H, Ix, JH, Wang, W, et al. Hemodialysis access usage patterns in the incident dialysis year and associated catheter-related complications. Am J Kidney Dis 2013;61(1):123130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12. Loftus, RW, Brown, JR, Koff, MD, et al. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg 2012;114(6):12361248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Pittet, D, Tarara, D, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients: excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA 1994;271(20):15981601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Digiovine, B, Chenoweth, C, Watts, C, Higgins, M. The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(3):976181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Renaud, B, Brun-Buisson, C. Outcomes of primary and catheter-related bacteremia: a cohort and case-control study in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163(7):15841590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Dimick, JB, Pelz, RK, Consunji, R, Swoboda, SM, Hendrix, CW, Lipsett, PA. Increased resource use associated with catheter-related bloodstream infection in the surgical intensive care unit. Arch Surg 2001;136(2):229234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Warren, DK, Quadir, WW, Hollenbeak, CS, Elward, AM, Cox, MJ, Fraser, VJ. Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a nonteaching hospital. Crit Care Med 2006;34(8):20842089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Mermel, LA. Prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(5):391402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Elward, AM, Hollenbeak, CS, Warren, DK, Fraser, VJ. Attributable cost of nosocomial primary bloodstream infection in pediatric intensive care unit patients. Pediatrics 2005;115(4):868872.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Mermel, LA. Infections caused by intravascular devices. In: Pfeiffer, JA, ed. APIC Text of Infection Control and Epidemiology. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2000:3038.Google Scholar
21. Almuneef, MA, Memish, ZA, Balkhy, HH, Hijazi, O, Cunningham, G, Francis, C. Rate, risk factors and outcomes of catheter-related bloodstream infection in a paediatric intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. J Hosp Infect 2006;62(2):207213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22. Alonso-Echanove, J, Edwards, JR, Richards, MJ, et al. Effect of nurse staffing and antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters on the risk for bloodstream infections in intensive care units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24(12):916925.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Lorente, L, Henry, C, Martin, MM, Jimenez, A, Mora, ML. Central venous catheter–related infection in a prospective and observational study of 2,595 catheters. Crit Care 2005;9(6):R631–R635.Google Scholar
24. Rey, C, Alvarez, F, De-La-Rua, V, et al. Intervention to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections in a pediatric intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2011;37(4):678685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Lorente, L, Jimenez, A, Naranjo, C, et al. Higher incidence of catheter-related bacteremia in jugular site with tracheostomy than in femoral site. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(3):311313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Fridkin, SK, Pear, SM, Williamson, TH, Galgiani, JN, Jarvis, WR. The role of understaffing in central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17(3):150158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Cimiotti, JP, Haas, J, Saiman, L, Larson, EL. Impact of staffing on bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006;160(8):832836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Merrer, J, De Jonghe, B, Golliot, F, et al. Complications of femoral and subclavian venous catheterization in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286(6):700707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Raad, I, Darouiche, R, Dupuis, J, et al; Texas Medical Center Catheter Study Group. Central venous catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin for the prevention of catheter-related colonization and bloodstream infections: a randomized, double-blind trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127(4):267274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Hanna, H, Benjamin, R, Chatzinikolaou, I, et al. Long-term silicone central venous catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampin decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in cancer patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(15):31633171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. National Healthcare Safety Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Manual: Patient Safety Component Protocol. July 2013. Accessed September 28, 2013.Google Scholar
32. Niedner, MF. The harder you look, the more you find: catheter-associated bloodstream infection surveillance variability. Am J Infect Control 2010;38(8):585595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Lin, MY, Hota, B, Khan, YM, et al. Quality of traditional surveillance for public reporting of nosocomial bloodstream infection rates. JAMA 2010;304(18):20352041.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34. Tomlinson, D, Mermel, LA, Ethier, MC, Matlow, A, Gillmeister, B, Sung, L. Defining bloodstream infections related to central venous catheters in patients with cancer: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53(7):697710.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
35. Mermel, LA, Allon, M, Bouza, E, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(1):145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. O’Grady, NP, Alexander, M, Dellinger, EP, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;51(RR-10):129.Google ScholarPubMed
37. O’Grady, NP, Alexander, M, Burns, LA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52(9):e162–e193.Google ScholarPubMed
38. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
39. Saint, S. Prevention of intravascular catheter-associated infections. In: Making Health Care Safer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2001., chapter 16. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
40. Huang, EY, Chen, C, Abdullah, F, et al. Strategies for the prevention of central venous catheter infections: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee systematic review. J Pediatr Surg 2011;46(10):20002011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41. The Joint Commission. Preventing Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections: A Global Challenge, A Global Perspective. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2012. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
42. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). Guide to the Elimination of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections. Chicago: APIC, 2009.Google ScholarPubMed
43. Infusion Nurses Society. Infusion nursing standards of practice. J Infus Nurs 2011;S34.Google ScholarPubMed
44. Pronovost, P, Needham, D, Berenholtz, S, et al. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. N Engl J Med 2006;355(26):27252732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45. Berenholtz, SM, Pronovost, PJ, Lipsett, PA, et al. Eliminating catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2004;32(10):20142020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Reduction in central line–associated bloodstream infections among patients in intensive care units—Pennsylvania, April 2001–March 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54(40):10131016.Google Scholar
47. Kim, JS, Holtom, P, Vigen, C. Reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infections through the use of a central venous line bundle: epidemiologic and economic consequences. Am J Infect Control 2011;39(8):640646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Halton, KA, Cook, D, Paterson, DL, Safdar, N, Graves, N. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle. PLoS ONE 2010;5(9):e12815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
49. Helder, O, van den Hoogen, A, de Boer, C, van Goudoever, J, Verboon-Maciolek, M, Kornelisse, R. Effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for the prevention of bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud 2013;50(6):819831.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50. Pronovost, PJ, Goeschel, CA, Colantuoni, E, et al. Sustaining reductions in catheter related bloodstream infections in Michigan intensive care units: observational study. BMJ 2010;340:c309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51. Pronovost, PJ, Berenholtz, SM, Goeschel, CA, et al. Creating high reliability in health care organizations. Health Serv Res 2006;41(4 pt 2):15991617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Furuya, EY, Dick, A, Perencevich, EN, Pogorzelska, M, Goldmann, D, Stone, PW. Central line bundle implementation in US intensive care units and impact on bloodstream infections. PLoS ONE 2011;6(1):e15452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53. Guerin, K, Wagner, J, Rains, K, Bessesen, M. Reduction in central line–associated bloodstream infections by implementation of a postinsertion care bundle. Am J Infect Control 2010;38(6):430433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Miller, MR, Griswold, M, Harris JM 2nd, et al. Decreasing PICU catheter-associated bloodstream infections: NACHRI’s quality transformation efforts. Pediatrics 2010;125(2):206213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55. Miller, MR, Niedner, MF, Huskins, WC, et al. Reducing PICU central line–associated bloodstream infections: 3-year results. Pediatrics 2011;128(5):e1077–e1083.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56. Sherertz, RJ, Ely, EW, Westbrook, DM, et al. Education of physicians-in-training can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):641648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
57. Eggimann, P, Harbarth, S, Constantin, MN, Touveneau, S, Chevrolet, JC, Pittet, D. Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care on incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. Lancet 2000;355(9218):18641868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58. Coopersmith, CM, Rebmann, TL, Zack, JE, et al. Effect of an education program on decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections in the surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2002;30(1):5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
59. Warren, DK, Zack, JE, Cox, MJ, Cohen, MM, Fraser, VJ. An educational intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a nonteaching, community medical center. Crit Care Med 2003;31(7):19591963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60. Warren, DK, Zack, JE, Mayfield, JL, et al. The effect of an education program on the incidence of central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infection in a medical ICU. Chest 2004;126(5):16121618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61. Lobo, RD, Levin, AS, Oliveira, MS, et al. Evaluation of interventions to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infection: continuous tailored education versus one basic lecture. Am J Infect Control 2010;38(6):440448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Cherry, MG, Brown, JM, Neal, T, Ben Shaw, N. What features of educational interventions lead to competence in aseptic insertion and maintenance of CV catheters in acute care? BEME Guide 15. Med Teach 2010;32(3):198218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Assessing Hospital Staff Competence. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources, 2007.Google Scholar
64. Barsuk, JH, Cohen, ER, Feinglass, J, McGaghie, WC, Wayne, DB. Use of simulation-based education to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections. Arch Intern Med 2009;169(15):14201423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65. Khouli, H, Jahnes, K, Shapiro, J, et al. Performance of medical residents in sterile techniques during central vein catheterization: randomized trial of efficacy of simulation-based training. Chest 2011;139(1):8087.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
66. Ma, IW, Brindle, ME, Ronksley, PE, Lorenzetti, DL, Sauve, RS, Ghali, WA. Use of simulation-based education to improve outcomes of central venous catheterization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acad Med 2011;86(9):11371147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67. Bleasdale, SC, Trick, WE, Gonzalez, IM, Lyles, RD, Hayden, MK, Weinstein, RA. Effectiveness of chlorhexidine bathing to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections in medical intensive care unit patients. Arch Intern Med 2007;167(19):20732079.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68. O’Horo, JC, Silva, GL, Munoz-Price, LS, Safdar, N. The efficacy of daily bathing with chlorhexidine for reducing healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(3):257267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69. Montecalvo, MA, McKenna, D, Yarrish, R, et al. Chlorhexidine bathing to reduce central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infection: impact and sustainability. Am J Med 2012;125(5):505511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
70. Milstone, AM, Elward, A, Song, X, et al. Daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce bacteraemia in critically ill children: a multicentre, cluster-randomised, crossover trial. Lancet 2013;381(9872):10991106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
71. Munoz-Price, LS, Hota, B, Stemer, A, Weinstein, RA. Prevention of bloodstream infections by use of daily chlorhexidine baths for patients at a long-term acute care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30(11):10311035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
72. Medina, A, Serratt, T, Pelter, M, Brancamp, T. Decreasing central line–associated bloodstream infections in the non-ICU population. J Nurs Care Qual 2014;29(2):133140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73. Tamma, PD, Aucott, SW, Milstone, AM. Chlorhexidine use in the neonatal intensive care unit: results from a national survey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(8):846849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74. Bryant, KA, Zerr, DM, Huskins, WC, Milstone, AM. The past, present, and future of healthcare-associated infection prevention in pediatrics: catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(suppl 1):S27S31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75. Chapman, AK, Aucott, SW, Milstone, AM. Safety of chlorhexidine gluconate used for skin antisepsis in the preterm infant. J Perinatol 2012;32(1):49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
76. Andersen, C, Hart, J, Vemgal, P, Harrison, C. Prospective evaluation of a multi-factorial prevention strategy on the impact of nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants. J Hosp Infect 2005;61(2):162167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
77. Taylor, T, Massaro, A, Williams, L, et al. Effect of a dedicated percutaneously inserted central catheter team on neonatal catheter-related bloodstream infection. Adv Neonatal Care 2011;11(2):122128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78. Garland, JS, Alex, CP, Uhing, MR, Peterside, IE, Rentz, A, Harris, MC. Pilot trial to compare tolerance of chlorhexidine gluconate to povidone-iodine antisepsis for central venous catheter placement in neonates. J Perinatol 2009;29(12):808813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79. Curry, S, Honeycutt, M, Goins, G, Gilliam, C. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in the NICU: getting to zero. Neonatal Netw 2009;28(3):151155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
80. Garland, JS, Alex, CP, Mueller, CD, et al. A randomized trial comparing povidone-iodine to a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter infections in neonates. Pediatrics 2001;107(6):14311436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
81. Tsuchida, T, Makimoto, K, Toki, M, Sakai, K, Onaka, E, Otani, Y. The effectiveness of a nurse-initiated intervention to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections in an urban acute hospital: an intervention study with before and after comparison. Int J Nurs Stud 2007;44(8):13241333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
82. Gozu, A, Clay, C, Younus, F. Hospital-wide reduction in central line–associated bloodstream infections: a tale of two small community hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32(6):619622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
83. Occupational Health and Safety Administration, US Department of Labor. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
84. Yilmaz, G, Koksal, I, Aydin, K, Caylan, R, Sucu, N, Aksoy, F. Risk factors of catheter-related bloodstream infections in parenteral nutrition catheterization. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2007;31(4):284287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
85. Boyce, JM, Pittet, D; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Association for Professionals in Infection Control, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;51(RR-16):145.Google Scholar
86. Rosenthal, VD, Guzman, S, Safdar, N. Reduction in nosocomial infection with improved hand hygiene in intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in Argentina. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(7):392397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
87. Capretti, MG, Sandri, F, Tridapalli, E, Galletti, S, Petracci, E, Faldella, G. Impact of a standardized hand hygiene program on the incidence of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. Am J Infect Control 2008;36(6):430435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88. Goetz, AM, Wagener, MM, Miller, JM, Muder, RR. Risk of infection due to central venous catheters: effect of site of placement and catheter type. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19(11):842845.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
89. Parienti, JJ, du Cheyron, D, Timsit, JF, et al. Meta-analysis of subclavian insertion and nontunneled central venous catheter–associated infection risk reduction in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med 2012;40(5):16271634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
90. Ge, X, Cavallazzi, R, Li, C, Pan, SM, Wang, YW, Wang, FL. Central venous access sites for the prevention of venous thrombosis, stenosis and infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;(3):CD004084.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91. Parienti, JJ, Thirion, M, Megarbane, B, et al. Femoral vs jugular venous catheterization and risk of nosocomial events in adults requiring acute renal replacement therapy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299(20):24132422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92. Timsit, JF, Bouadma, L, Mimoz, O, et al. Jugular versus femoral short-term catheterization and risk of infection in intensive care unit patients: causal analysis of two randomized trials. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;188(10):12321239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
93. de Jonge, RC, Polderman, KH, Gemke, RJ. Central venous catheter use in the pediatric patient: mechanical and infectious complications. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005;6(3):329339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
94. Marik, PE, Flemmer, M, Harrison, W. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection with femoral venous catheters as compared to subclavian and internal jugular venous catheters: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2012;40(8):24792485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95. Lorente, L, Jimenez, A, Roca, I, Martin, MM, Mora, ML. Influence of tracheostomy on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection in the catheterization of jugular vein by posterior access. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;30(9):10491051.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96. Safdar, N, Maki, DG. Risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection with peripherally inserted central venous catheters used in hospitalized patients. Chest 2005;128(2):489495.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
97. Chopra, V, Anand, S, Krein, SL, Chenoweth, C, Saint, S. Bloodstream infection, venous thrombosis, and peripherally inserted central catheters: reappraising the evidence. Am J Med 2012;125(8):733741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
98. Ajenjo, MC, Morley, JC, Russo, AJ, et al. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections in hospitalized adult patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32(2):125130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
99. Karakitsos, D, Labropoulos, N, De Groot, E, et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients. Crit Care 2006;10(6):R162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
100. Hind, D, Calvert, N, McWilliams, R, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327(7411):361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101. Mermel, LA, McCormick, RD, Springman, SR, Maki, DG. The pathogenesis and epidemiology of catheter-related infection with pulmonary artery Swan-Ganz catheters: a prospective study utilizing molecular subtyping. Am J Med 1991;91(3B):197S–205S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102. Raad, II, Hohn, DC, Gilbreath, BJ, et al. Prevention of central venous catheter–related infections by using maximal sterile barrier precautions during insertion. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15(4 pt 1):231238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
103. Hu, KK, Lipsky, BA, Veenstra, DL, Saint, S. Using maximal sterile barriers to prevent central venous catheter–related infection: a systematic evidence-based review. Am J Infect Control 2004;32(3):142146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
104. Young, EM, Commiskey, ML, Wilson, SJ. Translating evidence into practice to prevent central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections: a systems-based intervention. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(8):503506.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105. Ishikawa, Y, Kiyama, T, Haga, Y, et al. Maximal sterile barrier precautions do not reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections in general surgery units: a multi-institutional randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2010;251(4):620623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106. Burrell, AR, McLaws, ML, Murgo, M, Calabria, E, Pantle, AC, Herkes, R. Aseptic insertion of central venous lines to reduce bacteraemia. Med J Aust 2011;194(11):583587.Google ScholarPubMed
107. Lee, DH, Jung, KY, Choi, YH. Use of maximal sterile barrier precautions and/or antimicrobial-coated catheters to reduce the risk of central venous catheter–related bloodstream infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(10):947950.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
108. Maki, DG, Ringer, M, Alvarado, CJ. Prospective randomised trial of povidone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection associated with central venous and arterial catheters. Lancet 1991;338(8763):339343.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
109. Garland, JS, Buck, RK, Maloney, P, et al. Comparison of 10% povidone-iodine and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate for the prevention of peripheral intravenous catheter colonization in neonates: a prospective trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6):510516.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
110. Humar, A, Ostromecki, A, Direnfeld, J, et al. Prospective randomized trial of 10% povidone-iodine versus 0.5% tincture of chlorhexidine as cutaneous antisepsis for prevention of central venous catheter infection. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31(4):10011007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
111. Chaiyakunapruk, N, Veenstra, DL, Lipsky, BA, Saint, S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(11):792801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
112. Maiwald, M, Chan, ES. The forgotten role of alcohol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and perceived role of chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis. PLoS ONE 2012;7(9):e44277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
113. Robert, J, Fridkin, SK, Blumberg, HM, et al. The influence of the composition of the nursing staff on primary bloodstream infection rates in a surgical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21(1):1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
114. Stone, PW, Mooney-Kane, C, Larson, EL, et al. Nurse working conditions and patient safety outcomes. Med Care 2007;45(6):571578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
115. Salzman, MB, Isenberg, HD, Rubin, LG. Use of disinfectants to reduce microbial contamination of hubs of vascular catheters. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31(3):475479.Google ScholarPubMed
116. Luebke, MA, Arduino, MJ, Duda, DL, et al. Comparison of the microbial barrier properties of a needleless and a conventional needle-based intravenous access system. Am J Infect Control 1998;26(4):437441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
117. Casey, AL, Worthington, T, Lambert, PA, Quinn, D, Faroqui, MH, Elliott, TS. A randomized, prospective clinical trial to assess the potential infection risk associated with the PosiFlow needleless connector. J Hosp Infect 2003;54(4):288293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
118. Munoz-Price, LS, Dezfulian, C, Wyckoff, M, et al. Effectiveness of stepwise interventions targeted to decrease central catheter–associated bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med 2012;40(5):14641469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
119. Soothill, JS, Bravery, K, Ho, A, Macqueen, S, Collins, J, Lock, P. A fall in bloodstream infections followed a change to 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropanol for catheter connection antisepsis: a pediatric single center before/after study on a hemopoietic stem cell transplant ward. Am J Infect Control 2009;37(8):626630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
120. Hong, H, Morrow, DF, Sandora, TJ, Priebe, GP. Disinfection of needleless connectors with chlorhexidine-alcohol provides long-lasting residual disinfectant activity. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(8):e77–e79.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
121. Rupp, ME, Yu, S, Huerta, T, et al. Adequate disinfection of a split-septum needleless intravascular connector with a 5-second alcohol scrub. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(7):661665.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
122. Simmons, S, Bryson, C, Porter, S. “Scrub the hub”: cleaning duration and reduction in bacterial load on central venous catheters. Crit Care Nurs Q 2011;34(1):3135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
123. Lederle, FA, Parenti, CM, Berskow, LC, Ellingson, KJ. The idle intravenous catheter. Ann Intern Med 1992;116(9):737738.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124. Parenti, CM, Lederle, FA, Impola, CL, Peterson, LR. Reduction of unnecessary intravenous catheter use: internal medicine house staff participate in a successful quality improvement project. Arch Intern Med 1994;154(16):18291832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
125. Rotz, S, Sopirala, MM. Assessment beyond central line bundle: audits for line necessity in infected central lines in a surgical intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(1):8889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
126. Cload, B, Day, AG, Ilan, R. Evaluation of unnecessary central venous catheters in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study. Can J Anaesth 2010;57(9):830835.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
127. Seguin, P, Laviolle, B, Isslame, S, Coue, A, Malledant, Y. Effectiveness of simple daily sensitization of physicians to the duration of central venous and urinary tract catheterization. Intensive Care Med 2010;36(7):12021206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
128. Faruqi, A, Medefindt, J, Dutta, G, Philip, SA, Tompkins, D, Carey, J. Effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on central line utilization in an acute care hospital. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(6):e211–e215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129. Maki, DG, Stolz, SS, Wheeler, S, Mermel, LA. A prospective, randomized trial of gauze and two polyurethane dressings for site care of pulmonary artery catheters: implications for catheter management. Crit Care Med 1994;22(11):17291737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
130. Rasero, L, Degl’Innocenti, M, Mocali, M. Comparison of two different time interval protocols for central venous catheter dressing in bone marrow transplant patients: results of a randomized, multicenter study. Haematologica 2000;85:275279.Google Scholar
131. Timsit, JF, Bouadma, L, Ruckly, S, et al. Dressing disruption is a major risk factor for catheter-related infections. Crit Care Med 2012;40(6):17071714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
132. Gillies, D, O’Riordan, L, Wallen, M, Morrison, A, Rankin, K, Nagy, S. Optimal timing for intravenous administration set replacement. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD003588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
133. Ullman, AJ, Cooke, ML, Gillies, D, et al. Optimal timing for intravascular administration set replacement. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(9):CD003588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
134. Levin, A, Mason, AJ, Jindal, KK, Fong, IW, Goldstein, MB. Prevention of hemodialysis subclavian vein catheter infections by topical povidone-iodine. Kidney Int 1991;40(5):934938.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
135. Zakrzewska-Bode, A, Muytjens, HL, Liem, KD, Hoogkamp-Korstanje, JA. Mupirocin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci, after topical prophylaxis for the reduction of colonization of central venous catheters. J Hosp Infect 1995;31(3):189193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
136. Riu, S, Ruiz, CG, Martinez-Vea, A, Peralta, C, Oliver, JA. Spontaneous rupture of polyurethane peritoneal catheter: a possible deleterious effect of mupirocin ointment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13(7):18701871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
137. Lok, CE, Stanley, KE, Hux, JE, Richardson, R, Tobe, SW, Conly, J. Hemodialysis infection prevention with polysporin ointment. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14(1):169179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
138. Fong, IW. Prevention of haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis catheter related infection by topical povidone-iodine. Postgrad Med J 1993;69(suppl 3):S15S17.Google ScholarPubMed
139. Battistella, M, Bhola, C, Lok, CE. Long-term follow-up of the Hemodialysis Infection Prevention with Polysporin Ointment (HIPPO) Study: a quality improvement report. Am J Kidney Dis 2011;57(3):432441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
140. James, MT, Conley, J, Tonelli, M, Manns, BJ, MacRae, J, Hemmelgarn, BR. Meta-analysis: antibiotics for prophylaxis against hemodialysis catheter-related infections. Ann Intern Med 2008;148(8):596605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
141. Gastmeier, P, Geffers, C, Brandt, C, et al. Effectiveness of a nationwide nosocomial infection surveillance system for reducing nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect 2006;64(1):1622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
142. Zingg, W, Sax, H, Inan, C, et al. Hospital-wide surveillance of catheter-related bloodstream infection: from the expected to the unexpected. J Hosp Infect 2009;73(1):4146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
143. National Healthcare Safety Network, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
144. Edwards, JR, Peterson, KD, Andrus, ML, et al. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Report, data summary for 2006, issued June 2007. Am J Infect Control 2007;35(5):290301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
145. Woeltje, KF, McMullen, KM, Butler, AM, Goris, AJ, Doherty, JA. Electronic surveillance for healthcare-associated central line–associated bloodstream infections outside the intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32(11):10861090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
146. Maki, DG, Stolz, SM, Wheeler, S, Mermel, LA. Prevention of central venous catheter–related bloodstream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127(4):257266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
147. Veenstra, DL, Saint, S, Saha, S, Lumley, T, Sullivan, SD. Efficacy of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999;281(3):261267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
148. Darouiche, RO, Raad, II, Heard, SO, et al; Catheter Study Group. A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. N Engl J Med 1999;340(1):18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
149. Hanna, HA, Raad, II, Hackett, B, et al. Antibiotic-impregnated catheters associated with significant decrease in nosocomial and multidrug-resistant bacteremias in critically ill patients. Chest 2003;124(3):10301038.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
150. McConnell, SA, Gubbins, PO, Anaissie, EJ. Do antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection? Clin Infect Dis 2003;37(1):6572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
151. Rupp, ME, Lisco, SJ, Lipsett, PA, et al. Effect of a second-generation venous catheter impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine on central catheter–related infections: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2005;143(8):570580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
152. Wang, H, Huang, T, Jing, J, et al. Effectiveness of different central venous catheters for catheter-related infections: a network meta-analysis. J Hosp Infect 2010;76(1):111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
153. Cherry-Bukowiec, JR, Denchev, K, Dickinson, S, et al. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection: back to basics? Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2011;12(1):2732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
154. Guleri, A, Kumar, A, Morgan, RJ, Hartley, M, Roberts, DH. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine-coated central venous catheters: a case series and review of the literature. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2012;13(3):171174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
155. Levy, I, Katz, J, Solter, E, et al. Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of colonization of central venous catheters in infants and children: a randomized controlled study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(8):676679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
156. Ho, KM, Litton, E. Use of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing to prevent vascular and epidural catheter colonization and infection: a meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58(2):281287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
157. Timsit, JF, Schwebel, C, Bouadma, L, et al. Chlorhexidine-impregnated sponges and less frequent dressing changes for prevention of catheter-related infections in critically ill adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301(12):12311241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
158. Ruschulte, H, Franke, M, Gastmeier, P, et al. Prevention of central venous catheter related infections with chlorhexidine gluconate impregnated wound dressings: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Hematol 2009;88(3):267272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
159. Camins, BC, Richmond, AM, Dyer, KL, et al. A crossover intervention trial evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated sponge in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(11):11181123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
160. Timsit, JF, Mimoz, O, Mourvillier, B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of chlorhexidine dressing and highly adhesive dressing for preventing catheter-related infections in critically ill adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;186(12):12721278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
161. Menyhay, SZ, Maki, DG. Preventing central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections: development of an antiseptic barrier cap for needleless connectors. Am J Infect Control 2008;36(10):S174e1–S174e5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
162. Oto, J, Imanaka, H, Konno, M, Nakataki, E, Nishimura, M. A prospective clinical trial on prevention of catheter contamination using the hub protection cap for needleless injection device. Am J Infect Control 2011;39(4):309313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
163. Sweet, MA, Cumpston, A, Briggs, F, Craig, M, Hamadani, M. Impact of alcohol-impregnated port protectors and needleless neutral pressure connectors on central line–associated bloodstream infections and contamination of blood cultures in an inpatient oncology unit. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(10):931934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
164. Wright, MO, Tropp, J, Schora, DM, et al. Continuous passive disinfection of catheter hubs prevents contamination and bloodstream infection. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(1):3338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
165. Loftus, RW, Brindeiro, BS, Kispert, DP, et al. Reduction in intraoperative bacterial contamination of peripheral intravenous tubing through the use of a passive catheter care system. Anesth Analg 2012;115(6):13151323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
166. Bertini, G, Elia, S, Ceciarini, F, Dani, C. Reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infections in preterm infants by the use of catheters with the AgION antimicrobial system. Early Hum Dev 2013;89(1):2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
167. Chelliah, A, Heydon, KH, Zaoutis, TE, et al. Observational trial of antibiotic-coated central venous catheters in critically ill pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26(9):816820.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
168. Bhutta, A, Gilliam, C, Honeycutt, M, et al. Reduction of bloodstream infections associated with catheters in paediatric intensive care unit: stepwise approach. BMJ 2007;334(7589):362365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
169. Weber, JM, Sheridan, RL, Fagan, S, Ryan, CM, Pasternack, MS, Tompkins, RG. Incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection after introduction of minocycline and rifampin antimicrobial-coated catheters in a pediatric burn population. J Burn Care Res 2012;33(4):539543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
170. Carratala, J, Niubo, J, Fernandez-Sevilla, A, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of an antibiotic-lock technique for prevention of gram-positive central venous catheter–related infection in neutropenic patients with cancer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43(9):22002204.Google ScholarPubMed
171. Henrickson, KJ, Axtell, RA, Hoover, SM, et al. Prevention of central venous catheter–related infections and thrombotic events in immunocompromised children by the use of vancomycin/ciprofloxacin/heparin flush solution: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol 2000;18(6):12691278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
172. Safdar, N, Maki, DG. Use of vancomycin-containing lock or flush solutions for prevention of bloodstream infection associated with central venous access devices: a meta-analysis of prospective, randomized trials. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(4):474484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
173. Labriola, L, Crott, R, Jadoul, M. Preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bacteraemia with an antimicrobial lock solution: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23(5):16661672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
174. Snaterse, M, Ruger, W, Scholte Op Reimer, WJ, Lucas, C. Antibiotic-based catheter lock solutions for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. J Hosp Infect 2010;75(1):111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
175. Oliveira, C, Nasr, A, Brindle, M, Wales, PW. Ethanol locks to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections in parenteral nutrition: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2012;129(2):318329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
176. Yahav, D, Rozen-Zvi, B, Gafter-Gvili, A, Leibovici, L, Gafter, U, Paul, M. Antimicrobial lock solutions for the prevention of infections associated with intravascular catheters in patients undergoing hemodialysis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(1):8393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
177. Opilla, MT, Kirby, DF, Edmond, MB. Use of ethanol lock therapy to reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections in home parenteral nutrition patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2007;31(4):302305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
178. Slobbe, L, Doorduijn, JK, Lugtenburg, PJ, et al. Prevention of catheter-related bacteremia with a daily ethanol lock in patients with tunnelled catheters: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2010;5(5):e10840.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
179. Cober, MP, Kovacevich, DS, Teitelbaum, DH. Ethanol-lock therapy for the prevention of central venous access device infections in pediatric patients with intestinal failure. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35(1):6773.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
180. Heng, AE, Abdelkader, MH, Diaconita, M, et al. Impact of short term use of interdialytic 60% ethanol lock solution on tunneled silicone catheter dysfunction. Clin Nephrol 2011;75(6):534541.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
181. Hemmelgarn, BR, Moist, LM, Lok, CE, et al. Prevention of dialysis catheter malfunction with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. N Engl J Med 2011;364(4):303312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
182. McKee, R, Dunsmuir, R, Whitby, M, Garden, OJ. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of catheter insertion reduce the incidence of catheter-related sepsis in intravenous nutrition? J Hosp Infect 1985;6(4):419425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
183. Ranson, MR, Oppenheim, BA, Jackson, A, Kamthan, AG, Scarffe, JH. Double-blind placebo controlled study of vancomycin prophylaxis for central venous catheter insertion in cancer patients. J Hosp Infect 1990;15(1):95102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
184. Sandoe, JA, Kumar, B, Stoddart, B, et al. Effect of extended perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis on intravascular catheter colonization and infection in cardiothoracic surgery patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52(5):877879.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
185. van de Wetering, MD, van Woensel, JB, Kremer, LC, Caron, HN. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing early gram-positive central venous catheter infections in oncology patients: a Cochrane systematic review. Cancer Treat Rev 2005;31(3):186196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
186. Karanlik, H, Kurul, S, Saip, P, et al. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in totally implantable venous access device placement: results of a single-center prospective randomized trial. Am J Surg 2011;202(1):1015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
187. Eyer, S, Brummitt, C, Crossley, K, Siegel, R, Cerra, F. Catheter-related sepsis: prospective, randomized study of three methods of long-term catheter maintenance. Crit Care Med 1990;18(10):10731079.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
188. Cobb, DK, High, KP, Sawyer, RG, et al. A controlled trial of scheduled replacement of central venous and pulmonary-artery catheters. N Engl J Med 1992;327(15):10621068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
189. Cook, D, Randolph, A, Kernerman, P, et al. Central venous catheter replacement strategies: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Care Med 1997;25(8):14171424.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
190. Maragakis, LL, Bradley, KL, Song, X, et al. Increased catheter-related bloodstream infection rates after the introduction of a new mechanical valve intravenous access port. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(1):6770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
191. Field, K, McFarlane, C, Cheng, AC, et al. Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection among patients with a needleless, mechanical valve–based intravenous connector in an Australian hematology-oncology unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28(5):610613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
192. Salgado, CD, Chinnes, L, Paczesny, TH, Cantey, JR. Increased rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection associated with use of a needleless mechanical valve device at a long-term acute care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28(6):684688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
193. Rupp, ME, Sholtz, LA, Jourdan, DR, et al. Outbreak of bloodstream infection temporally associated with the use of an intravascular needleless valve. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(11):14081414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
194. Jarvis, WR, Murphy, C, Hall, KK, et al. Health care–associated bloodstream infections associated with negative- or positive-pressure or displacement mechanical valve needleless connectors. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(12):18211827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
195. Miller, JM, Goetz, AM, Squier, C, Muder, RR. Reduction in nosocomial intravenous device-related bacteremias after institution of an intravenous therapy team. J Intraven Nurs 1996;19(2):103106.Google ScholarPubMed
196. Soifer, NE, Borzak, S, Edlin, BR, Weinstein, RA. Prevention of peripheral venous catheter complications with an intravenous therapy team: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998;158(5):473477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
197. Koh, DB, Gowardman, JR, Rickard, CM, Robertson, IK, Brown, A. Prospective study of peripheral arterial catheter infection and comparison with concurrently sited central venous catheters. Crit Care Med 2008;36(2):397402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
198. Lucet, JC, Bouadma, L, Zahar, JR, et al. Infectious risk associated with arterial catheters compared with central venous catheters. Crit Care Med 2010;38(4):10301035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
199. Tokars, JI, Klevens, RM, Edwards, JR, Horan, TC. Measurement of the impact of risk adjustment for central line–days on interpretation of central line–associated bloodstream infection rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28(9):10251029.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
200. Klevens, RM, Tokars, JI, Edwards, J, Horan, T. Sampling for collection of central line–day denominators in surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(4):338342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
201. Thompson, ND, Edwards, JR, Bamberg, W, et al. Evaluating the accuracy of sampling to estimate central line–days: simplification of the National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance methods. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34(3):221228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
202. Casey, AL, Karpanen, TJ, Nightingale, P, Cook, M, Elliott, TS. Microbiological comparison of a silver-coated and a non-coated needleless intravascular connector in clinical use. J Hosp Infect 2012;80(4):299303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
203. Webster, J, Gillies, D, O’Riordan, E, Sherriff, KL, Rickard, CM. Gauze and tape and transparent polyurethane dressings for central venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(11):CD003827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
204. Batra, R, Cooper, BS, Whiteley, C, Patel, AK, Wyncoll, D, Edgeworth, JD. Efficacy and limitation of a chlorhexidine-based decolonization strategy in preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(2):210217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
205. Bizzarro, MJ, Sabo, B, Noonan, M, Bonfiglio, MP, Northrup, V, Diefenbach, K. A quality improvement initiative to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(3):241248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
206. Sawyer, M, Weeks, K, Goeschel, CA, et al. Using evidence, rigorous measurement, and collaboration to eliminate central catheter–associated bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med 2010;38(suppl 8):S292S298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
207. Widmer, AF, Nettleman, M, Flint, K, Wenzel, RP. The clinical impact of culturing central venous catheters: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1992;152(6):12991302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
208. Raad, II, Baba, M, Bodey, GP. Diagnosis of catheter-related infections: the role of surveillance and targeted quantitative skin cultures. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20(3):593597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
209. Pittet, D, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infections: secular trends in rates, mortality, and contribution to total hospital deaths. Arch Intern Med 1995;155(11):11771184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
210. Wong, ES, Rupp, ME, Mermel, L, et al. Public disclosure of healthcare-associated infections: the role of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(2):210212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
211. Aswani, MS, Reagan, J, Jin, L, Pronovost, PJ, Goeschel, C. Variation in public reporting of central line–associated bloodstream infections by state. Am J Med Qual 2011;26(5):387395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
212. Talbot, TR, Bratzler, DW, Carrico, RM, et al. Public reporting of health care–associated surveillance data: recommendations from the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Ann Intern Med 2013;159(9):631635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
213. Healthcare-Associated Infection Working Group of the Joint Public Policy Committee. Essentials of Public Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Tool Kit. 2007. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
214. National Quality Forum (NQF). National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infection Data. Washington, DC: NQF, 2008. March 11, 2014.Google Scholar
215. Weaver, SJ, Lubomksi, LH, Wilson, RF, Pfoh, ER, Martinez, KA, Dy, SM. Promoting a culture of safety as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2013;158(5 pt 2):369374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
216. Hatler, CW, Mast, D, Corderella, J, et al. Using evidence and process improvement strategies to enhance healthcare outcomes for the critically ill: a pilot project. Am J Crit Care 2006;15(6):549555.Google ScholarPubMed
219. Silow-Carrol, S, Edwards, JN. Eliminating Central Line Infections and Spreading Success at High-Performing Hospitals. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2011.Google Scholar
220. Huang, GC, Newman, LR, Schwartzstein, RM, et al. Procedural competence in internal medicine residents: validity of a central venous catheter insertion assessment instrument. Acad Med 2009;84(8):11271134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
221. Safdar, N, Abad, C. Educational interventions for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: a systematic review. Crit Care Med 2008;36(3):933940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
222. Smith, JS, Kirksey, KM, Becker, H, Brown, A. Autonomy and self-efficacy as influencing factors in nurses’ behavioral intention to disinfect needleless intravenous systems. J Infus Nurs 2011;34(3):193200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
223. Faruqi, A, Medefindt, J, Dutta, G, Philip, SA, Tompkins, D, Carey, J. Effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on central line utilization in an acute care hospital. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(6):e211–e215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
224. Warren, D, Zack, J, Mayfield, J, et al. The effect of an education program on the incidence of central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infection in a medical ICU. Chest 2004;126(5):16121618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
225. Warren, DK, Yokoe, DS, Climo, MW, et al. Preventing catheter-associated bloodstream infections: a survey of policies for insertion and care of central venous catheters from hospitals in the Prevention Epicenter Program. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(1):813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
226. Chittick, P, Sherertz, RJ. Recognition and prevention of nosocomial vascular device and related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2010;38(suppl 8):S363S372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
227. Moureau, N, Lamperti, M, Kelly, LJ, et al. Evidence-based consensus on the insertion of central venous access devices: definition of minimal requirements for training. Br J Anaesth 2013;110(3):347356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
228. Warren, DK, Cosgrove, SE, Diekema, DJ, et al. A multicenter intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(7):662669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
229. Sannoh, S, Clones, B, Munoz, J, Montecalvo, M, Parvez, B. A multimodal approach to central venous catheter hub care can decrease catheter-related bloodstream infection. Am J Infect Control 2010;38(6):424429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
230. Banks, CM, Gilmartin, H, Fink, RM. Education methods for maintaining nursing competency in low-volume, high-risk procedures in the rural setting: bridging the theory to practice gap. J Nurses Staff Dev 2010;26(3):E1–E7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
231. Comer, A, Harris, AD, Shardell, MP, et al. Web-based training improves knowledge about central line bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32(12):12191222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
232. Guembe, M, Pérez-Parra, A, Gómez, E, et al. Impact on knowledge and practice of an intervention to control catheter infection in the ICU. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;31(10):27992808.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
233. Zack, J. Zeroing in on zero tolerance for central line–associated bacteremia. Am J Infect Control 2008;36(10):S176.e1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
234. Aboelela, SW, Stone, PW, Larson, EL. Effectiveness of bundled behavioural interventions to control healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review of the literature. J Hosp Infect 2007;66(2):101108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
235. Sherertz, R, Ely, E, Westbrook, D, et al. Education of physicians-in-training can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):641648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
236. Walz, JM, Memtsoudis, SG, Heard, SO. Analytic reviews: prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections. J Intensive Care Med 2010;25(3):131138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
237. Rodriguez-Paz, JM, Kennedy, M, Salas, E, et al. Beyond “see one, do one, teach one”: toward a different training paradigm. Qual Saf Health Care 2009;18(1):6368.Google Scholar
238. Ahya, SN, Barsuk, JH, Cohen, ER, Tuazon, J, McGaghie, WC, Wayne, DB. Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows. Semin Dial 2012;25(4):470473.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
239. Ault, MJ, Rosen, BT, Ault, B. The use of tissue models for vascular access training: phase I of the procedural patient safety initiative. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21(5):514517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
240. Evans, LV, Dodge, KL. Simulation and patient safety: evaluative checklists for central venous catheter insertion. Qual Saf Health Care 2010;19(suppl 3):i42–i46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
241. Ahlin, C, Klang-Söderkvist, B, Brundin, S, Hellström, B, Pettersson, K, Johansson, E. Implementation of a written protocol for management of central venous access devices: a theoretical and practical education, including bedside examinations. J Infus Nurs 2006;29(5):253259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
242. Segreti, J, Garcia-Houchins, S, Gorski, L, et al. Consensus conference on prevention of central line–associated bloodstream infections: 2009. J Infus Nurs 2011;34(2):126133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
243. Labeau, S, Vereecke, A, Vandijck, DM, Claes, B, Blot, SI. Critical care nurses’ knowledge of evidence-based guidelines for preventing infections associated with central venous catheters: an evaluation questionnaire. Am J Crit Care 2008;17(1):6571.Google Scholar
244. Labeau, SO, Vandijck, DM, Rello, J, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for preventing central venous catheter–related infection: results of a knowledge test among 3405 European intensive care nurses. Crit Care Med 2009;37(1):320323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
245. Marra, AR, Cal, RG, Durao, MS, et al. Impact of a program to prevent central line–associated bloodstream infection in the zero tolerance era. Am J Infect Control 2010;38(6):434439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
246. Wheeler, DS, Giaccone, MJ, Hutchinson, N, et al. A hospital-wide quality-improvement collaborative to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Pediatrics 2011;128(4):e995–e1004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
247. Harting, BP, Talbot, TR, Dellit, TH, et al. University HealthSystem Consortium quality performance benchmarking study of the insertion and care of central venous catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(5):440442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
248. Jeffries, HE, Mason, W, Brewer, M, et al. Prevention of central venous catheter–associated bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive care units: a performance improvement collaborative. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30(7):645651.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
249. Stevens, TP, Schulman, J. Evidence-based approach to preventing central line–associated bloodstream infection in the NICU. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2012;101(464):1116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
250. Powers, RJ, Wirtschafter, DW. Decreasing central line associated bloodstream infection in neonatal intensive care. Clin Perinatol 2010;37(1):247272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
251. Rupp, ME, Cassling, K, Faber, H, et al. Hospital-wide assessment of compliance with central venous catheter dressing recommendations. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(1):8991.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
252. O’Grady, N, Alexander, M, Burns, L, Dellinger, E. Guideline for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections, 2011. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Accessed April 1, 2011.Google Scholar
253. Son, CH, Daniels, TL, Eagan, J, et al. Central line–associated bloodstream infection surveillance outside the intensive care unit: a multicenter survey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(9):869874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
254. Woeltje, KF, McMullen, KM, Butler, AM, Goris, AJ, Doherty, JA. Electronic surveillance for healthcare-associated central line–associated bloodstream infections outside the intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32(11):10861090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
255. Berhe, M, Edmond, MB, Bearman, G. Measurement and feedback of infection control process measures in the intensive care unit: impact on compliance. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(8):537539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
256. Assanasen, S, Edmond, M, Bearman, G. Impact of 2 different levels of performance feedback on compliance with infection control process measures in 2 intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 2008;36(6):407413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
257. Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
258. GRADE. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care website. Accessed December 31, 2013.Google Scholar
Cited by