To study the association of antibiotic-utilization measures and control of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae after emergence in two hospitals in our medical center.
Rates of MDR K pneumoniae at two hospitals were compared before and after acute interventions, including emphasis on Contact Precautions and education in antibiotic utilization. Antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic use was measured before and after the interventions at both hospitals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of whole cell DNA was used as a marker of strain identity.
Clonal strain dissemination was the major mechanism of emergence at hospital A; emergence was polyclonal at hospital B. Antibiotic-utilization interventions at both institutions included physician education regarding the association of ceftazidime use and MDR K pneumoniae. At hospital A, ceftazidime use decreased from 4,301 g in the preintervention period, to 1,248 g in the postintervention period. Piperacillin-tazobactam use increased from 12,455 g to 17,464 g. Ceftazidime resistance in Kpneumoniae decreased from 110 (22%) of 503 isolates to 61 (15%) of 407 isolates (P<.05); piperacillin-tazobactam resistance decreased from 181 (36%) of 503 to 77 (19%) of 407 isolates (P<.05). At hospital B, ceftazidime use decreased from 6,533 g in the preintervention period to 4,792 g in the postintervention period. Piperacillin-tazobactam use increased from 58,691 g to 67,027 g. Ceftazidime resistance in K pneumoniae decreased from 42 (10%) of 415 isolates to 19 (5%) of 383 isolates (P<.05). Piperacillin-tazobactam resistance decreased from 91 (22%) of 415 isolates to 54 (14%) of 383 isolates (P<.05). Follow-up data showed continued decrease in piperacillin-tazobactam resistance despite increased use at both hospitals.
Antibiotic-use measures may be particularly important for control of MDR K pneumoniae, whether emergence is clonal or polyclonal.
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