1.Acar, JF. Consequences of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in medical practice. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24(suppl 1): S17–S18.
2.Holmberg, SD, Solomon, SL, Blake, PA. Health and economic impacts of antimicrobial resistance. Rev Infect Dis 1987;9:1065–1078.
3.Urban, C, Segal-Maurer, S, Rahal, JJ. Considerations in control and treatment of nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:1268–1274.
4.Bergogne-Berezin, E, Towner, KJ. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological features. Clin Microbiol Rev 1996;9:148–165.
5.Cisneros, JM, Rodriguez-Bano, J. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, clinical features and treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:687–693.
6.Seifert, H, Strate, A, Pulverer, G. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical features, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality. Medicine (Baltimore) 1995;74:340–349.
7.Cisneros, JM, Reyes, MJ, Pachon, J, et al.Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prognostic features. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:1026–1032.
8.McCabe, WR, Jackson, GG. Gram-negative bacteremia. I. Etiology and ecology. Arch Intern Med 1962;110:847–855.
9.Le Gall, JR, Lemeshow, S, Saulnier, F. A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study. JAMA 1993;270:2957–2963.
10.Yu, VL, Chiou, CC, Feldman, C, et al.An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:230–237.
11.Paterson, DL. The epidemiological profile of infections with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(suppl 2): S43–S48.
12.Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128–140.
13.Pittet, D, Tarara, D, Wenzel, RRNosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients: excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA 1994;271:1598–1601.
14.Fagon, JY, Chastre, J, Novara, A, Medioni, P, Gibert, C. Characterization of intensive care unit patients using a model based on the presence or absence of organ dysfunctions and/or infection: the ODIN model. Intensive Care Med 1993;19:137–144.
15.VonGraevenitz, A. Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Moraxella, and other non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria. In: Murray, PR, Baron, EJ, Pfaller, MA, Tenover, FC, Yolken, RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:520–532.
16.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Methods for Dilution: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. 4th ed. Villanova, PA: NCCLS; 1997. NCCLS document M7-A3.
17.National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) report, data summary from October 1986-April 1996, issued May 1996. Am J Infect Control 1996;24:380–388.
18.National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, data summary from January 1990-May 1999, issued June 1999. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:520–532.
19.Cosgrove, SE, Carmeli, Y. The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:1433–1437.
20.Cosgrove, SE. The relationship between antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: mortality, length of hospital stay, and health care costs. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(suppl 2): S82–S89.
21.Sheng, WH, Chie, WC, Chen, YC, Hung, CC, Wang, JT, Chang, SC. Impact of nosocomial infections on medical costs, hospital stay, and outcome in hospitalized patients. J Formos Med Assoc 2005;104:318–326.
22.Wilson, SJ, Knipe, CJ, Zieger, MJ, et al.Direct costs of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the burn unit of a public teaching hospital. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:342–344.
23.Jellison, TK, McKinnon, PS, Rybak, MJ. Epidemiology, resistance, and outcomes of Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia treated with imipenem-cilastatin or ampicillin-sulbactam. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:142–148.
24.Blot, S, Vandewoude, K, De Bacquer, D, Colardyn, F. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: clinical outcome and length of hospitalization. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1600–1606.
25.Raymond, DP, Pelletier, SJ, Crabtree, TD, Evans, HL, Pruett, TL, Sawyer, RG. Impact of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli infections on outcome in hospitalized patients. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1035–1041.
26.Digiovine, B, Chenoweth, C, Watts, C, Higgins, M. The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:976–981.
27.Carmeli, Y, Troillet, N, Karchmer, AW, Samore, MH. Health and economic outcomes of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1127–1132.
28.Zaragoza, R, Artero, A, Camarena, JJ, Sancho, S, Gonzalez, R, Nogueira, JM. The influence of inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment on patients with bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003;9:412–418.