This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. SF Yassin , TM Young-Fadok , NN Zein , DS Pardi . Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:725–730.
2. LK Archibald , SN Banerjee , WR Jarvis . Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987-2001. J Infect Dis 2004;189:1585–1589.
3. C Thomas , M Stevenson , DJ Williamson , TV Riley . Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: epidemiological data from Western Australia associated with a modified antibiotic policy. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1457–1462.
4. LC McDonald , GE Killgore , A Thompson , et al.An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2433–2441.
5. SV Kazakova , K Ware , B Baughman , et al.A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2518–2524.
6. B Hubert , VG Loo , AM Bourgault , et al.A portrait of the geographic dissemination of the Clostridium difficile North American pulsed-field type 1 strain and the epidemiology of C. difficile-associated disease in Quebec. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:238–244.
7. DN Gerding , S Johnson , LR Peterson , ME Mulligan , J Silva Jr. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:459–477.
8. GE Bignardi . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect 1998;40:1–15.
10. LV McFarland . Epidemiology, risk factors and treatments for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Dig Dis 1998;16:292–307.
11. C Thomas , M Stevenson , TV Riley . Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;51:1339–1350.
12. LV McFarland , CM Surawicz , WE Stamm . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile carriage and C. difficile-associated diarrhea in a cohort of hospitalized Patients. J Infect Dis 1990;162:678–684.
13. S Dial , JA Delaney , AN Barkun , S Suissa . Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease. JAMA 2005;294:2989–2995.
14. JG Bartlett . Narrative review: the new epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated enteric disease. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:758–764.
15. MW Climo , DS Israel , ES Wong , D Williams , P Coudron , SM Markowitz . Hospital-wide restriction of clindamycin: effect on the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and cost. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:989–995.
16. J Pepin , N Saheb , MA Coulombe , et al.Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrheas cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1254–1260.
19. ME McCusker , AD Harris , E Perencevich , MC Roghmann . Fluoroquinolone use and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:730–733.
21. R Gaynes , D Rimland , E Killum , et al.Outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection in a long-term care facility: association with gatifloxacin use. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:640–645.
22. RK Zimmerman . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile cytotoxin-positive diarrhea after control for horizontal transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:96–100.
23. IA Dhalla , MM Mamdani , AE Simor , A Kopp , PA Rochon , DN Juurlink . Are broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:3216–3219.
24. D Raveh , B Rabinowitz , GS Breuer , B Rudensky , AM Yinnon . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-positive nosocomial diarrhoea. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2006;28:231–237.
25. J Wistrom , SR Norrby , EB Myhre , et al.Frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in 2462 antibiotic-treated hospitalized patients: a prospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:43–50.
26. VT Chang , K Nelson . The role of physical proximity in nosocomial diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:717–722.
27. JM Starr , H Martin , J McCoubrey , G Gibson , IR Poxton . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonisation and toxin production. Age Ageing 2003;32:657–660.
29. GT Ray , P Levine , LA Croen , FA Bokhari , TW Hu , LA Habel . Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: excess costs before and after initial diagnosis and treatment cost differences by ethnicity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006;160:1063–1069.
30. GT Ray , JR Mertens , C Weisner . The excess medical cost and health problems of family members of persons diagnosed with alcohol or drug problems. Med Care 2007;45:116–122.
31. KS Vesta , PG Wells , CA Gentry , WJ Stipek . Specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: A prospective, multicenter, case control evaluation. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:469–472.
32. U Changela , JP Cannon , C Aneziokoro , PS Shah , L Thottapurathu , J Len-tino . Risk factors and mortality associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea at a VA hospital. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2004;24:562–566.
33. VG Loo , L Poirier , MA Miller , et al.A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2442–2449.
34. DN Gerding . Clindamycin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: this is an antimicrobial resistance problem. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:646–648.
35. S Johnson , MH Samore , KA Farrow , et al.Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1645–1651.