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Case-Control Study of Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Clostridium difficile–Associated Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients

  • Roger Baxter (a1), G. Thomas Ray (a2) and Bruce H. Fireman (a1)

To determine which antibiotics increase or decrease the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).


Retrospective case-control study.


Nonprofit, integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California.


Study participants included patients with cases of hospital-acquired CDAD that occurred during the period from 1999 through 2005 (n = 1,142) and control patients (n = 3,351) matched for facility, calendar quarter during which hospitalization occurred, diagnosis related group for the index hospitalization, and length of hospital stay. All case and control patients had received antibiotics in the 60 days before the index date. For each antibiotic, the risk of CDAD was examined in relation to whether the patient received the antibiotic, after adjustment for use of other antibiotics, demographic characteristics, selected health conditions, and use of healthcare services.


The following antibiotics were associated with a significantly increased risk of acquiring CDAD: imipenem-cilastin (odds ratio [OR], 2.77), clindamycin (OR, 2.31), cefuroxime (OR, 2.16), moxifloxacin (OR, 1.88), ceftazidime (OR, 1.82), cefpodoxime (OR, 1.58), ceftizoxime (OR, 1.57), and ceftriaxone (OR, 1.49). Metronidazole and doxycycline were associated with a significantly reduced risk of CDAD (OR for metronidazole, 0.67; OR for doxycycline, 0.41). Other factors associated with an increased risk of CDAD were older age, longer hospital stays, use of proton pump inhibitors, prior gastrointestinal disease, and prior infection (not including C. difficile infection.)


Some antibiotics appear to increase the risk of acquiring CDAD, notably clindamycin, third-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems, whereas metronidazole and doxycycline appear to be protective, compared with other antibiotics.

Corresponding author
Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, 1 Kaiser Plaza, Ordway Bldg., 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
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